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Revised and Augmented 




Ml Rights reterved 

'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere: 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all.' 


I he object of the Handbook for Norway, Sweden, and 
Denmark, which now appears for the ninth time, carefully 
revised and partlyrewritten, is to give the traveller information 
about the most interesting scenery and characteristics of these 
countries, with a few notes on their history, languages, and 
customs. Like the Editor's other handbooks, it is based on 
personal acquaintance with the countries described, the chief 
places in which he has visited repeatedly. His efforts to secure 
the accuracy and completeness of the work have been supple- 
mented by the kind assistance of several correspondents and 
friends, Norwegian, Swedish , Danish, English, and German, 
to whom his best thanks are due. Hewill also gratefully receive 
any corrections or suggestions with which travellers may 
favour him. Within the last few years Norway has grown 
rapidly in popularity with the travelling public, and a number 
of new roads, railways, and steamboat-routes, with correspond- 
ing hotels, have recently been opened. The most important 
of these are carefully noted in the present edition. It should 
be observed, hower, that the routes in the Handbook are 
generally framed with reference to the summer-service only; 
before mid -June and after August the travelling facilities, 
especially on the fjords and lakes, are much more limited. 

The present volume, like Baedeker's Switzerland, may 
be used either as a whole, or in sections, which for the con- 
venience of travellers may be removed from the volume 
without falling to pieces. These sections are — (1) Introduc- 
tory Part, pp. i-lx; (2) S., E., and Central Norway, as far as 
Trondhjem, pp. 1 to 104 ; (3) W. Norway, as far as Trond- 
hjem, pp. 105 to 208; (4) N. Norway, Iceland, and Spitzbergen, 
pp. 209 to 258; (5) Sweden, pp. 259 to 394; (6i Denmark, 
pp. 395-436. 

On the Maps and Plans the Editor has bestowed special 
care, and he believes they will amply suffice for the use of 
all ordinary travellers. 

In the letter-press Heights are given approximately in 
English feet, in the maps in metres (1 metre = 3.28 Engl. ft. ; 
1 Norw. ft. = 1.029 Engl. ft. ; 1 Swed. ft. = 0.974 Engl. ft.). 
Distances are given in kilometres, as the tariffs for carioles 
and boats are now calculated on the metric system (comp. 
p. vi). The Populations and other statistics are from the 
latest official sources. 


Route Pa s e 

12. From Christiania to Trondhjem by Railway 93 

13. From Christiania to Charlottenberg (Stockholm") .... 9? 

14. From Christlania to Gotenburg by Railway 97 

15. From Christiania to Gotenburg by Sea 102 

Western Norway, as par as Trondhjem. 
16. From Christiansand to Stavanger by Sea. The Stavanger 


17. From the Stavanger Fjord by the Suldalsvand to Odde on 

the Hardanger Fjord 113 

18. From Stavanger to Bergen by Sea 115 

19. The Hardanger Fjord 118 

20. Bergen 130 

21 . From Bergen by Vossevangen to Myrdal (Gulsvik, Christi- 
ania); to the Hardanger Fjord ; to the Sognefjord . . . 137 

22. The Sognefjord 144 

23. From Bergen to Aalesund and Molde by Sea 159 

24. From the Sognefjord to the Nordfjord 161 

25. The Nordfjord. Oldendal, Loendal, Strynsdal 165 

26. From the Nordfjord to Aalesund and Molde 173 

27. Molde and the Moldefjord 186 

28. From Molde to Trondhjem 194 

29. Trondhjem and its Fjord 200 

Northern Norway. 

30. From Trondhjem to Bode 212 

31. The Lofoten Islands 222 

32. From Bode to Tromse 226 

33. From Tromse to the North Cape 232 

34. From the North Cape to Vadse 239 

35. Syd-Varanger 242 

36. From the Altenfjord to Haparanda in Sweden 243 

37. Iceland 245 

38. Spitzbergen ^57 


39. Malmo and Southern Skane 260 

40. From Malmo by Lund to Nassjo (and Stockholm). . . . 263 

41. From Alfvesta by Vexio to Karlskrona and Kalrnar. Oland. 268 
From Oskarshamn to Nassjo 271 

42. West Coast from Malmo to Gotenburg 272 

43. Gotenburg 287 

44. From Gotenburg to Venersborg. Trollhattan. LakeVenern. 
Western Gota Canal 283 



Route p a g e 

45. From Gotenburg to Katrineholm (and Stockholm) . . . 289 

46. From Nassjo to Jonkoping and Falkoping 291 

47. From Jonkoping to Stockholm by Lake Vettern and the 
Eastern Gota Canal 293 

48. From Nassjo to Stockholm 297 

49. From (Christiania) Charlottenberg to Laxa (Stockholm) 302 

50. Stockholm 304 

51. Environs of Stockholm 340 

52. From Stockholm to Upsala ° 346 

53. The Island of Gotland 353 

54. From Stockholm to Vesteras and Orebro 358 

55. From Kolback and Valskog to Flen. Nykoping, andOxelb- 
sund 362 

56. From Gotenburg to Falun 363 

57. From Stockholm to Lake Siljan by Borlange (Falun) . . 365 

58. From Upsala by Gefle to Ockelbo (Bracke, Ostersund) . 369 

59. From Stockholm by Upsala, Ockelbo, and Bracke to Oster- 
sund, Storlien, and Trondhjem 370 

60. From Ange to Sundsvall 376 

61. From Bispgarden to Sundsvall by the Indals-Elf ... 377 

62. From Bracke to Lulea 378 

63. From Stockholm to_Sundsvall and Hernosand by Sea (Lu- 
lea, Haparanda) 381 

64. From Hernosand to Solleftea by the Angerman-Elf . . 383 

65. From Sundsvall and Hernosand to Lulea by Sea . . . 384 

66. From Lulea to Kvickjock 386 

67. From Lulea by Gellivara to Narvik 390 

68. From Lulea. to Haparanda by Sea 393 


69. Copenhagen and its Environs 395 

70. From Copenhagen to Helsinger 421 

71. Bornholm 426 

72. From Copenhagen by Kalundsborg to Aarhus 427 

73. From Copenhagen to Hamburg by the Danish Islands . 429 

74. From Odense to Svendborg, Langeland, Laaland, Falster, 

and Maen 431 

75. From Fredericia to Frederikshavn. Jutland 432 

76. From Aalborg on the Limfjord to Thisted and by Viborg 

to Langaa , 435 

Index 437 


Plans and Maps. 

Comp. Key Map at the End of the Book. — The maris (•, ••, o, oo, etc.) 
on the Special Maps indicate where they join the adjacent Special Maps. 
Plans: 1. Aalettmd. — 2. Bergen. — 3. Chrisliania. — i. Christiansand. 

— 5. Copenhagen. — 6. Copenhagen, inner city. — 7. Drammen. — 8. Fredriks- 
hald. — 9. Gotenburg. — 10. Slottskog Park, near Gotenburg. — 11 Helsing- 
lorg. — 12. Helsingor. — 13. Jbnkoping. — 14. Kalmar. — 15. Linkoping. — 
16. Lund. — 17. Malmo. — 18. Molde. — 19. Reykjavik. — 20. Sarpsborg. 

— 21. Skansen (open-air museum). — 22. Stavanger. — 23. Stockholm. — 
24. Trondhjem. — 25. Upsala. — 26. Wisby. 

Maps. 1. S. Norway (1:2,000 000): before the title-page 

2. Environs of Christiania (1:80,000): p. 16. 

3. Christiania, Kongsberg, and Lake Kreideren (1 : 500,000) : p. 20. 

4. S. Telemarken (1:500,000): p. 22. 

5. N. Telemarken (1:500,000): p. 29. 

6. Kreideren, Randsfjord, and Voider* (1 : 500,000) : p. 39. 

7. Hallingdal and Valders (1 : 500,000) : p. 41. 

8. Hardanger Vidda (1 : 500,000) : p. 43. 

9. Jotunheim (1 : 500,000) : p. 53. 

10. Lakes Bygdin and Gjende (1:200,000): p. 53. 

11. The Galdhepig and Glittertind (1:200,000): p. 66. 

12. The Horunger (1:200,000): p. 79. 

13. S. Gudbrandsdal (l:5UO,000j: p. 82. 

14. N. Gudbrandsdal, Ottadal ( t : 500,1 TO) : p. 8G. 

15. Stavanger Fjord (1 500,000) : p. 110. 

16. Outer Hardanger Fjord (1:500.000): p. 117. 

17. Inner Hardanger Fjord (1:500,000): p. 119. 
18 Environs of Bergen (1:100,000): p. 130. 

19. District from Bergen to Voss (1 : 500,000) : p. 138. 

20. Central Fart of the Sognefjord (1 : 500,000) : p. 144. 

21. Inner Sognefjord (1:500,000): p. 154. 

22. Sendfjord (1:500,000): p. 162. 

23. Nordfjord and Southern Semdrnere (1:500,000): p. 166. 

24. Stryn-Geiranger-Grotlid-Folfos & Tafjord-Josledal (1:500,000): p. 173. 

25. Northern Sendmeire and Molde (or Bomsdals) Fjord (1 : 500,000) : p. 186. 

26. Environs of Trondhjem (1: 100,000), p. 204. 

27. 28. N.-W. and N. Coast of Norway (1:1,500,000): 

1st Sheet: Trondhjem-Torghatten-Bode-Lofoten: p. 212. 
2nd Sheet: Tromse-North-Cape- Vadse : p. 228. 

29. Iceland (1 : 4,500,000), p. 245. 

30. Environs of Reykjavik (1:1,000,000), p. 249. 

31. Estuary of the Gbta-Elf (1:100.000): p. 282. 

32 Trollhatta Falls (1:10,000 and 1:25,000): p. 284. 

33. The Kinnekulle (1 : 155,000) : p. 288. 

34. Djurgard near Stockholm (1:25,000): p. 333. 

35. Environs of Stockholm (1:100,000), with inset-map of Djursholm 
(1:30,000): p. 340. 

36. The SaltsjS from Molna to Vaxholm, E. of Stockholm (1:100,000), 
with inset-map of Saltsjobaden (1:30,000): p. 349. 

37. 2V. Sweden (1 : 2,750,000) : p. 368. 

38. Denmark and Sleswick (1 : 2,400,000) : p. 394. 

39. JV. Environs of Copenhagen (1 : 100,000), with inset-maps of Lyngby- 
Furese and Hillered-Fredensborg (1 : 150,000) : p. 420. 

40. Shores of the Sound (1 : 500,0U0) : p. 424. 

41. 5. Sweden (1 : 2,750,000) : after the Index. 

42. S. Norway, showing Special Maps, at end of Handbook. 

43. Norway, Sweden, Denmark, showing Special Maps, in9ide end-cover. 

Panoramas from the Stugunuse (p. 50), the Skinegg (p. 58), and tl « 
Moldehei (p. 187). 


I. Expenses. Money. Language. Passports. Post Office. 

Expenses. For a tour in Norway and Sweden 20-25*. per day 
ought to cover all outlays, but much less will suffice for those who 
make a prolonged stay at one or more resting-places, or for pedes- 
trians in the less frequented districts. 

Money. The three Scandinavian kingdoms have the same cur- 
rency. The crown (krone; Swed. krona), worth Is. l l /$d., is divided 
into 100 ere (Swed. ore; see money-table before the title-page). 
These coins are current in the three countries, but banknotes usu- 
ally in their own kingdom only. British sovereigns generally realize 
18 kr. in the large towns, but the exchange is often a few ere 
below par. Large sums are best carried in the form of circular notes 
or letters of credit, as issued by the chief British and American 
banks. The traveller should be well supplied with small notes and 
coins (smaa Penge), as it is often difficult in the remoter districts 
to get change for gold or larger notes. 

Language. English is spoken on board most of the Norwegian 
steamboats and at the chief resorts of travellers, both in Norway 
andSweden, but in country- districts the vernacular alone is under- 
stood. Danish, as pronounced in Norway (analogous to English 
spoken with a broad Scottish accent), is the more useful of the two 
languages, as most travellers devote more time to Norway than to 
Sweden, and as it is readily understood in Sweden. (See gram- 
mars and vocabularies at the end of this volume.) 

Passports are unnecessary, except for obtaining delivery of re- 
gistered letters. 

The Custom House Examination is lenient. The duty on cigars 
is 6 kr. per kilogram (2^ lbs.), on spirits 2 kr. 40 0. per litre; 
but a kilogram of the former or an unsealed bottle of the latter 
passes duty-free. 

Post Office. The postage of a letter weighing 1 oz. is 20 ere, 
and of a post-card (Breflcort, Brevkort) 10 »., within the Postal Union ; 
of a letter 10 0., of a post-card 5 0., within Norway, Sweden, and 
Denmark. It is not advisable to give any poste restante address 
other than steamboat or railway stations, as the postal service to 
places off the beaten track is slow. 

Telegraph Offices abound. 

Norwegian Taeifp. Within Norway: 50 0. for ten words, and 5 0. 
for each word more. — Foreign telegrams (minimum 80 0.) : to Sweden 
30 0., plus 10 0. for each word ; to Denmark 50 0. , plus 10 0. for each word ; 
to Great Britain 26 0. per word; to the U.S.A. 1 kr. 35 0. to 2 kr. 5 0. 
per word. 


Swedish Tariff. Within Sweden: 50 6. for ten words, and 5 6. for 
each word more. — Foreign telegrams: to Norway or Denmark 80 o tor 
five words, 10 6. each word more; to Great Britain 1 kr. 30 o. for three 
words, 306. each word more; to the U.S.A., about the same as from Norway. 

Telephones are very general, and are most useful, especially in 
Norway and the Swedish Norrland, for securing rooms or ordering 
conveyances in advance. Usual charge 10». or a little more. 

II. Steamers between Great Britain and Norway, Sweden, and 
Denmark. Yachting Cruises. Tourist Agents. 
Steamboats. The following are the usual summer-arrangements 
(May to August inclusive) ; hut travellers should in all cases obtain 
precise information from the agents or the advertisements of the 
steamship-companies. The fares quoted include provisions except 
■where otherwise stated. The winter-rates are often considerably 
lower. — 'Boat-trains' run from London in connection with the 
steamers from Hull, Grimsby, Newcastle, and Harwich. 

Steameks to Norway. 

To Christiania. (1). From London, 'Wilson Line' alternate Fridays in 
56 hrs. (fares 51. 13s., 31. 10*., return 81., 51. 10*. ; food 6*. 6d. or 4s. 6<f. per 
day, according to class). — (2). From Hull, 'Wilson Line' Frid. in 46 hrs. 
(fares U. 15s., 31. 5s., return 11. 10s., 51.). — (3). From Newcastle-on-Tyne. Ss. 
'Sterling' and 'Prospero', Frid. in about 52 hrs. {31. 3s., return 51. 5s.). 

Christiansand is called at by most of the above-mentioned steamers 
(fares as to Christiania): from Hull in 32 hrs., from London in 44 hrs. 
Also: from Leilh, 'Leitb, Hull, and Hamburg Co.', Thurs. in 34 hrs. 
(31. 3s.; return 51. 5s.); returning on Fridays. 

To Bergen. (1). From Hull, 'Wilson Line', Tues. in 36 hrs. (4Z. 10s., 
31., return 11., il. 10s.), returning on Saturday. - (2). From Newcastle, 
'Bergenske and Nordenfjeldske Cos.', Tues., Thurs., & Sat. in 31-40 hrs. 
(1st cl. il., return 6!.). — These steamers, except the Tues. boat from 
Newcastle, touch at Stavanger (same fares). 

To Trondhjem. (1). From Hull, 'Wilson Line', Thurs. in 65 hrs. 
(61. 10s., U. 4s., return 91. 15s., 6l. 6s.), returning Thursdays. — (2). From 
Newcastle, 'Bergenske and Nordenfjeldske Cos.', Tues., via Bergen (see above ; 
through-fare 61. 10s., return 9Z. 15s.). 

Steamers to Sweden. 

To Gotenburg. (1). From London (Tilbury), 'Thule Line', Frid. (returning 
Thurs.) in 4045 hrs. (31. 3s., 2l. 2s., food 6s. 6d. or 4s. 6<j. per day); return- 
tickets (51. 5s., 31. 3s.) are available also via Granton (see below) or by the 
'Wilson Line' via Hull. — (2). From Hull, 'Wilson Line' Sat. (returning 
Frid.) in 36-40 hrs. (fares U., 21. 15s.; return-fares 11., bl.5s.). —(3). From 
Grimsby, 'Wilson Line' Wed. (returning Wed.) in 40 hrs. (same fares). — 
(4). From Granton (Edinburgh),, 'Thule Line', Frid. (same fares). 

To Malmb. From Grimsby, 'Wilson Line', Tues. returning Thurs., in 
about 60 hrs. (21. 15s., 11. 10s.; first-class return il. 10s.). 

To Stockholm. From London, 'Wilson Line', Sat. ; also 'Stockholm 
Steamship Co.', via Malmo, about every ten days. 

Steameks to Denmark. 
To Copenhagen. (1). From London, 'Bailey and Leetham Line', Sun. 
in about 3 days (21. 10s., 11. 10s.; meals 5-6s. per day), — (2). From Hull, 
'Wilson Lino', Mon. or Frid. in 00 lirs. (1st cl. 21. 10s., excl. food; 2nd cl. 


ll. 5s., inc.]. food); 'Finland Steamship Co.', Wed., touching at Helsing- 
fors, and every alternate Sat., touching at Abo (fares 21. 10*., It. iOt.; 
return-ticket 31. 15*., 21. 5s. ; food 5-6«. per day). — (3). From Leith, 'James 
Currie & Co.', via, Christianaand, Thurs., in 54 hrs. &l. 3s., II. 11*. Gd. ; 
1st cl. return-ticket 51. 5*.); returning Thursdays. 

To Esbjerg. (1). From Harnrich, 'United S.S. Co. of Copenhagen 1 , Mon., 
Thurs., & Sat. (returning Tues., Wed., & Sat.) in 25 hrs. (II. 10s., 15s.; 
1st cl. return - ticket 21. 5s.; food 5s. per day in the 1st cl., and 2s. per 
day in the 2nd cl.). — (2). From Orimsby, 'United S.S. Co. of Copen- 
hagen' (in connection with 'Great Central Railway') Mon. and Thurs. 
(returning Tues. and Frid.) in 33 hrs. (11. 10s., 15s.; return-ticket 21. 5s., 
II. 10s. ; food extra). 

Most travellers to Norway will find the steamers of the 'Wilson 
Line' (Thos. Wilson, Sons, fy Co., Hull) or of the 'Bergenske and 
Nordenfjeldske Cos.' (P. H. Matthiessen fy Co., 25 Queen St., New- 
castle; Messrs. Berg-Hansenfy Co., Christiania) good and convenient. 
The last-named company also has an excellent service between Nor- 
way and Hamburg, for which return-tickets from Newcastle are also 
available. Esbjerg (p. 436) has direct railway-connection with Copen- 
hagen and with Gotenburg via Fredericia and Frederikshavn (R. 75). 
The German mail-steamers plying twice daily in each direction be- 
tween Kiel and Korsbr (p. 429) in 5 hrs. (fares 11 Ji 30. 4 Jl 
50 pf.) and between Wamemunde and Ojedser (p. 429) in 2 hrs. 
may also be mentioned. 

Yachting Cruises. Comfortable excursion-steamers (1000-4000 
tons) ply frequently during the season from British ports to the 
Norwegian fjords, Bergen, Trondhjem, the North Cape, etc. They 
follow a fixed itinerary at an inclusive charge, details of which may 
be obtained from the agents. These so-called yachts visit some of 
the finest fjords in Norway and give opportunities for occasional ex- 
cursions on land, but they inevitably miss many of the peculiar 
beauties of the country. A prolonged cruise in one of these floating 
hotels is apt to prove monotonous and enervating, and to leave the 
passenger's mind almost a blank with regard to the great charms of 
real Norwegian travel. 

Tourist Agents. Messrs. Thos. Cook § Son, Messrs. Henry Gaze 
$ Sons , and Dr. Lunn , in London , and T. Bennett fy Sons and 
F. Beyer, at Christiania and Bergen, issue railway, steamboat, Skyds 
(or posting), and hotel tickets and coupons for various routes. This 
system saves trouble at a sacrifice of independence. As a rule it is 
advisable not to fix one's route before leaving London, but to wait until 
Christiania or Bergen is reached. 'The Norway Tourist's Weekly 
News', which often contains useful information, is published by 
Beyer at Bergen, and is to be seen at many of the hotels. 

III. Season and Flan of Tour. 
Season. The best season for Norway and Sweden is from the 
beginning of June to the middle of September ; but July and 
August are the best months for the higher mountains, where snow 


is apt to fall both earlier and later. For a voyage to the North Cape 
(RR 30-34), to see the midnight sun, the season is from the 
middle of June to the end of July. August is often a rainy month 
in Eastern Norway ; the wet season sets in later on the West coast. 
Plan of Tour. An energetic traveller may see the chief points 
of interest in Norway and Sweden in 2i/ 2 -3 months, but an ex- 
haustive tour cannot be made in one season. After a first visit 
devoted to obtaining a general idea of the country, the traveller is 
advised to spend one or more seasons in exploring particular districts. 
The less time and strength expended in covering long distances, the 
greater will be the enjoyment of the tour. Travellers addicted to 
fashionable resorts and luxurious hotels will not find Norway to 
their taste, but true lovers of nature will carry away with them an 
enthusiastic admiration for its scenery, and will gladly seek to 
renew their impressions. 

As those who take a so-called Yachting Cruise along the coast 
are tied down by the programme of the steamer, most travellers 
will prefer to form independent plans for themselves. The specimens 
given below may easily be modified with the help of the Handbook 
or extended by digressions from the main tTack. 

The finest scenery in Norway is on the W. coast, where the 
Hardanger Fjord, the Sognefjord, the Nordfjord, the Sendmere, 
Molde, and the Romsdal are the great attractions, while the Jotun- 
heim, to the E. of the Sognefjord, is a splendid field for mountaineers. 
The voyage to the Norrland, passing the Lofoten Islands, is most 
impressive. But beautiful scenery abounds in S. Norway also, where 
Christiania, the capital, is well worthy of a visit. 

In the S. of Sweden the chief attractions are Stockholm, several 
other towns, and the great Canals. Wisly, with its mediaeval ruins, 
is also interesting. The Swedish Norrland is inferior in grandeur 
to the W. coast of Norway, but its beautiful coasts, its river-scenery, 
and its magnificent waterfalls, such as those of the Indals-Elf, the 
Angerman-Elf, and Lule-Elf, richly repay a visit. Not the least 
charm of the Norrland is the paucity of noisy tourists. 

The time allowed for the following routes is very limited, and 
it will often have to be exceeded, especially when steamboats are 
late or time-tables are altered. In every case the 'Commumcationer 
(p xvii) should be carefully consulted. Combined tickets for rail- 
ways, steamers, carriages, and hotels, obtainable from the tourists 
agents (pp. 10, 132), are convenient for novices, but the ex- 
perienced traveller will greatly prefer to be independent, especially 
as these tickets would tend to increase and not to dimmish his 

I. Tour of Ten or Eleven Weeks. Days 

From Hull or Newcastle to Stavanger . ■ ■ • • • ■ • • • • • 2 
From Stavanger by steamer on the Suldalsvand (p. 118) and thence 

drive to the Breifond Hotel (p. 114) * 


Drive from the Breifond Hotel via Seljeslad to Odde on the Serfjord 1 
[This route may be joined at Odde by travellers from Christiania 

via Dalen and Telemarken (comp. p. xvi) 5-6] 

Excursions from Odde to the Buarbras and the Skjaggedalsfos (B. 19) ; 

steamer from Odde to Vik i Eidfjord 2>/2 

Excursions from Vik to the Veringfos and the Simodal (R. 19); 

steamer to Stmdal on the Maurangerfjord 2-3 

Excursion from Sundal to the Bondhusbros or the Folgefond (R. 19) ; 

steamer to Bergen 1 

Bergen (R. 20) 1 

[This route may be joined at Bergen by steamer from Hull or New- 
castle in 2 days] 
From Bergen rail to Voisevangen ; drive to Stalheim (R. 21) .... 1 
Drive or walk to Gudvangen; steamer acrcss the Sognefjord to Fjcer- 

land and Balholm (p. 146) and thence to Vadheim (p. 145) ... 1 

[Those who desire to visit Jotunheim (R. 9) from the Sognefjord take 

steamer from Gudvangen, or from Balholm, to Lwrdalseren, 

and thence to Skjolden (p. 156), where they join the route 

described in the opposite direction on p. 156, returning by 

Nystuen and through the Lserdal to Latrdalseren 9-10] 

From Vadheim by steamer and carriage by Ferde (p. 162) to Slcei 
(p. 164); drive and row to Red (p. 164), and thence drive to Sandene 

and Visnces on the Nordfjord (p. 108) 3 

Excursion from Visnses to the Oldendal or Loendal (p. 168). Drive by 

Grollid to Marok (p. 178) 3 

Steamer or motor-boat from Marok to Bellesylt (p. 177); drive thence 

by Fibelstad-Haugen to 0ie on the Norangsfjord (p. 179). ... 1 
From 0ie by steamer or rowing-boat to the Jerundfjord (p. 181) ; drive 
to 0rstenvik; steamer to Aalesund (p. 184). Or take the steamer 

direct from 0ie to Aalesund 1 

Aalesund and thence by steamer to Molde (p. 186) 1 

Excursions from Molde to the Romsdal (p. 187) and the Eikitdal (p. 191). 

Steamer by Chrislianssund to Trondhjem 4 

[Or, after an excursion to the Eikisdal, proceed from Molde by Aan- 
dalsnws through the Romsdal and the Gudbrandsdal (R. 10) to Dom- 

aas, and thence over the Dovre/jeld to Steren (R. 11) 6] 

From Trondhjem to the North Cape and back (RR. 30, 32, 33) . . . 8-14 
Railway from Trondhjem by dstersund and Vjisala (R. 59) to Stock- 
holm (or to Brctcke, and thence to Lulea; R. 62) 3-6 

Stockholm and Environs , 4 

From Stockholm by the Gbta Canal and Lake Vettern to JSnkbpmg 

(R. 47) 2 

Railway from Jonkoping by Lund and MalmS to Copenhagen (RR. 

46, 40) 2 

Copenhagen and Selsinger (ER. 69, 70) 3 

Return to London, Hull, Harwich, or Leith (p. xii) l'/2-3 

[Or from Stockholm by the Gota Canal to Gotenburg 2 

Steamer from Gotenburg to England (p. xii) IV2] 

II. Three or Four Weeks (or Five or Six Weeks including Voyage to the 
North Cape or a Trip through Sweden). 

Chrisliania and Environs (R. 2) . I 

From Christiania by railway to Drammen and Skien (R. 3) . . . . 1 

From Skien through Telemarken to Odde on the Hardanger Fjord (R. 6) 4-5 
[This route may be joined here by travellers from Stavanger by 

the Suldalsvand, the Breifond Hotel, and Seljestad (comp. p. xiv) 3] 
The Hardanger Fjord: Odde (p. 124); Vik i Eidfjord (p. 127); Sundal 

on the Mauranger Fjord (p. 119); to Bergen by steamer (R. 18) . 5 

Bergen (R. 20) .... 1 

From Bergen by railway to Voitevangen; drive to Stalheim (p. 143) 1 


Walk to Gndvangen (p. 151); by steamer across the Sognefjord to Bal- 

holm and Fj airland (p. 148); thence to Vadheim (p. 145) . . ■ ■ a 
From Vadheim drive by Ferde to Sandene on the Nordfjord (p. lbrj ^ 
Excursions on the Nordfjord and its side- valleys (R. 25); through 

the Slrynsdal by (?i*o«irf to il/aro* (R. 26) ■ • • ° 

From Marok by steamer to Hellesylt (p. 177), drive through the No- 

rangsdal to 0ie (p. 180) on the Norangsfjord ; steamer on the Jerund- 

fjord to Aalesund (R. 26) ; thence to Molde . *-* 

Molde, the Molde-Fjord, and the Romsdal (R. 27) 3 

Frorn Molde to Trondhjem. Trondhjem (p. 200) • ■ l /?;< 

From Trondhiem we may either return by steamer to England (.p. xnj, 
or go farther N. to the Norrland (RR. 30-34), or return by rail to 
Christiania, or take a trip through Sweden as indicated on p. xvn. 

III. Four or Five Weeks in Norway, with Voyage to the North Cape. 

Steamer from Hull or Newcastle to Stavanger 2 

Stavanger to Odde and the Hardanger Fjord • • • • ■ • • : ■ j> 
From Bergen to Trondhjem by Molde, as indicated at pp. xv, xvi iu-li 

Steamer to the North Cape and back o- 1 * 

Railway from Trondhjem to Christiania l 

Steamer to England 

IV. Four or Five Weeks in Norway. 

Steamer from London, Hull, or Newcastle to Christiania - . . . . 2 

Christiania and railway to Skien (RR- 2, 3) . ■ • ■ • • • • • • „} 

Through Telemarken, as indicated above (or rail to Bergen) . . ■ 0-4 
Excursions on the Hardanger Fjord from Odde and Vik : (pp. 124, 127) 3-4 

From Fide (p. 122) via Vossevangen to Stalheim (p. 14S) 1 

The Bognefjord (R. 22), Nairefjord, Fjm-lands-Fjord, and by steamer 

to Vadheim (p. 145) • • • •■■•;„•,„>; ° 

By Sandene on the Nordfjord, Stryn, Groiltd, Marok, and Sjeholt (K. lb) 

to Molde ,,"5 

Molde; the Romsdal ,. 

Steamer from Bergen to England (p. xii) 

V. Four or Five Weeks in Norway for Walkers. 
Steamer from London, etc., to Christiansand . . . ■ ■ ■ • ■ ■ 2 
Through the Swtersdal to Dalen in Telemarken (comp. p. ; the third 

day's walk is long) ■,'„',." 

Drive by the Baukelifjeld to Reldal, the Breifond Hotel, and Selje- 

stad; walk and drive to Odde (pp. 114,115). Excursions from Odde 4 
Steamer to Vik i Eidfjord (p. 127). Excursions to the Veringfos and 

by Fosli to the Simodal, as far as the Dammevand I 

Steamer to Ulvik (p. 130); walk or drive to Fide (p. U2) .... 1 

Steamer to Bergen (R. 19) and stay at Bergen ~ 

Railway to Vossevangen ; drive to Stalheim (R. 11) ■ . ■ ■ ■ ■ • 
Walk to Gudvangen (p. 151); steamer to Balholm (p. 146) and Fjmr- 

Walk "by P the Jostedalsbroe to Jelt'ter (p. 164); row to Skei (p. 164); 

drive next afternoon to Aamot (p. 164) • • ■ • ■ * 

Walk by the Oldenskar (p. 164) to the Oldenvand; steamer across the 

lake; walk or drive to Olden (p. 168) . • • ■ ■ • • • • ■ • 1 
Steamer or carriage to Visnces (p. 168) ; drive to Mmdre Sunde ; steam- 

launch to Hjelle (p. 172) ; • • • ■ • . ■ ■ x 

Drive to Skaare (p. 173); walk by the Grasdalsskar to the Djupvas- 

hylte (p. 175); walk or drive to Marok (p- 17°) . . . • ... 1 
Steamer to Hellesylt (p. 177); drive to Fibelstad-Haugen (p. 179); walk 

to die (p. 180) • ■ • • „• ..} 

Steamer by Aalesund to Molde; Molde (p. 18B) . . . . ■ • • ■ - J- It 
Excursion to the Romsdal (p 189); walk across the hills to the £,*«- 

daj (p. 191); visit the Bikisdalsvand (p. 193); walk to Nmte (p. 1S2) 3 


Xvi 1 

Steamer to Molde. In (he afternoon visit Battivfjordieren (p 197) .° ayS 
steamer via Ghristianssund to Trondhjem o 

[Or from Nsrste by Eidivaag to Eidseven (p. 197);' Sundal' steamer to" 

l/iristiansmnd; steamer next day to Trondliiem 91 

Trondhjem (R. 29) J 

Return thence as indicated on p. xvi. 

VI. A Fortnight from Christiania. 

Steamer to Christiania (p. 8). Christiania . . a 

Railway to Fagernces-Dokka (p. 46) ; drive through the raider's (pp. 48-52)' 

to Lcerdalseren (p. 153) rF ' . 

Steamer to Gudvangen (R. 21); walk or drive' to Stalheim (p'l43)-' 

drive to Vossevangen (p. 13(1); rail to Bergen (R. 20). Bergen . ! 3 
Steamer to Odde on tue tiardanger Fjord (R 19) i 

Drive by Seljestad to Breifond Hotel (p. 114) and Nces on'suldals- 

vand; steamer to Oeen; drive to Sand; steamer to Stavanger 2 

Steamer from Stavanger to England (p. xii) 2 

VII. Seven Weeks in Sweden. 

Steamer from England (p. xii) to Gotenburg . o 

Gotenburg, and railway to TrollMttan (RR. 43, 44) ' • • ■ 2 
Steamer on Lake Verier,, to the Kinnekulle (R. 44); railway by FalkSping 

to Jdnkoping (R. 46). Jbnkoping . 3 

Steamer on Lake Vettem to Motala and by the' Gota Canal to Stock- 
holm (R. 47) o 

Stockholm and Environs (RR. 50, 51). \ \ \ 4 

Excursion to Uptala, Falun, and Lake Siljan (Rr! 52, 56, 57) ' 5 

Steamer from Slocktaolin to Baparanda (RR. 63, 68) . 3 

Steamer back to LvleS ; railway to Gellivai-a (RR. 65, 67) . 3 

Rail back to Mwjek (p. 401); drive by Vuollerim to Jockmock (R. 66). I 1 /-, 

Row and walk to Kviekjoek and back (R. 66) 

Drive and steam from Jockmock to Edefors and Bednoret (p 3801- 

rail to Vannas (p. 379) and Umea (p. 385) .... \ 

Steamer to Hernitsand (R. 63 and p. 382) ' 1 

Steamer up the Angerman-Elf to Solleftei (p. 384); railway 'to' siio- 

garden (p. 378) 1 

Steamer down the Indals-Elf to £«n*5»azf (R. 61) ! '. 1 

Railway to OstersundJUtt. 60, 59) .'.!.!' 1 

Railway (R. 59) to Are (excursion to the Areskutan) and Dufed (ex- 
cursion to the Tannfors), and hack to Stockholm . . 4 
Steamer to Gotland (Wisby) and back to Kalmar (p. 269); railway by 

Verts (p. 268) and Lund (p. 263) to MalmS ......... 3 

The Excursion Stbameks already mentioned stait from several 
British ports, from Antwerp, and from Hamburg, some of them 
visiting the chief W. Fjords only (12-15 days), others going to 
Trondhjem and hack (about 15 days), others again plying as far as 
the North Cape, Iceland, and Spitzbergcn |22-28 days). The fares, 
including food, range from about lOi. to 100*. As the arrangements 
vary from year to year the traveller should apply to one of the 
tourist-agents for the latest information. 

IV. Conveyances. Walking Tours. Cycling Tours. 

Time Tables for Norway appear in Gorges Communicationer' (pron 
Commoonicashooner; 30 0., English and German edition, 50 0.), and for 
Sweden m 'Sveriges Kommunikationer' (15 0.), both published weekly in 
summer. These are referred to in the Handbook as 'Com.' and 'Kom.' 
respectively. As, however, neither of these is very satisfactory travellers 

Baedeker's Norwav a.nd Sweden 9t.h fcMit. V, 




fjord steamerl hold gSod til! the end of August only. 

Steamboats (Dan.-Norw. DampMbe, Sw. ,4n<?&atar). In order 
to meSSe increasing demand, many excellent new steamers have 
recently been built, both in Norway and m Sweden, but the older 
boats axe also as a rule well fitted up. The chief routes are indicated 
on the maps. The regular Norwegian coasting traffic is mainly in 
the han£ P of the Bergenske and the Nordenfjeldske Dampskibs- 
SelsKab, which have a common time-table. The headquarter o 
the former are at Bergen, of the latter at Trondhjem. (Agents at 
Christiania and Newcastle, see p. xiii.) The smaller steamers plying 
on the Norwegian fjords are comfortable enough during the day 
but their sleeping-berths are poor, and on market-days they are apt 
to be crowded. The same remark applies to the small coasting 
steamers on the Baltic and on the Swedish canals. It should be 
noted that the fjord-steamers are entitled to leave intermediate 
stations 1/2 hr. before their advertised *<>™-b° oA *"?^™£ 
Danish steamers ply on the Baltic, serving all the chief Swedish, 
Danish, and German ports. 

Most travellers will travel in the first cabin. Those who are to 
sleep on board should at once secure their berths (ltojm)in a cabin 
fNorw. lugar, Swed. hytt, each with two or more berths) by personal 
application to the steward. Those who sleep on sofas 111 the dimng- 
saloon have to leave them before 6 or 7a.m A separate ladies 
cabin and a smoking-room are also provided. A passenger travelling 
with one other member of his family by the larger steamers in Nor- 
way pays half-fare only for the latter, but this reduction ( Modera- 
tion' ■ pron. 'moderashoon') does not apply to the cost of food. This 
privilege is becoming more and more restricted, but enquiry may 
be made by those who wish to claim it. In Sweden members of the 
Tourists' Union (p. xxlii) often obtain reductions (rabatt) on the ordi- 
nary fare. Return-tickets are usually valid for a month or more, but 
do not allow the journey to be broken When tickets are taken on 
board the steamer (as at small stations) a small booking-fee is added 
to the ordinary tariff of 40.. per sea-mile The captains and mates 
generally speak English. The traveller should look well after his 

1Ug The e food is generally good and abundant, but vegetables are scarce, 
and tinned meats, salt relishes, and cheese preponderate at break- 
fast and supper. The tariff in the Bergen and Nordenfjeld steamers 
s Food per day, including service 5 kr. 50 a. ; separate y break- 
fa t 1 kr. 50 «., dinner (at 2) 2 kr. 50*., supper (at 7.30) lkr.50».; 
at ™danee 80 0. per day. On board the smaller vessels: breakfast 


or supper iy ?I D. 2, attendance i/ 2 kr. Cup of tea or ooffee with 
biscuit or rusk (Kavringer; Swed. Skorpor), in the morning 30-35 • 
small cup of coffee after dinner 20 0.; beer 50-60 0. per bottle' 
25». per half-bottle; claret li/ 4 kr. per half-bottle. No spirits 
are procurable. The account should be paid daily, to prevent mis- 
takes. The steward usually expects an additional fee. — On board 
the ferry-boats across the Great Belt, the Sound, etc., there is often 
a table with cold viands .(koldt Bord), from which the traveller may 
help himself (l-li/ 2 kr.); small bottle of beer, 25 o. 

Railways (Dan.-Norw. Jembaner,8w. Jernvagar; station-iiiast.-r 
Uahonsmestere or Stationifiirestandare ■ guard, Konduktor) Lon- 
journeys should be undertaken by express only (Hurtigtog or turier- 
tag, snalltagj. The mixed trains (blandede Tog, blandade Thg) are 
very slow. All the trains have smoking-carriages (BegekupS, rokkupe) 
and ladies compartments (Damekupe, damkupe). The fast trains 
have sleeping-carriages (Sovevogn, sofvagn), both first and second 
class, and iimng-a&loons (Restawationsvogn). The local and narrow- 
gauge lines, both in Norway and Sweden, have usually second and 
third class only. 

■>,id a he 4 8 X tn C fi S q^i *q ,^T°*)„. pe , r kilometre ' are *<" cl. 7.8 to 8.5, 
-no cl. 4.8 to B, drd cl. 3 to 4 0. (the lower rate bein» for lone distance. 

„, on" SW6dm the Uriff is reckon ed by 'zones' of 8-10 kilom. each (50 30 
birth l^^n'o?^ 8 eX - fra) - Lugga ' e U P t0 25kil °g- free - Sleep ng-' 
nfi nV Jhl £ °' 2 "m 5 ^ r -' lrres Pe c «™ of distance. See also tables on 
?;.rt/H^ft. ° m ^™lH at i. 0ner - l f tte P a » sen g«'s destination can only be 
reached after midnight, he may break his journey from 8 p. m. to 9 a. m 

There are good Railway Restaurants at the larger stations only 
Passengers help themselves, there being little or no attendance, and 
pay on entering or on leaving: breakfast or supper li/ 4 -li/ 2 , dinner 
1V2--SV2 kr. ; cup of coffee or half- bottle of beer 25 0. (frequently 
included in the charge for dinner); sandwiches 25-50 0. ; spirits not 
obtainable. Many trains stop for 15-20 min. at certain stations for 

_ Posting (Norw. Skyds, Sw. skjuts ; pron. shoss or shuss). Sweden 
is so well provided with railways and steamboats that travelling by 
road is rare except in the Norrland, but in Norway there are vast 
tracts of country accessible only by driving. The new government 
roads are excellent, and the older are being improved; but some 
are very rough, with many sudden ups and downs. 

The Skydsstationer (pron. stashooner; which are mostly inns 
also) are farm-houses whose proprietors are bound to supply horses 
when required, but posting is undertaken by numerous inns or 
private stations also. Fares are reckoned by Kilometres (comp. p ii) 
but on some routes (as on very hilly roads) more than the actual 
distance is charged for. (This is indicated in the postmaster's book 



by the words 'pays fox'.) For distances ™dei5kilom thefall5talom. 
must be paid for. At every station is kept a Dagebog or fv^og 
f Swed. dagbok), in which the fares to the next stations and various 
regulations are entered. Travellers who have to make an early start 
should arrange with the landlord or boots over-night, but it is often 
difficult to get breakfast before 8 a. m. The telephone will be found 
useful for giving orders in advance. „,,„,« ■ 

Those Stations' where the Stations- Holder or Skyds-Skaffer is 
bound to have horses always in readiness are called Faste Stationer 
f'fixed stations', where a fixed number of horses are available). 
Others in remote districts are the Tilsigelse-Stationer (from tilsige, 
'to tell to', 'send to'), where horses can only be had on giving 
previous notice. The Forbud ('previous message) should be sent 

in ample time. , . ,, 

The national vehicles supplied at the skyds-stations are the 
Stolkjmrre (a light cart with seats for two persons), and the lighter 
and swifter Kariol (gig for one person), now becoming rare. The 
stolkisrre generally has an extra seat for the driver (Skydsgut ox 
simply Gut, often a mere child) ; otherwise he takes his seat on the 
luggage which is strapped or roped at the back of the vehicle. Be 
it noted in passing that small boxes or portmanteaus only can be 
conveyed. Bulky or heavy luggage requires additional vehicles. It 
the traveller takes the reins (Temmer) himself, he will be respon- 
sible for accident; as the reins and harness are often very primitive, 
it is safer to let the 'Gut' drive from behind. The driver s fee is 
usually reckoned at iy 2 e. per kilometre for each person If he is 
told that the traveller wishes to continue his journey without delay 
('jeg vil strax reise videre') he will see that the next vehicle is got 
ready at once. The stable-boys at the stations do not expect a fee. 
As a rule 8-9 Kil. (5-5V 2 Engl. M.), or less in hilly districts, may 
be covered in an hour, and 70-80 Kil. (40-50 Engl. M ) may be done 
in a day, but journeys of such length are fatiguing. On some of the 
steeper hills the passenger is bound by the police regulations to get 
out and walk. The processions of vehicles that often converge to the 
favourite resorts towards evening should be avoided on account of 
the dust. For a similar reason it is 'bad form' for one carriage to 
overtake another, unless there is a great difference of pace. The 
horses, or rather ponies, are often overdriven by foreigners. As the 
average charge of 3d. per Engl, mile does not adequately pay the 
peasants who have to supply the horses, it is unfair on this account 
also to overdrive them. We often read in the skvds stations, Vvr 
godmodhesten' (i.e. be good to the horse), and those who obey 
Lis injunction will be more cheerfully served In every case the 
traveller in Norway will find that consideration and civility pay better 
than a dictatorial manner. 


Posting Tariff in Norway. 





















One person 


Kariol or 


Two persons 


Irrespective of numfcer of passengers 
™ —' Four 



with sail 



with sail 

with sail 

Kr. 0. 


Kr. 0. 



Kr. 0. 

Kr. 0. 








































































9.60 , 




Kr. 0. 

























This tariff applies to the Faste Stationer ('fixed stations'), 
familiarly called 'fast' by English travellers , in contrast to the 
Tilsigelse-Stationer mentioned above, which are notoriously 'slow'. 
The tariff for the latter, which are only to be met with on the less 
frequented routes, is about one-fourth lower. 

On the great routes through Telemarken (R. 5), Valders (R. 8), 
and the Gudbrandsdal (R. 10), and between the Nordfjord and the 
Geiranger Fjord (R. 20) it is a good plan to hire a carriage (Kalesch- 
vogn or Landau), or even a Stolkjarre, and horses for the whole 
route, in order to avoid delays at the stations. The tariff for a car- 
riage and pair is 30-40 kr. a day, according to the number of pass- 
engers. The drivers are to be met with at the principal railway and 
steamboat-stations. In the slack season better terms may be made. 
In this case there is no restriction as to luggage, and it is an 
advantage not to be obliged to shift luggage at every station. The 

xxii IV. CYCLING. 

horses usually rest for 1/2 hr - ever y tw0 tours, and make a midday 
halt of 2 hrs. The maximum jouroey allowed with the same horses 
is 75 Kil. per day. 

Rowing Boats. For Baadskyds or Vandskyds the regulations are 
similar. Those who have a guide with them may employ him as a 
rower. Each rower (Borskarl) generally rows or 'sculls' with two 
oars. A boat with two rowers is therefore called a Faring, or four- 
oared boat, one with three rowers a Sexring , with four rowers an 
Ottering. For short distances a Faring suffices. As the fares are 
low the gratuity should be liberal. 

Walking Tours. Neither Norway nor Sweden is suitable for 
long walks , as the distances are too great , and the attractions 
too far apart, except among the mountains of Norway and in some 
parts of the Swedish Norrland. Besides the passes over the moun- 
tains to the W. coast from the Saetersdal (p. 5) and Hallingdal 
(p. 42), and the grand excursions and ascents in Jotunheim (R. 9) 
and Seridmtfre (pp. 180, 181), we may mention the passes connect- 
ing the heads of different fjords (conip. pp. xvi, xvii, 120, 121, 
128, 130, 149, 155-159, 164, 172, 173, 177, 179, 182, 189, 
194, etc.). Several fine walks may also be taken in the Norrland 
(RR. 30, 33). The footpaths aTe, however, far inferior to those among 
the Alps. On very hilly roads, where walking is quicker than 
driving, a Stolkjjerre may be hired for luggage only ('enkelt Skyds', 
see p. xx). 

Cycling. Norway and Sweden, and Denmark possess good roads 
for cycling. The newer roads are generally excellent and dry up 
quickly. In W. Norway, however, they are often very hilly, de- 
manding great caution and strong, reliable brakes. One of the 
finest routes is from Christiania through Telemarken (RR. 3, 6) 
to the western fjords, and back, starting from Marok on the Gei- 
ranger Fjord (p. 177), through the Gudbrandsdal. Motor and other 
cyles are admitted to Norway and Sweden duty-free, provided a 
declaration be made that they are for travelling purposes only. 
Several of the best routes in Norway, Sweden , and Denmark are 
described in the 'Continental Road Book' of the C. T. C. Good 
cycling maps are published by the 'Norsk Hjulturist-Forening', 
whose headquarters are at Christiania. 

V. Luggage. Equipment. Tourist Clubs. 
Luggage. Travellers by cariole or stolkjajrre should not take 
more than 30-40 lbs., packed in a small and strong box, to which 
may be added a leather travelling-bag and a wallet or game-pouch 
(Skreppe or Handsel) for walking excursions. A soft portmanteau is 
unsuitable, as the 'Skydsgut' usually sits on the luggage strapped 
on behind. Suitable trunks are sold at Christiania, Bergen, and 


elsewhere. A supply of stout cord and straps will be useful, and 
a strong umbrella is indispensable. Note also that even the larger 
carriages are not adapted for carrying large and heavy boxes. 

Equipment. Things not absolutely needed should be eschewed. 
Tolerable food may be had almost everywhere, but a supply of tea 
and essence of coffee may usefully be carried. Spirits are not sold 
at the inns, but good cognac may be bought in the larger towns 
for 4-5 kr. per bottle. A field-glass (Kikkert), a pocket- corkscrew, 
and a small clothes-brush will be found desirable. As to clothing, 
two strong but light tweed suits, a change of warm underclothing, 
a pair of light shoes for steamboat and cariole use, and a pair of 
strong Alpine boots for mountaineering should suffice. Add a long 
ulster, a light waterproof, and a couple of square yards of stout 
waterproof material as a wrapper for coats and rugs, or for covering 
the knees in wet weather, as the aprons (Skvcetlceder) of the carioles 
are often damaged. Visitors to Lapland and the Swedish Norr- 
land should further be provided with veils to keep off the gnats. 
Ladies travelling in Norway should also dress as simply, strongly, 
and comfortably as possible, eschewing ornament. For the rougher 
mountain tours they should take stout gaiters or leggings. 

Further Hints. A few safety-pins may be useful in keeping scanty 
sheets from parting company with the blankets or shrinking into a wisp. — 
For mountaineering it is most important to have very strong hoots, water- 
proof if possible, and high in the ankle, as bogs and water-courses often 
have to be crossed. To the above equipment may be added a pocket- 
compass, blue spectacles, sewing-materials, a few buttons, arnica, glycerine, 
court-plaster, and a candle or two. A strong alpstock is also desirable. 
In the Swedish Norrland a veil for protection against the gnats, oil (Myg- 
golja) to apply to their bites, and carbolic soap are essenlial. For tours 
beyond the limits of the Handbook travellers require a tent, 'bandsko', 
sleeping-sacks, etc., as to which the Tourists' Union at Stockholm may he 
consulted (pp. 307, 391). 

Tourist Clubs. The Norske Turistforening , founded in 1866, 
builds refuge-huts, improves paths, appoints guides, etc. In 1908 
it had over 2300 members, including about 400 foreigners, mostly 
British. The subscription is 4 kr. per annum (life- membership 
50 kr.), for which the subscriber receives the annual Transactions 
(Aarbog). The club-button (Xlubknap), a useful distinctive badge, 
costs li/ 2 kr. more. Besides many local tourists' club there is also 
a Norwegian Club in London (112 Strand), which has a good library 
and publishes a year-book. 

The Svenska Turistforening (Stockholm, p. 307), a similar club, 
founded in 1884, numbers oveT 36,000 members. The annual sub- 
scription for foreigners is 4 kr., which entitles the member to a copy 
of the 'Arsskrift. The club-button costs l 3 /4 kr. The club has 
representatives (Ombud) everywhere, who courteously assist and 
advise both members and strangers. On application a circular is 
sent from the club's offices at Stockholm, containing much useful 
information , especially as to the Swedish Norrland. 

xxiv VI. HOTELS. 

VI. Hotels. 

The hotels in Norway and Sweden have greatly improved of 
late years. Many in Norway are entitled to rank as first-class, 
though inferior to the newer houses in Sweden. Except in the 
principal towns, the Norwegian hotels are built of wood, many of 
them being good examples of the national timber architecture, but 
they are apt to be noisy. The quietest rooms are on the upper floors. 
In view of their inflammable materials they are well provided with 
fire-escapes and exits. The usual charges at the first-class hotels 
are: R. 2-3, B. IV2, D - 21 /r 3 (generally including a cup of coffee), 
S. lV2 kT -; at the second-class houses: R. I-IV2 kr., B. l-l'/4> 
D. 172) S. 1-1 V4 kr. ; tea or coffee with bread and butter 50-70b. 
In the large towns the charges are a little higher, in the country 
lower, and still cheaper are the rustic 'stations' (Skydsstationer). 
At these the bedrooms, though plain, are clean, and the fare is 
homely. Attendance is not usually charged; a fee of 40-50 0. from 
each person [Brikkepenge] to the servant or Opvartningspige (ad- 
dressed as Freken) suffices. The manners of the innkeepers are 
quiet and reserved, but there is no lack of real politeness. 

In Sweden there are excellent first-class hotels in Stockholm, 
Gotenburg, and at many of the smaller towns, where international 
comfort is combined with national characteristics; but the older 
houses often leave much to be desired. The charge for a room at 
the first-class hotels is 2l/ 2 -5 kr. or more , at the smaller from 
li/ 2 kr. upwards. The usual gratuities (drickes-penningar) are 50 6. 
per day to the servant or Staderskan (addressed as Frbken) and as 
much to the B6rsiaren or boots. The country inn and posting- 
station, corresponding to the Norwegian Skydsstation, is called a 
gastgifvaregard (gastis, for short}. 

In Denmark good hotels are rare outside the larger towns 
and bathing-resorts The usual charges are: R. from 2 1 /2, B. 1, 
D. 2-3'kr. 

Tables-d'hote are almost unknown in Sweden. The Smorgasbord 
or Brannvinsbord, a side-table where various relishes, bread-and- 
butter, and liqueurs are served as stimulants to the appetite, is 
peculiar to Sweden, and should be patronized sparingly. The charge 
for it varies from 40 to 75 ore. In the evening, from 7 to 10, small 
portions of meat, etc., known as Sexor (six o'clock meal) are served 
to those who wish a light supper (from 75 6.). 

In Norway tables-d'h6te are the rule, and it is sometimes diffi- 
cult to get anything to eat between the fixed hours except tea and 
bTead-and-butter or biscuits. The tinned meats ('Hermetiske Sager'), 
salted anchovies, cheese, etc., which form the staple of breakfast 
and supper, should be avoided as far as possible. Note also that 
margarine sometimes does duty for butter. 

The waiter (Norw. Opvarter; Swed. kypare, vaktmastare, garfon, 
markor} usually receives a fee of 10 0. or more for each meal. ■ 


The following dishes are among the commonest in the bills of 
fare (Dan.-Norw. Spisesedel, Swed. Matseddet): — 


. English. 





















Roast real 





( Faaresleg 
I Bedesteg 

Boast mut- 







Roast veni- 



Roast rein- 























| Pouter 

| Earlofler 


■ English. 



Pandekager Pancakes 






01 (short) 


Red wine 



Bon or 
Potalis , Po - 








White wine Hvidlvin 
Beer Ol, bier 

Lemonade Brus. 

k ^"/^T 1 ^ d 1 is . hes \ in Norway and Denmark are Jordbmr and Redgred, 
both vied Flede, that is strawberries and cream, and fruit-jelly with cream. 

Beer is the chief Scandinavian beverage (Norw. halv Flaske, 
Swed. half butelj, 20-25 ».), but good claret and other wines are 
to be had at the larger inns and on board the steamers. Spirits are 
never sold at the hotels or in the steamers, but may be purchased 
at the shops in the towns. Drunkenness, which used to be a nation- 
al vice, has been greatly diminished by the recent liquor-laws, the 
principles of which are indicated at p. 278. 

The 'Sanatoria!, answering to the British hydropathics or the 
American 'summer- boarding -houses', are well spoken of for a 
prolonged stay, but are little frequented by foreigners. There are 
many both in Norway and Sweden. 

Cafes are rare in Norway, but abound in the larger Swedish 
towns. One of their specialties is Swedish punch, a mixture of rum 
or arrak with lemon-juice and sugar, drunk as a liqueur (25-40 6. 
per glass). With ice in summer it is palatable, but not very whole- 
some. Beer on draught can be had in the large towns only. Cafe's 
and restaurants are closed on Sundays from 8 to 12, and in the 
smaller towns sometimes entirely. — At most of the Swedish re- 
staurants and cafe's visitors deposit their hats, overcoats, and um- 
brellas in a room provided for the purpose. The attendants (fee 10 6.) 
are wonderfully quick in recognising visitors and in restoring their 

VII. Sport. 

Fishing. Excellent salmon - fishing is obtainable, but only at 
high rents, averaging 1500 kr. for the season (1st May to 30th Sept.), 
and the best rivers are let on long leases, chiefly to wealthy English- 
men. Good trout-fishing, however, may be had by those who are 

xxvi VU. SPORT. 

prepared for some hardships. Many lifers are now leased by hotel- 
keepers for the. benefit of their guests. Amongst these are the 
Loen-Elv, belonging to the Hotel Alexandra at Loon (p. lbSJ, the 
Rauma, in the Romsdal (p. 189), and the Fortun-Elv, near golden 
(p 156) Trout-fishing may also be enjoyed at Aaseral [p. 10 I), 
Bygland{ V . 4), Dalen (p. 35), Botten (p. 37), Fagernas (p .46) 
Fosheim (v. i8), Sande, Ferde, Nedre Vasenden, Egge (pp. Ib2-lb4), 
San<fcne(p.l67),Pol/bM«i(p.87), Se,rum( V .85), Jlfolmen (p. 89), 
etc. Any tourist may fish in the streams of the Jotunheim (p. 06). 
The fish caught must be handed over to the landlords. 

Good Shooting is obtainable in the vast hill and forest regions 
of Scandinavia. In Sweden the shootings are private property, ex- 
cept in the wilds of the Norrland, where the shooting is partly free. 
In Norway, besides the private shootings, there are others, both 
'matriculated' and 'unmatriculated', belonging to the state, for 
which an official licence may be obtained. The licence costs 100 kr., 
in addition to which a permit to shoot in an 'unmatriculated' 
district costs from 2 to 20 kr. Reindeer are still to be met with 
among the mountains enclosing the Hallingdal, on the Hardanger 
Yidda, near the Romsdal, near Reims, in Lapland, or, still better, 
in Spitzbergen ; and wild-fowl abound in many parts of_ Norway, 
particularly in the trackless forests of 0sterdalen, in the Ostra and 
Vestra Dal in Dalarne, around the Storsjo in Jemtland, and in 
Lapland ; but in every case the sportsman has serious difficulties to 
contend with, and particularly that of obtaining tolerable quarters. 
The Close Seasons for game are nearly the same in both countries. 
For the present reindeer-shooting (Etnsdyr) is prohibited. Note that 
beavers (Bcever) red-deer (Baadyr), swans, pheasants, and one-year old 
elks and stags must not be shot at all. Elks (Elg) may be shot from 
10th to 30th Sept. ; deer (Hjort) from 15th Aug. to 30tb Sept. ; if without 
horns from 15th to 30th Sept. only; and in these cases one head only 
may be shot in each shooting region. Hares (Hare), he,i-capercailzie 
(Bei), black-game (hen, Urhene), and hazel-grouse (Hjerpe) from 251h Aug. 
to 14th March; capercailzie (cock, Tjur) and black-game (cock, Urhane) 
also from 15th to 30th May; ptarmigan (Bype) and wood-snipe (Svgde) 
from 25th Aug. to 31st Mav ; partridge (Baphens) from 1st to 14th Oct.; 
eider-goose (Ederfugl) from 15th Oct. to 14tn March; other wild fowl tr..m 
15th Aug. to 14th March; birds of prey, all the year round. — The im- 
portation of dogs is forbidden. , . 

Comp 'Norwegian Anglings and Sportings , issued periodically Dy 
Messrs. J. A. Lumley 6c Co., l.umley House, 34 St. James's St., London. 

Skating and Ski-ing [i.e. snow-shoeing in the native manner) may be 
enjoyed at Christiania, Voss, and many other places in Norway between 
the end of December and the beginning of March. 

VIII. Maps. Books. 
Maps. The best map of Nouway is the new Ordnance Map on 
a scale of I : 100,000, called the Topograph Karl over Kongeriget 
Norge, to be completed in over 300 sheets, of which about 190 have 
been published. The published sheets embrace the regions around 
Christiania, along the E. frontier, and northwards from the pro- 

VIII. BOOKS. xxv ii 

vince of Trondhjem, including the Lofoten Islands and the far 
North. Less satisfactory is the Generalkart over det sydlige Norge 
on a scale of 1 : 400,000, to be completed in 18 sheets (60 0. per 
sheet). There is also the Kart over Finmarkens Amt, on a scale of 
1 : 500,000 (1907; price 1 kr.). Failing these, one must fall hack 
upon the older and now partly obsolete District Maps (Amtskart; 
1 : 200,000; 1 kr. per sheet). — The most convenient map for the 
ordinary traveller is that of Col. Nissen (Christiania, 1905) : Kart 
over det Sydlige Norge, on a scale of 1 : 600,000, in four sheets 
(three at 2l/ 2 , one at II/2 kr.), and Kart over det nordlige Norge 
in one sheet (1 : 1,000,000, with inset map of the Lofoten Islands, 
1:400,000; price 21/2 kr.). Besides these there are many general 
maps on scales of 1 : 500,000, of 1 : 800,000, etc. 

Of Sweden there is an excellent new Ordnance Map, called the 
Topografiska Corpsens Karta bfver Sverige (water coloured blue), 
on a scale of 1 : 100,000. In 1908 there had appeared about 90 
sheets, chiefly of S. Sweden (copper-plate 1-2 kr. per sheet, print 
50 0.). — Another good map is the Oeneralkarta bfver Sverige 
(1 : 1,000,000), in three sheets. For N. Sweden may be mentioned 
the Karta bfver Norra Sverige (1 : 200,000 ; about 60 sheets of which 
have appeared). The sections of this map specially useful to 
tourists have been published in a separate cover (3 kr.), by Dr. 
Fred. Svenonius, author of a guide to N. Sweden. 

Books. Among useful and interesting books on Norway and 
Sweden may be mentioned: — 

Abercromby,John, The Pre- and Proto-Historic Finns; Loud., 1899. 
Mrs. Aubrey he Blond, Mountaineering in the Land of the Midnight 

Sun; London, 1908. 
Bain, K. Nisbet, Scandinavia (political history from 1513 to 1900), 

London, 1905. 
Baker, Mrs. Woods, Pictures of Swedish Life; London, 1895. 
Brace, C. Loring, The Norse Folk, etc. ; New York, 1857. 
Bradshaw, J., Norway, its Fjords, Fjelds, and Fosses ; Lond., 1896. 
Brochner, Jessie, Danish Life in Town and Country; London, 1903. 
Bumpus, T.F., The Cathedrals and Churches of Norway, Sweden. 

and Denmark; London, 1908. 
Burton, Gen. E.F., Trouting in Norway; Lond., 1897 (for anglers). 
Chapman, A., Wild Norway; London (1897 for the sportsman and 

Comparetii, Domenico, The Traditional Poetry of the Finns (Engl. 

trans, by Isabella M. Anderton; London, 1899). 
Conway, Sir Martin, No man's land. A history of Spitzbergen. 

Cambridge, 1906. 
I)u Chaillu, P. B., Land of the Midnight Sun, 2 vols., 1SS1. 
Fischer, Th. A., Scots in Sweden; Edin., 1907. 
Forbes, J. £>., Norway and its Glaciers; Edin., 1853. 
Godwin, Mary, Letters from Norway, 1796. 

xxviii VIII. BOOKS. 

Goodman, E.J., BestTour in Norway ; London, new edition, 1903. 

Hyne, Cutcliffe, Through Arctic Lapland ; London, 1898. 

Jungmann, N. and B., Norway; London, 1905. 

Keary, C. F., Norway and the Norwegians; London, 1892. 

Lovett, Norwegian Pictures, 1885. 

Monroe, W. S., In Viking Land ; London, 1908. 

"Old Bushman", Ten Years in Sweden; London, 1865. 

Oppenheim, E. C, New Climbs in Norway; London, 1899 (Sand- 
mere district). 

Pritchett, R. T., Gamle Norge; London, 1879. 

Sandeman, Fraser, Angling Travels in Norway; London, 1895. 

Schuoeler, Viridarium Norvegianum (good account of the flora). 

Slingsby, Wm. Cecil (p. 79), Norway, the Northern Playground ; 
Edin. 1904 (for mountaineers). 
' -Stone, 0. M., Norway in June ; London, 1889. 

Sundbarg,G., Sweden, itsPeople and its Industry; Stockholm, 1904. 

Tanner, G. F., An Unconventional Tour in Norway ; London, 1907. 

Taylor, Bayard, Northern Travel; London, 1857. 

Thomas, W. W., Sweden and the Swedes; London, 1892. 

'Three in Norway', by Two of Them ; London, 1887. 

Tweedie, Mrs. A., Winter Jaunt to Norway. 

Vicary, J. F., An American in Norway; London, 1885. 

Vincent, Norsk, Lapp, and Finn; 1881. 

Willson, Rev. Thomas B., History of the Church and State in 
Norway; London, 1903. 

— , Norway at Home; London, 1908. 

Wood, C. W., Round about Norway; London, 1882. 

— , Under Northern Skies; London, 1886. 

— , Norwegian By-Ways ; London, 1903. 
Wyllie, M. A., Norway and its Fjords; London, 1907. 
Works on Lapland, see p. 231; on Iceland, see p. 245; on Spitzbergen, 
see p. 257. Besides the above there are many Nowegian, Swedish, German, 
and other hooks treating of the great Scandinavian peninsula. 

IX. Names and their Meanings. 

The spelling and pronunciation of Scandinavian names is very 
variable. In Sweden the modified a and o are written a and o, in 
Norway usually ce and 0, while a and 6 also occur, the latter some- 
times indicating the short sound of the letter. Again in Norway aa 
(or a), au, ou, and are frequently interchanged, as in Laag (Lag), 
Laug, Long, or Log, 'river', and Haug or Houg, 'hill'. The vowels 0, 
u, ei, 01, and e are also frequently interchanged, their pronunciation 
remaining nearly identical, so that the same word may assume such 
various forms as Synjereim, S0nnerheim, or S0nnerum, Bredheim or 
Breum., Mar ok, Mceraak, or Merok, Eidfjord or 0ifjord. The letter 
d combined with other consonants or at the end of a word is usually 
mute, and therefore often omitted (as Meheia for Medheia, Haukeli 



for Haukelid, Grotli for Qrotlid, etc.). Lastly, g and k, when hard, 
are often used indifferently , as Agershus or Akershus , Egersund 
or Ekersund, Vig or Vile. The article en or et [see grammar in the 
appendix) is often added in common speech to names which appear 
in the map without lt(Krogkleoen, Krogklev, etc.). In Danish or Nor- 
wegian the letter w does not occur, but in Swedish v and w are con- 
stantly interchanged. 

In both countries one is often struck by the primitiveness 
of the names, signifying merely 'hill', 'sand', 'creek', 'promontory', 
'lake', 'end of the lake', 'river'. In order to distinguish them the 
name of the parish or district is often added, as Vik i Eidfjord, 
Nses i Romsdal. Farm-houses are usually named after their owners, 
or the converse. Many places have two or more names, one apply- 
ing to the church, another to the chief 'gaard', a third to the posting- 
station. The following is a list of common Norwegian words (it and 
e being placed last in the alphabet) : — 

Aak, Ok, from Aaker or 
Ager, field. 

Aar, from Aa, river. 

Aas, ridge. 

Aur, see 0re. 

Bakke, hill. 

Band, ;i long pass. 

Bra;, glacier. 

Bu, Be, 'Gaard', farm- 

By, town, village. 

Bygd, parish, hamlet. 

Dal, valley. 

Egg, corner, edge, ridge. 

Bid or Eide, isthmus, 
neck of land. 

Elv, river. 

Fjwre, ebb-tide, beach ex- 
posed at ebb-tide. 

Fjeld, mountain. 

Fjord, bay, arm of the sea. 

Fos, Fors, waterfall. 

Qaard, farm-house (Engl, 

Gold, rocky slope. 

Grand, group of chalets. 

Haug, Houg, hill. 

Hei, Heia, barren height. 

Helle, slab, rock, cliff. 

Hyl, Hal, hollow, basin. 

Jekul, glacier. 

Juv, gorge, precipice. 

Kile, bay. 

Kirke, church. 

Kiev, cliff. 

Kolle, hill. 

Kvam, Qvam, ravine. 

Laag, Log, Lang, Loug, 

Lund, grove, thicket. 
Lykke, hamlet, garden. 
Mark, field. 
Mo, Mog, plain, dale. 
Mork, Merk, forest ; also 

a 'mountain-tract 1 . 
Nws, nose, promontory. 
Nut, mountain-top, peak . 
Odde, tongue of land, 

Os, ffs, mouth, estuary. 
Plads, hamlet, clearing. 
Prcestegaard, parsonage. 
Sje, Sa, lake. 
Skjosr, cliff, rocky islet. 
Stabbur, storehouse. 
Stel, Stul, see 'Sseter'. 

Stue , wooden house, 

sseter, hut. 
Sund, strait, ferry. 
Sceter, 'chalet', mountain 

farm, cowherds' hut. 
Tind, peak. 
Tjarn, Tjern, or Kjcern, 

mountain-lake, 'tarn'. 
Tuft, Tomt, site, plot of 

ground (Eng. and Scot. 

provincial 'toft', 

Tun, an enclosure 

Tveit, clearing('thwaite'). 
Ur, loose stones, debris. 
Vaag, bay, harbour. 
Vand, Vatn, water, lake. 
Vang, meadow, pasture. 
Vas, contracted genitive 

of 'Vand'. 
Vig, Vik, creek. 
Yel, sandy slope. 
0, island, 
^e^y^eninsula, tongue 

of land. 
0re , 0yr , alluvial or 

gravelly soil, foreland. 

Note also in the Swedish Norrland and the Norwegian Finmark the 
Lapp words: jaur, javre, lake; jock, jocki, river; jockmoek, river-bend; 
suolo, island ; varre, vara, hill, mountain ; tjock, peak ; tratk, lake, swamp, etc. 

X. On the Physical Geography of Scandinavia. 

Scandinavia, the largest peninsula in Europe, embracing Nor- 
way on the W. and N., Sweden on the E. and S., and part of Russia 
to the N.E., is about 296,500 Engl. sq. M. in area. It extends 
from S.S.W. to N.N.E. between 57° 57' and 71° 11' N. latitude, 
being 1100 Engl. M. in length. Between the Gulf of Bothnia and 
the N.W. coast its breadth is about 260 Engl. M., and towards the 
S. gradually increases, though at the deep indentation of the 
Trondhjem Fjord it narrows to 160M. Farther S., in latitude 60" 
(that of Christiama and Upsala), the width increases to 435 M. 
beyond which Norway forms a rounded peninsula ending in Cape 
Lindesnses (58° 59'), while the S. part of Sweden forms another 
peninsula to the S.E. of the Christiania Fjord, gradually narrowing, 
and terminating in the promontory of Falsterbo (55° 20'J near Co- 
penhagen. The coast-line, disregarding countless indentations, is 
2060 M. in length, the part between Cape Lindesnaes and Vadse 
alone measuring 1250 M. 

The peninsula contains no distinct mountain-ranges like those 
in other countries, but mainly consists in its W. part of a vast 
plateau, descending abruptly to the western fjords and sloping 
gradually down to the plains of Sweden and the Gulf of Bothnia 
on the E. side. Roughly speaking, a line drawn parallel with the 
W. coast, about 50-60 Engl. M. inland, marks the boundary of 
the table-land, the W. margin of which is deeply indented with 
bays and creeks, and fringed with countless rocky islands. The 
latter are known as Skjar (Sw. skar), and the island-belt as the 
Skjcergaard (skargard). To different parts of the great plateau are 
applied the names of Fjeld ('fell'), Heidar ('heights'), and Vidder 
('widths', barren expanses), and in the N. part of the peninsula 
Kjeler ('mountain ranges'), and from it rise at intervals rounded or 
pointed peaks of considerable height. 

The Mountains are mainly composed of primary rocks, retaining 
nearly the same form as when originally solidified, and being 
rarely overlaid with later formations, they possess the charm 
of the most hoar antiquity. These rocks consist of granite, gneiss, 
mica, hornblende, slate, quarzite, clay-slate, limestone, and dolo- 
mite, disposed in strata, corresponding with which are occasional 
well-defined layers of later slate-formations and particularly of 
limestone. At places, notably in the Romsdal, or Valley of the 
Rauma, the gneiss, the oldest of these rocks, towers in most 
imposing pinnacles, 5000-6000 ft. in height, unencumbered by 
later formations. That valley runs S. E. from the Moldefjord, 
intersecting the pure gneiss rock, which rises on each side in al- 
most sheer cliffs, 2000-3000 ft. high, and is afterwards prolonged 
by the Gudbrandsdal descending to Lake Mjersen. In grandeur of 


rock-scenery, and in the purity of its formation, this superb valley 
is second to none in Europe. 

About the year 1840 rocks of the Silurian Formation were 
discovered near the Christiania Fjord, and other deposits of that 
period have since been found in Skane, Vester- Gotland, the is- 
land of Gotland, Herjeadalen, and Jemtland in Sweden, and also 
on the banks of Lake Mjesen and in Trondhjems Stift in Norway, 
but nowhere of great extent. The largest Silurian basin in the 
peninsula is that of the Storsjo in Jemtlaud, a lake of 2570 Engl, 
sq. M. in area. 

One of the most instructive sections of the country is formed 
by the route from Sundsvall in Sweden to Ostersund on the Storsjo 
and Trondhjem in Norway. The primitive crystalline rocks of 
Jemtland are iirst replaced by limestone, extending to the E. 
bank of the lake, where the Silurian formations begin. These 
stretch westwards to the great mountain-backbone of Sweden and 
Norway. On this route rises Areskutan, the highest mountain in 
Sweden (p. 374), part of the base of which on the E. and W. sides 
is Silurian, while the primary quartzite, hornblende, mica-slate, 
and gneiss protrude through it all the way to the top. From this 
vantage-ground we obtain an excellent idea of the character of the 
Scandinavian mountains. Many of the hills, rounded and worn by 
glacier-action, are almost bare, or clothed only with lichens {OAraria 
cucullata nivalis, Cronicularia ochroleuca, etc. J, presenting a most 
sombre and dreary appearance. The slopes of the intervening basins 
are often well wooded, but the lower plateaux are mainly lake and 

Coal occurs here and there in the peninsula. The coal-measures 
of Helsingborg at the S. end of the peninsula are of considerable 
extent. On the island of Ande, in the Vesteraalen group, in latitn de 
69°, a bed of coal was also recently discovered at the mouth of the 
Ramsaa, the organic remains in which prove that the island must 
have been violently convulsed about the period when the coal was 
formed. Under the sea extends a thick seam of coal, above which 
lie strata of sandstone, clay-slate, and later coal, extending into 
the island. The island must therefore have once been larger than 
now, and thickly clothed with vegetation , after which it would 
seem to have been submerged and then upheaved anew. 

The configuration of the mainland must at one time have differ- 
ed greatly from its present form. That it was once higher above 
the sea than now is proved by the nature of the coast with its 
water and ice-worn fjords, straits, and isthmuses (Eide). On the 
other hand the sea within recent centuries has receded at places. 
This was first observed by Celsius (d. 1744) and Linnceus (d. 1778), 
who caused marks to be made on the rocks at Kalmar and Gefle 
with a view to measure the fall of the sea, by the German natur- 
alist Hell at Vardo in 1769, and by L. von Buch, the geologist, in 


1807. Throughout a vast tract, extending from Spitzbergen to 
about latitude 62", the whole country appears to be gradually rising, 
or the sea to be receding. In the Alien fjord, near Hamineri'est, there 
are ancient coast -lines 620 ft. above the present sea -level, and 
others decreasing in height extend all the way to Trondhjem and 
still farther S., while at Trondhjem itself it is on record that the 
coast has risen 20 ft. within 1000 years. At Tomea, at the head of 
the Gulf of Bothnia, the ground is even said to have risen 5 ft. in 
a century ; in the Aland Islands, farther 8., a rise of 3 ft. within 
the same time has been observed ; while at Karlskrona no change of 
level has been detected. To the S. of Karlskrona, on the other hand, 
a gradual depression of the land or rise of the sea appears to be tak- 
ing place. Careful measurements made at eleven places between 
1839 and 1865, proved that the average rise of the coast-line be- 
tween Maase and Christiania during that period was 1 foot. Accord- 
ing to Kjerulf, the eminent Norwegian geologist, the elevation of 
the coast has taken place fitfully. Thus it will be observed that in 
all the Norwegian valleys and fjords there are distinct terraces, 
between which there is a sudden and well-defined dip, and that 
the old coast-lines, with their heaps of de'bris, descend abruptly 
at their lower ends at an angle of 25-30°. Again it will be noticed 
that the different water-levels on the rocks, marked by a kind of 
pathway or furrow, are separated by a comparatively intact and 
unworn surface. 

The most important Glaciers of Norway lie to the S. of 
latitude 67°. The largest is the JostedaUbrce (p. 157), between 
lat. 61° and 62°, 330 Engl. sq. M. in area, and the largest in 
Europe, while those in Switzerland do not exceed 12-20 sq. M. 
It resembles an enormous roof, from which a number of offshoots 
descend to within 150-200 ft. of the sea -level. A similar ice- 
mantle is that of the Folgefond (p. 120; area 111 sq. M), a little 
to the S. of lat. 60°, and another of vast extent is that of Svart- 
isen (p. 217), within the Arctic Circle. The upper parts of these 
glaciers form immense expanses of dazzling ice and snow, unbroken 
by moraines or crevasses, except where their ramifications descend 
into the valleys, or by peaks rising above them. These ice-plateaux 
correspond with the mountain configuration peculiar to Norway, 
and afford some idea of the character of the glaciers which once 
covered the whole country. Of that glacier-period many traces still 
exist. Striated rocks are seen everywhere, from the coast -line 
upwards ; the de'bris of moraines is distributed over every part of 
the country ; and the soil formed by glacier friction now forms fertile 
land and yields abundant material for brick- making. Erratic 
Blocks seem to have been first deposited in S. Sweden by the 
glaciers on their way to the south. They abound in N. Germany 
sometimes a few feet under ground, sometimes clustered together 
with sand, mud , and gravel, and rising into hills of 70-185 ft. in 


height, called Asar in Sweden, and known in Ireland and Scotland 
as escars and kames. 

The W. coast of the peninsula is indented with countless Fjords, 
mostly with minor ramifications,wherethe rain-fall attains its maxi- 
mum. The E. coast of Scandinavia was probably also at one time 
indented with fjords, to which the numerous inland lakes belonged, 
but which have gradually been filled up by alluvial deposits. That 
the fjords were formed by the erosive action of ice and water seems 
disproved by the fact that they are often deeper than the sea outside. 
The Sognefjord, for example, is no less than 4100ft. deep at places. 
The fact appears to be that these basins existed before the glacier 
era. They are generally narrow and deep, and, except those in E. 
Finmarken, they lie at right angles to the axis of the mountains. 
On their banks usually extends a strip of fertile and sheltered land 
which has attracted a considerable population. 

The immense and intricate archipelago of the Skjsergaard 
(skargard), or island-belt, admirably sheltering navigation, accom- 
panies nearly the whole of the coast from Vadse to Haparan'da, The 
chief breaks are in the Arctic Ocean near the North Cape, off the 
mouth of the Foldenfjord (64'/ 2 °), off Jcederen and Lister (between 
58° and 59°), and opposite the coasts of Holland and Skane in Sweden. 
Within the Arctic Circle are a number of large islands, the, Kvale, on 
which lies Hammerfest, the Seiland, Sere, Stjerne, Kaage, Arne, 
Varna, Ringvadse, and Hvale ; between the last and the mainland 
is the Tromse, with the town of that name ; then Senjen and the 
Vesteraalen and Lofoten Islands. Of the last-named group the first 
is the Hinde, the largest island in Norway (870 Engl. sq. MA to 
the S. of which are others of considerable size. All, particularly 
those near the Arctic Circle, are mountainous, and many are strik- 
ingly picturesque. Among the finest are the Hestmandse, Threnen, 
Lovunden, Alstene with the 'Seven Sisters', and the singular Torg- 
hatten, all described in the Handbook (pp. 212-238). 

The chief resource of the coast-population is the Cod Fishery, 
besides which are the Herring, Oyster, and Lobster Fisheries and 
Seal Hunting. The great fishing-banks of the Lofoten Islands are 
mentioned at p. 223. These fisheries support a popxilation of about 
100,000 souls, their annual yield being estimated at l,300,000i. ; 
seal-hunting (Phoca vitulina) yields about 55,600Z., while a million 
and a half of lobsters are annually exported to England alone. The 
shoals of cod and herring are usually attended by a kind of whale 
(Balenoptera musculus), which was erroneouly supposed to prey on 
the latter. The oyster-fishery thrives on the S. coast near Kragere 
and on the W. coast near Finnaas in Sendhorland, near Lindaas in 
Nordhorland, near Vestnas in the Romsdalsfjord, by the Bja>re and 
near Vigten in the Namsdal. The salmon-fishery is also important. 
Among the most famous rivers are the T)rammens-Elv, the Nume- 

HAKDKKKK'a Norway and Sweden. 9th Edit. 


dalslaag, the Ongne-Elv in Jfederen, the Suledals-Elv in Ryfylke, 
the Rauma and Driva in the Romsdal, the Quia near Trondhjem, the 
Namsen in the Namsdal, and the Alten-Elv and Tana in Finmarken. 

These valuable resources of the coast-districts, compared ■with 
which the Opland offers little attraction to settlers, have given rise 
to the brisk Maritime Trade of Norway, dating back to the piratical 
Vikings (inhabitants of 'Viker' or creeks), -whose expeditions ex- 
tended to Constantinople, and who discovered Iceland, Greenland, 
and N. America ('Vinland'; 500 years earlier than Columbus). On 
some of the fjords still exist the tumuli of these early navigators, 
who were sometimes buried along with their vessels. The commercial 
fleet of Norway now ranks next to those of Great Britain and the 
United States. Timber for ship-building abounds. 

The E. coast of the peninsula is less favourable for navigation, 
as many of the harbours have altered their position or suffered from 
the rise of the coast-line, but the coasting-trade of Stockholm and 
the inland lake and canal-traffic are considerable. 

Mountains, Lakes, and Eivers. 

Owing to the sudden fall of the mountains on the W. coast the 
streams there have the character of torrents, while on the E. side 
they form long, narrow lakes, connected by rivers or by waterfalls. 
The mountains in the far north, bordering on Russia, rarely exceed 
1000 ft. in height, but they become loftier towards the S.W., notably 
on the Lyngenfjord (p. 233) and at the head of the Saltenfjord 
(p. 219), where the Sulitelma forms the boundary between the sister 
kingdoms. To the S. of the great glacier-mountains of Svartisen 
(p. 217) the hills are lower, and a number of large lakes send their 
waters E. to the Baltic, while the Namsen and Snaasen descend to 
the well-cultivated plains on the Trondhjem Fjojd. Farther S. the 
mountains, such as the Jomafjeld, Kjelhaugen, Areskutan, and Syl- 
toppe, again attain 4000-5000 ft, and the islands off the coast con- 
tain hills of like height. In latitude 63° the main range divides, 
the backbone of the peninsula continuing to run S., while a branch 
diverges W. nearly at a right angle. In the central range rise the 
Oster and Vester Dai-Elf, which unite and descend S.E. to the Gulf 
of Bothnia. Adjoining the same range lies the Famund-Sje, out of 
which flows the Famunds-Elv, afterwards called Klar-Elf, falling 
into LakeVenern, whence it descends as the Gota-Elf to the Katte- 
gat. A little N. of the Fsemund-Sjtf lies the Aursund - Sje, the 
source of the Glommen, the largest river in Norway, which forms 
the imposing Sarpsfos at Sarpsborg and falls into the Skager-Rack 
at Fredrikstad. Near the same lake rises the Quia, which descends 
N.W. to Trondhjem; and through the valleys of these two rivers 
runs the important railway from Christiania to Lake Mje-sen, to the 
copper-mines of Reros, and Trondhjem. 

Between the Fsemund-Sje and the Glommen rise the Hummel- 


field, Tronfjeld, and Elgepig, and between the Glommen and the 
Gudbrandsdal tower the isolated Rdndane. To the N.W. of the latter 
stretches the Dovrefjeld, culminating in the Snehatta (7630 ft ) 
formerly supposed to he the highest peak in Norway. To the W of 
this point, and N.W. of the Gudbrandsdal, stretch the gneiss 
mountains of the Romsdal, already mentioned. The mountains 8. 
of the Romsdal are known as the Langfjelde, which include the 
JostedaUbrm with the Lodalskaupe, and extend to the Horungerfjeld 
and the Jotunheim Mts. To these last belongs the Ymesfjeld a huge 
mass of granite nearly 10 Engl. M. in breadth, culminating in the 
Galdhepig (p. 68), and surrounded by rocks of the transition period. 
Farther S. lie Lakes Gjende, Tyin, and Bygdin, enclosed by pictur- 
esque mountains belonging like theHorunger to the friable 'gabbro' 
formation, and all snow -clad except the most abrupt peaks on 
which the snow cannot lie. 

The S. mountains of Norway, running from N.E. to S.W., are 
bounded by the Sognefjord on the N.W., by the Christiania Fjord 
on the S.W., and by a line drawn on the E. side from the Fillefjeld 
to Christiania. Between the Sognefjord and the Hardanger Fjord 
are the isolated plateaux of the Vosseskavl, the Hardanger Jekul, 
and the Hallingskarv, rising above the snow-line. The Hardanger 
Fjeld is separated by the inner Hardanger Fjord from the snow-clad 
Folgefond (p. 120). To the S.E. of the Hardanger Fjord stretches 
the Hardanger Vidda, with peaks 3000-4600 ft. in height, which 
slope gradually on the E. and S. sides. Farther E. are the deep and 
picturesque valleys of Telemarken, which often cross each other. 
The E. outpost of this region is the Skogshorn, to the N. of the 
Hallingdal. Farther E. are the Numedal, Hallingdal, and Voider s 
valleys, descending S., beyond which are also a number of trans- 
verse valleys, the most fertile in Norway (such as Hadeland on 
the Randsfjord and Ringerike on the Tyrifjord). The mountains 
then descend to the plain of Jarlsberg and Laurvik. Among their 
last spurs are the Oausta and the Lidfjeld in Telemarken, and the 
isolated Norefjeld, between Lake Krederen and the Eggedal. 

The mountains running S.E. next enter the Herjeadal and Verm- 
land in Sweden, where they contain valuable iron ores, particularly 
in Vermland, Dalarne, and Vestermanland. The range next passes 
between Lakes Venern and Vettern, where it is called Tiveden, and 
extends E. under the names of the Tydoskog and Kolmarden. It 
then intersects the province of Gotland and forms the plateau of 
Smaland to the S. of Lake Vettern. An important spur to the S. of 
that lake is the Taberg, containing about 30 per cent of iron ore. 
The hills then gradually slope down to the plains of Skane and 
Holland, where they almost disappear. In the plains of Gotland 
rise the isolated Kinnekulle on Lake Venern, the Halleberg the 
Hunneberg, and the Omberg. 

Of comparatively late formation is the Swedish Basin extending 


from the Skager-Rack through Lakes Venern and Vettern to Lake 
Malaren, the land to the S. of which was probably once an island. 
These lakes must thus have formed a waterway to the Gulf of Fin- 
land, which again was probably connected with the White Sea; 
and this theory is borne out by the fact that a kind of crayfish 
found in the White Sea and Lake Venern does not exist in the 
Atlantic or in the Baltic. The modern canal -route connecting 
these lakes is described in RR. 44-47. 

The coast to the IS . of Stockholm is flat, and intersected by 
numerous rivers and long lakes, at the mouths of which lie towns 
chiefly supported by the timber-trade. One of the great lakes is 
the picturesque Siljan (p. 366), through which the Oster-Dal-Elf 
flows. Below Falun that river joins the Vaster- Dal- Elf, which 
forms a fine cataract at Elfkarleby. Of other rivers the chief are 
the Angerman-Elf (p. 379), the Lule-Elf (p. 387), and the Tome- 
Elf (p. 394). The last, the longest of all, is connected by a branch 
with the parallel river Kalix. Most of these eastern rivers are 
rather lakes connected by rapids and waterfalls. The heavy rainfall 
descending into the valleys where the sun has not power to evapor- 
ate it forms these lakes and swamps, the overflow of which descends 
from basin to basin till it reaches the sea. The lower reaches 
of these rivers are generally navigable. Steamboats ply on the 
Angerman-Elf and the Lule-Elf. 

Climate and Vegetation. 

Temperature. Judging from the latitude of the peninsula, one 
would expect the climate to be generally inclement, but this is 
only the case on the E. coast and among the mountains. The climate 
of the W. coast is mild, being influenced by the Atlantic and by 
the Gulf Stream which impinges upon it. In the same latitude 
in which Franklin perished in the Arctic regions of America, and 
in which lies the inhospitable region of E. Siberia, the water of 
the western fjords of Norway never freezes except at their upper 
ends. As we proceed from W. to E., and even from N. to S., the 
winters become more severe. The climate is perhaps most equable 
at Skudesnas, near Stavanger, where the mean temperature in 
January is 34.7° Fahr., and in July 55.4°. At Stockholm, on the 
other hand, the mean temperature of January is '24.8°, and that of 
July 63.5°. The difference is greater in many places farther N., 
as at Jockmock (66° 36' N. lat. ; 925 ft. above the sea), where the 
January temperature is 3.2° and that of July 57.92°. The tract 
between the Varanger Fjord and the Gulf of Bothnia, the interior 
of Finmarken and Lapland, and the S. mountains above the height 
of 2300 ft. , all have an annual mean temperature below the freezing 
point. Some of the other isothermal lines are curious. Thus the 
line which marks a mean January temperature of 32° Fahr. runs 
S. from the Lofoten Islands, passing a little to the E. of Bergen 


and through the inner part of the Stavanger Fjord. It then turns 
S.E. to Cape Lindesnses, and thence N.E. towards the Christiania 
Fjord, and S. to Gotenburg and Copenhagen. The line marking 
a mean January temperature of 23° passes through Hammerfest, 
Saltdalen, Reros, Christiania, and Upsala. In mid-winter, there- 
fore, the Lofoten Islands are not colder than Copenhagen, nor 
Hammerfest than Christiania. Again, while the mean temperature 
of the year at the North Cape is 35.6°, it is no higher at Ostersund 
in Jemtland, 552Engl. M. farther south. Lastly, while the climate 
on the W. coast is fairly equable throughout the year, that of the 
E. coast and the interior is made up of a long, severe winter and 
a short and hot summer. The sea is 3y 2 -7° warmer than the air, 
being of course cooler in summer and warmer in winter. The 
healthiest part of the peninsula is probably the island of Karme, 
where the death-rate is at most 12 per thousand. The average rate 
for Norway is 19, for Sweden 20 per thousand. 

Rainfall. In the interior of Norway less rain falls than on the 
coast. In Sweden the greatest rainfall is between Gefle and Goten- 
burg. The mean rainfall in Sweden is 20.28 inches, at Gotenburg 
28.18 j on the E. coast it is 16.88. August is the rainiest month 
in Sweden, especially in the north. In Norway the maximum 
rainfall is at Flore, sometimes 90 inches per annum ; on the S. 
coast the average is 40 inches, and on the W. coast, S. and N. 
of Flore, 70-75 inches. August and September are the wettest 
months in E. Norway, but on the W. coast the rainy season is 
later. June and July are therefore the best months for travelling 
in Sweden and E. Norway, and July and August for the W. coast. 
In the region of the Romsdal the rainy season does not usually 
set in before December. Hail and thunderstorms are rare in Norway. 
The latter, however, are sometimes violent on the W. coast, where 
forty churches have been destroyed by lightning within the last 
150 years. The following table shows the mean temperature and 
average rainfall in different parts of Norway : — 

.d ^ 




to h 

r-l <V 

.d a 


TO t. 



• H 







Q o 

<3 * 



Q o 

Varde .... 


70° 22' 




62° 53' 


Nyborg .... 


70° 2' 



Dovre .... 


62° 5' 



Fruholmen . . 


71° 6' 



Reros .... 


62° 35' 

27. 5 



69° 58' 



Flore .... 


61° 36' 



Tromsti . . . 


69° 39' 



Bergen . . . 


60° 24' 



Andences . . . 


69° 20' 



Ullensvang . 


60° 19' 




67° 17' 



Skudesnaes . 


59° 9' 



Ranen .... 


66° 12' 



Lindesnass . 


57° 59' 


Brant) .... 


65° 28' 



Mandal . . . 


58° 2' 



Yllereen . . . 


63" 49' 



Sandesund . 

42 59° 55' 




fifi 63° 7'l43.1fi 37.48 

Chrixtiania . 

79 59° 55' 


21 *' 


Aia Pkbssurb. The pressure in January is greatest in the 
interior of N. Norway and lowest in Finmarken. In July it is 
highest on the"W. coast and lowest in the interior. The prevailing 
winds in winter are accordingly land-winds, which are frequently 
diverted towards the N. and follow the line of the coast. In 
summer, on the other hand, W. and S.W. winds prevail, blowing 
towards the region of the lowest air-pressure, frequently following 
the coast towards the N., and rarely impinging on the coast at a 
right angle. The most prevalent wind blows from the S.W., and 
on the coast brings dull weather, but less so in the interior. The 
most violent storms, chiefly in winter, come from the same quarter. 
The mountains separate two distinct climates, the W. wind being 
the dampest on the W. coast and the driest in the interior. 

The Vegetation is generally poor, but the flora is unusually 
rich for so northern a region. About 25,750 Engl. sq. M. are covered 
with forest, chiefly pines, the wood of which is valuable owing to 
the closeness of the rings which mark its growth. Next are the 
oak, the birch, the elm, and the beech. Other trees occur also, 
but not in the forests. The beech rarely occurs in Sweden N. of 
Kalmar, while the oak is found as far N. as Gefle. In Norway the 
beech extends to a point beyond Bergen, and the red beech even 
occurs at Trondhjem. Near Laurvik, in latitude 59-59Y2 , the 
beech is found in considerable plantations. — The apple-tree 
(Pyrus malm) occurs as far as 65° 10' N. lat., the plum (Prunus 
domestical up to 64 , and the cherry to 66°, while currants (Ribes 
nigrum and rubrum), gooseberries (Ribes grossularia), strawberries 
(Fragaria vesca), raspberries (Rubus idaeus), bilberries (Vaccinium 
myrtiUus), and the multebar (cloud-berry or maTsh-berry) occur as 
far north as the North Cape. 

Wheat thrives as far as 64 1 /2° ) and in the S. districts up to a 
height of 1000-1250 ft. ; Rye grows as far N. as 69 °, and in the 
S. up to a height of 1950 ft. ; Barley and Oats occur up to 70°, 
and in the S. to a height of 2050 ft. Botanists are referred to the 
instructive works of Schuebeler and Axel Blytt. — The cultivated 
land in Norway occupies 1074 Engl. sq. M. only, but in Sweden 
10,678 sq. M. In the N. regions the Oxyria remiformis, a kind of 
sorrel, is largely cultivated as a substitute for corn. It is kept in 
a frozen state in winter and boiled down to a pulp for use, being 
often mixed with flour and made into Fladbred. In the S. districts, 
however, the 'flat bread' is usually made of wheat or barley flour 
mixed with mashed potatoes or pease-meal. The Lapps mix their 
bread with reindeer-milk and sometimes with the bitter Mulgedium 
"■nnttm as a preventive of scurvy. 

is a curious fact that barley takes the same time (90 days) 

at Alten (70° N. lat.) as at Christiania and in the S. of 

\d it is believed that the great length of the Arctic days 



compensates for the lack of warmth. The seed, however, if brought 
from a warmer climate, requires to be acclimatized, and does not 
yield a good crop until after two or three seasons. 

The leaves of most of the trees in N. Norway are larger than 
those of similar trees in the S. Thus the leaves of maples and 
plane-trees (Acer plalanoides and pseudo-platanus) transplanted 
irom Christiania to Tromser have been found to increase greatly 
in size, while the trees themselves become dwarfed. This leaf 
development is also attributed to the long sunlight in summer. 

The Animal Kingdom comprises most of the animals common 
m Great Britain, besides many which are now extinct there, and 
others peculiar to the Arctic regions. Among the most characteristic 
are the reindeer (Cerous tarandus), a most useful mammal and the 
sole support of the nomadic Lapps, and the lemming (Georychus 
lemmus), a rodent resembling a water-rat. Among beasts of prey 
the bear and the wolf are met with in many parts of the country, 
and the lynx and glutton occur. For killing any one of these the 
government offers a reward of 25 crowns. Conspicuous among large 
game is the handsome elk ('E]g', 'Elsdyr'; Cervus alcesX now 
becoming rare, next to which rank the reindeer and the red deer. 
The finest of the wildfowl is the capercailzie ('Tjur' ; Tctrao uro- 
gallus), then the ptarmigan ('Rype'; Lagopus mutus) and hazel- 
grouse ('Hjerpe'; Tetrao bonasid). Partridges are rare in Norway, 
but abound in S. Sweden, where they were introduced about the 
year 1500. The most valuable of the wildfowl is the eiderduck 
('Eder'; Anas mollissima), most abundant within the Arctic Circle 
The down of the female, which she uses in making her nest, is 
gathered in the Dunvcsr of Finmarken, yielding a considerable 

The Population is almost exclusively of Gothic origin, but the 
oldest element consists of the Lapps and the Finns, probably the 
aboriginal inhabitants, who belong to the Ugrian race. Their 
languages are both of the Turanian stock (akin to Hungarian), and 
are said by Castren, the philologist, to have been identical some 
2000 years ago. The Lapps now number about 24,000 only in 
Norway and Sweden, and the Finns about 22,000 souls. They 
are both of the Mongolian type, with high cheek-bones, low fore- 
heads, full lips, narrow eyes, blunt noses, and yellowish complexions, 
but the Finns are physically and mentally the superior race. The 
names applied to them are not used by themselves. The Lapps 
('nomads') call themselves Sami or Sahmelads, and the Finns ('fen- 
dwellers') Suomi. The dominant race, by which the Lapps have 
been well-nigh extinguished, is Aryan or Indo-Germanic, and is 
believed to have come to the peninsula before the birth of Christ 
(seep. xl). The population of Norway is about 2,240,000, that 
of Swedeu about 5,293,850. The annual increase, which frequent 


emigration retards, is now in Norway about 22,000, and in Sweden 
37 000 per annum. Both countries have made great strides of late 
years About one-half of the total population is engaged in farm- 
ing and cattle-breeding, while mining and the timber-trade are 
among the staple industries in Sweden. The fisheries, as above 
stated, form the chief support of the inhabitants of W. Norway. 

XI. History of Sweden and Norway. 

Prehistoric Period. The earliest antiquities in Scandinavia 
belong to the Flint Period, when the peninsula was probably in- 
habited by Lapps snd Finns in the N., and by Germanic tribes in 
the S. Their rude implements indicate that they had fixed dwelling- 
places and cattle, and knew the art of fishing and probably of 
bunting also. They buried their dead in large stone tomb- chambers. 
This epoch was succeeded by the Bronze Period, when tools and 
ornaments in bronze and even in gold were first imported, and 
afterwards made by the natives. Agriculture was now practised, 
and the same domestic animals were used as at present. The name 
of Scandia, Scanza, or Scandinavia is mentioned by Pliny and 
Ptolemy. The latter mentions the Goth*, and Tacitus the Swedes 
in the 1st cent. A.D., about which period begins the iron period, 
when that metal was introduced from Central Europe. Silver and 
glass also make their appearance, and Roman coins and 'bracteates' 
(^ornamental disks of metal) occur. During the Earlier Iron Period 
the contents of tombs prove that the dead were sometimes burned, 
sometimes buried in coffins. The cinerary urns are usually of terra- 
cotta, rarely of bronze. Among other objects found in the tombs are 
trinkets and weapons, some of which seem to have been purposely 
broken. The monuments of this period show the influence of Roman 
and mid-European culture, and the older Runic Inscriptions use 
the early Runic alphabet of 24 letters, common to Scandinavian, 
Anglo-Saxon, Burgundian, and Gothic inscriptions, but afterwards 
modified by the Scandinavians, who substituted for it the smaller 
character, consisting of 16 letters only. 

Quite distinct from the earlier is the Later Iron Period (about 
700-1050 A.D.). The Runic inscriptions of this period are in the 
smaller character, and the language corresponds with the oldest 
MSS. of the same era. At the same time the weapons, implements, 
and ornaments, with their fantastic figures of animals and inter- 
twined ribbons show the dawn of a national decorative art. It 
therefore seems to be a well-established fact that during the later 
iron period, if not earlier, the Scandinavians had developed into 
a nationality distinct from the ancient Goths or the Anglo-Saxons. 
The Historical Period begins with the later iron age. At that 
\jme S. Sweden seems to have belonged to the Danes. Farther N. 
% the land of the Gblar, to whom belonged the adjacent island 


of Oland, -while Gotland appears to have been occupied by an in- 
dependent tribe. Still farther N. were the Svear, who occupied 
Upland, Vestermanland, Sodermanland, andNerike. The territories 
of the Gotar and the Svear were separated by dense forest, while 
the latter were separated from the Norwegian tribes by forests and 
by Lake Venern and the Gota-Elf. Beowulf, the famous Anglo- 
Saxon epic poem, dating from about 700, mentions Denmark as 
an existing kingdom, and speaks of the different states of the Gotar 
and Svear, which were afterwards (11th cent;) united, the Svear 
being dominant. The same poem refers to 'Norvegr' and 'Nord- 
menn' (Norway and the Northmen), but throws no light on their 
origin. At all events the consolidation of Norway took place much 
later than that of Denmark and Sweden, and doubtless after many 
severe struggles. To that troublous period belong the migrations 
and piratical expeditions of the Vikings, or Northmen who dwelt 
in creeks (vikr), who overran the whole of northern Europe from 
the 8th down to the 11th cent. The Swedes directed their attacks 
mainly against Finland, Kurland, Esthonia, and Russia, which last 
derived its name and its political organisation from Sweden ; the 
Danes invaded France and England, and the Norwegians the north 
of England, Scotland, the Orkney and Shetland Islands , and the 

Norway before the Union. 
From an early period Norway was divided among a number of 
chiefs or petty kings, one of whom, Harald Haarfager ('fair-haired'), 
after severe conflicts, united the whole of Norway under his sceptre 
after a naval victory near Stavanger in 872. After his death the 
kingdom was again broken up. About 970 Jarl (Earl) Haakon, 
with the help of the Danes, established himself as an independent 
prince at Trondhjem, and at length, in 995, Olaf Tryggvason, a 
great-grandson of Haarfager, re-united the kingdom. Olaf had 
been baptized in England and succeeded in evangelizing Norway, 
by force or by bribery, but was defeated and slain in the great 
naval battle of Svolder, on the coast of Pomerania, about the year 
1000, by the united forces of the kings of Sweden and Denmark 
and of Eric, the son of Haakon Jarl. 

The kingdom was again re-united by St. Olaf, a descendant of 
Harald Haarfager. After having been baptized either in England 
or in Normandy, he returned to Norway from a long warlike ex- 
pedition in 1014 to claim the crown, and proceeded energetically 
to consolidate and evangelize his kingdom. His severity, however, 
caused discontent, and his adversaries were supported by Canute, 
King of England and Denmark, who invaded Norway, was pro- 
claimed king, and defeated and slew Olaf at Stiklestad (p. 207) in 
1030. Olaf, however, was soon regarded as a martyr and was 
formally declared a saint by a national assembly. His son Magnus 
the Good (1035-47), who had been left by his father in Russia, 

xlii XI. HISTORY. 

was now called to the throne, and the Danes were expelled. Since 
then the unity, independence, and religion of the kingdom have 
been comparatively undisturbed. In 1047 Magnus was succeeded 
by Harald Sigurdssen (step-brother of St. Olaf), who fell at the 
Battle of Hastings (1066). 

The next king of Norway was Olaf Kyrre ('the peaceful'; 
1066-93), who favoured the growth of the towns, framed a form of 
government, and organized the Norwegian church. The whole 
country had hitherto belonged to the see of Bremen-Hamburg, but 
Olaf now erected three native bishoprics, for which he built cathe- 
drals at ftidards, Bergen, and Oslo. Under his successors the in- 
dependence of the church was secured by compulsory tithes (Tiende, 
'tenths', in Scotland 'teinds'), many churches were built, and the 
first monasteries were founded (early 12th cent.). In 1103 Norway 
was attached to the see of Lund (p. 264), but in 1152 a Norwegian 
archbishopric was erected at Trondhjem, to which were attached 
the western dependencies, the Faroe, Orkney, and Shetland Islands, 
the Hebrides and the Isle of Man, Iceland and Greenland. 

When Magnus Erlingsson (1161) was elected and crowned 
king, Archbishop Eysteinn succeeded in gaining large concessions 
for the church. But the ecclesiastical privileges aroused national op- 
position. Amid the bitter conflicts of the Birkebeiner ( 'birch -legs', 
so called from their birch-bark sandals) and the Baglar (the epis- 
copal party, from Bagall, 'baculus', a pastoral staff), Sverrir was 
set up as a rival king (1177-1202), and by him both king Magnus 
and his son were defeated and slain. 

For a time peace was restored by Haakon Haakonsson (1217- 
63), 'the Old', a grandson of Sverrir, who deprived the clergy of 
their undue influence in the election of the kings. He also an- 
nexed Greenland, but failed to maintain his claim to the Hebrides 
and the Isle of Man. 

Haakon's son, Magnus Lagab«tir ('betterer of laws'; 1263-80), 
subdued Iceland and otherwise consolidated his kingdom. He 
abolished the four ancient diets (Lagtldng, Legthing), which had 
judicial and legislative functions, and he restricted the privileges 
of the towns, but the church succeeded in vindicating her liber- 
ties. By a concordat with the church at Tensberg in 1277 the 
king renounced all control over ecclesiastical causes and elections 
of prelates. 

His sons Eirikr (1280-99) and Haakon (5th of the name ; 1299- 
1319) renewed the conflicts with the church, which were only ter- 
minated by the final recognition of the concordat in 1458. In 
secular affairs these two kings were more successful. The first step 
was to transfer the judicial powers of the diets to royal officials. 
The Legmenn ('lawyers'), or skilled assessors at the diets, elected 
and paid by the peasantry, now became regular judges, while the 
nght of final appeal lay to the king alone. The hereditary character 


of all offices and dignities was also abolished (1308) and a civil 
service of the modern type was instituted. A yet/however the 
towns attained but little wealth or importance, as the teade of he 
country was chiefly in the hands of the Hanseatic cities 
nf n rema ! ns . t0 ^ nce for a moment at the Intellectual Culture 

SorS-t ■ i« \ 6d the C ° mm0n Ge ™anic belief in im- 

mortality, ln elfish sp.rits in house, field, and forest, and in mon- 
sters and giants embodied in the sombre and awe-inspiring features 

heavenwrnf • „** "' W,y peri ° d ° CCUrs the -ncepfion of a 
heavenly God, whose personified attributes were the minor gods 
Heimdallr Freyr, .niBaldur, and the goddesses Nerthus, Frlgg, 
Zreya, and othe With their aM justice ^ admi ^ 

enterprises were begun, and to them the inhabitants offered sacri- 
fices under the guidance of priests and priestesses. The most 

tS/ eVere , r°/ th r e deUieS WMe Fre y r > the SoA of light, whose 
emple was at Upsala, and Thar, the thunderer, the giant-slayer 
the ram-giver, and the protector of man. While Thor remained 
the god of the peasants, the more aristocratic vikings, who hoped 
to continue their warlike and glorious career in another life, set up 
as their supreme deity Odin, the god of the wind, who as ihe god 
of victory would summon the fallen to jousts and revelry in Val- 
halla. But religious sentiment could not long rest satisfied with 
these mythical personages. Above them all Fate must reign supreme 
and they came to be regarded, no longer as creators, but as creatures 
of this world, formed of matter which had already pre-existed. 
Iheir final destruction (Ragnarok, 'fate of the gods') in a war of 
extermination against the giants was even imagined. 

The ancient Runic characters had been used for short inscrip- 
tions and rude records of various kinds, while legend, history 
and law had long been dependent on oral tradition. At length 
when Christianity introduced the Latin characters, they were used 
by bards for the preservation of popular lore, and by the church- 
men tor the promotion of the higher education. Popular and cleri- 
cal literature, an Old Norse and a learned Latin, were thus devel- 
oped side by side, but of the former by far the greater part was 
written by Icelanders. 

Norway is indeed the land of the Skalds (bards or minstrels) 
of whom the first on record was Bragi, 'the Old' (about 800), and 
Harald Haarfager maintained a whole troop of bards at his court • 
but they flourished chiefly in Iceland, where independent bards 
and lovers of freedom, who refused allegiance to the kingship of 
the mainland, sought an asylum from the 9th cent, onwards. It 
was there that they studied the national customs and traditions, 
and there that they developed a truly national poetry. Egill. the 
most profound of the Old Norse bards, was an Icelander, and other 
Icelandic bards sang at the royal courts of the north. Of the im- 

xliv XI. HISTORY. 

portance of their 'Drapas' the songs of the gods and heroes in the 
so-called Older Edda afford a good idea, as in date and form they 
are but little removed from the earlier minstrelsy. The panegy- 
rics on princes of a later period are somewhat poor and laboured, 
and they were now superseded by the Sagas. On the long winter 
evenings, in the family circle or at banquets, it became customary 
to tell stories, to describe the adventures of campaigners in distant 
lands, to extol the prowess of dead ancestors and of living heroes. 
By committing these stories to writing the authors created a prose 
literature of a vigorous and realistic character. Among the family 
or tribal sagas may be mentioned those of Egill, Njal, and Stur- 
lunga. The historical sagas were founded by Ari Fr6di (d. 1146), 
and reached their prime about 1232 in the 'Hjemskringla' (circle 
of the world') oiSnorri Sturluson (d. 1241). Besides the historical 
there were also mythical sagas, such as the 'Fridthjofssaga', the 
'Volsungasaga'. the 'Thidrekssaga', which was composed in Nor- 
way, and lastly fables or 'lying sagas'. In the 14th cent, the old 
materials were reproduced in a poetical foim, combining the native 
alliteration with the southern end-rhymes. Thus arose the poetry of 
the Rimur (rhymes, dance-songs), which still survives in Iceland. 
Compared with the rich Icelandic literature the Norwegian is 
meagre. Written composition only began when oral tradition had 
almost died out. The mainland was constantly harassed by wars and 
intestine troubles; the clergy kept aloof from national interests, 
the nobles strove to adopt the culture of central Europe and read 
translations of foreign romances ; the peasantry alone adhered to their 
national customs, thus widening the gulf between them and the 
upper classes, and thus retarding the advent of a higher civilisation. 

Sweden before the Union. 

The early history of Sweden is obscure. The country was partly 
evangelized by the German archbishops Ansgar (d. 865), Rimbert 
(A. 888), and Vnni (d. 936), aided by German and Danish mission- 
aries. The first Christian king on record was Olaf Eriksson, about 
the year 1000. His son was baptized by the scriptural name of Jacob, 
but as the people objected it had to be changed. The Christian 
kings of Sweden Stenkil Ragnvaldsson (d. about 1066) and Ingi 
Stenkilsson were chiefly supported by the recently converted Gotar, 
while the hostile northern Svear set up Blot-Sven ('sacrificing 
man') as a rival king and restored paganism. It was only after 
long struggles that Erik Jedvardsson (the 'Saint'; d. 1160) restored 
Christianity. Like Norway, Sweden was at first attached to the see 
of Bremen and Hamburg. The primacy was next granted to the 
archbishop of Lund by Hadrian IV. about 1154, but in 1164 was 
transferred to the newly created archbishop of Upsala. 

Both the Swedish and the Gothic territory were divided into 


numerous provinces, subdivided into districts. The election of the 
kings took place in the province of Upper Sweden, the most im- 
portant of all. after which the new monarch had to make a royal 
progress throughout his kingdom to receive the oaths of homage 
and allegiance. He was then said to be 'riding the Eriksgata\ 

In the 11th cent, the supreme power fell into the hands of the 
Folkungar, a wealthy family of Oster- Gotland, which by inter- 
marriages with the royal families of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark 
brought the hitherto isolated country into contact with others. 
During the reign of Erik Lapse (d. about 1250) the real ruler of the 
country was his brother-in-law Birger, Jarf (earl) of Bjelbo, a shrewd 
and powerful member of the Folkungar, who, on the death of Erik 
without issue, succeeded in procuring the election of his own son 
Valdemar, a boy of ten, as king of Sweden. Birger died in 1266, 
and nine years later Valdemar was dethroned and banished by his 
stronger brother Magnus. 

Magnus (1275-90), surnamed Ladulas ('barn-lock', vindicator 
of law and order), proved a vigorous and beneficent ruler. He at 
once extended his authority and enhanced the position of the king- 
ship by the brilliancy of his court. Like the Norwegian kings (p. xlii) 
he abolished the popular election of judges, and appointed the 
Lagman and other district officials himself. But in Sweden the 
kingship had to reckon with an independent and spirited aristocracy. 
The diets of the nobles, attended by the clergy also, and afterwards 
by delegates from the towns and country districts, had gradually 
assumed the form of a representative parliament, by whose counsel 
and consent the kings were bound. The privileges of the church, 
however, were less extensive than in Norway. Ecclesiastical legis- 
lation was in the hands of the state ; the king was arbiter in cases 
of episcopal encroachment, while parishes or private patrons had 
the right of appointing to benefices. The king was also on friendly 
terms with the German Hansa, and in particular with its town of 
"Wisby in the island of Gotland. The Swedish towns meanwhile en- 
joyed comparative independence, although their national character 
was impaired by German influences. 

In 1290 Magnus was succeeded by his son Birger Magnusson, 
during whose minority the government was ably conducted by 
Marshal Thorgils Knutsson down to 1303 ; but serious quarrels after- 
wards broke out between Birger and his brothers, dukes Eric and 
Valdemar. In 1318 the dukes were arrested, imprisoned, and put 
to death, but Birger himself was soon dethroned and banished to 
Denmark (d. 1321). Magnus Eriksson, the infant son of Duke Eric, 
was then elected king, and during his reign were made the first 
attempts to unite the Scandinavian kingdoms. 

The history of early Swedish Literature is almost a blank. The 
Runic inscriptions of Sweden are in the metre of the Old Norse 
poetry; figures scratched on stone show scenes from the story of 

xlvi XI. HISTORY. 

Sigurd Fafnisbani; and the Norwegian Thidreks-Saga speaks of 
the ancient heroic songs of Sweden. But the early literature has 
been lost. At length with Christianity came ecclesiastical educa- 
tion, obliterating almost every vestige of the ancient national culture. 
In several provincial codes alone, such as the Vestgiitalag, are pre- 
served traces of it in a pagan form of oath. To a later period belong 
a few meagre annals in Latin, mainly based on Danish sources, a 
work concerning the Styrilsi konunga ok hofdinga (the rule of kings 
and governors), founded on foreign models, and lastly the so-called 
Eufemiavisor, a poetical translation of mid-European romances made 
by order of the Norwegian queen Eufemia, early in the 14th cent., 
for her son-in-law Duke Erik of Sweden. 

The Union Period. 

On the death of Haakon Magnusson of Norway in 1319 he was 
succeeded by Magnus Eriksson, a child of three years, son of his 
daughter Ingeborg and the Swedish Duke Erik (p. xlv). On the 
banishment of King Birger the same year Magnus was also elected 
King of Sweden, so that the two crowns were now united. In 1332 
the province of Skane, till then Danish, was annexed to Sweden. 
But the king's neglect of Norway led to the dissolution of the Union. 
In 1343 the Norwegians elected the king's son Haakon Magnusson, 
a boy of four, as king (the 6th of that name in Norway). After a 
period of terrible disasters, such as the Black Death which ravaged 
the country in 1349-50, Haakon personally assumed the reins of 
government in 1355. Meanwhile in Sweden his father Magnus was 
overtaken by many troubles. He quarrelled with the aristocracy, 
lost Skane, Oland, and Gotland to the Danes (1360-61), and was 
dethroned in 1362, when his son king Haakon was elected king of 
Sweden also. The following year Haakon married the princess 
Margaret, daughter of King Valdemar IV. of Denmark. 

In 1375 Valdemar died without male issue, and in the follow- 
ing year Queen Margaret succeeded in getting her son Olaf 
Haahonssen elected king of Denmark. On the death of his father 
in 1350 he succeeded to the crown of Norway also, while the 
Swedes continued to support the rival king Albert of Mecklenburg, 
nephew of king Magnus Eriksson. On Olaf's early death in 1387 
his mother Margaret was proclaimed regent of Denmark, and soon 
after regent of Norway also. The opponents of Albert of Mecklen- 
burg then invited Margaret to Sweden, and Albert was defeated 
at Falkoping in 1389, and taken prisoner. During the same year 
Erik of Pomerania, Margaret's great-nephew, was elected king of 
Norway at Trondhjem, then of Denmark also in 1395, and of 
Sweden in 1396 ; and on 17th June 1397 he was formally crowned 
king of the three Scandinavian states at the Diet of Kalmar. 

But the prospects of the Union were clouded. Each of the three 
kingdoms jealously maintained its own form of government, while 

XT. HISTORY. xlvii 

in the elective monarchies of Sweden and Denmark the royal auth- 
ority was seriously impaired by an ambitious aristocracy. In Norway 
the towns were dominated by the Germans, and at sea the German 
Hansa was supreme. 

Margaret ruled over the three countries with wisdom and 
moderation; on her death in 1412 King Eric, whose queen was 
Philippa, daughter of Henry IV. of England, assumed the reins 
of government. For twenty years his sway was comparatively 
undisturbed, but in 1433 the Swedish peasantry, headed by Engel- 
brekt Engelbrektsson. a proprietor of mines in Dalarne, rebelled. 
In Norway also a rebellion broke out in 1436, and when the Danes 
also became disaffected Eric retired to the island of Gotland, where 
he died in 1459. 

The next sovereigns of the united kingdoms were Christopher 
of Bavaria (1440-48), Christian of Oldenburg (1448-81), and Hans 
(1481-1513), son of Christian, all of whom had the utmost diffic- 
ulty in maintaining the Union, even for brief periods. The Swedes 
in particular aspired to national independence. In 1448 they pro- 
claimed Karl Knutsson king, and after his death in 1470 they 
appointed Sten Sture the Elder and the Younger successively as ad- 
ministrators of the kingdom. King Hans died in 1513 and was 
succeeded without opposition in Denmark and Norway by his son 
Christian II., a man of ability and learning, but self-willed, 
passionate, and cruel, who succeeded in establishing his authority 
in Sweden also. But when, on 8th-10th Nov. 1520, he caused no 
fewer than 82 so-called rebels and heretics, including two bishops 
and thirteen royal counsellors, to be executed in the market-place 
of Stockholm (the 'Blood Bath of Stockholm'), the exasperation of 
the Swedes, aggravated by other grievances, reached its climax. 
In 1521 the peasantry of Dalarne found an able leader in the 
famous Ouslaf Vasa, who had been unjustly imprisoned by 
Christian, but had escaped to Liibeck in 1519. In 1520 he return- 
ed to Sweden, and on hearing of the death of his father at the 
Stockholm Blood Bath he headed the rising, which soon trium- 
phantly extended over the whole of Sweden. In the same year he 
was appointed administrator of the kingdom at Vadstena, and in 
June, 1523, he was proclaimed king of Sweden at Strengnas. 

Soon afterwards Christian lost his two other kingdoms also. 
His favour to the Reformation aroused the enmity of the church 
and his injudicious measures for the benefit of the people menaced 
the privileges of the nobility. The discontent was aggravated by 
a disastrous war with the Hanseatic League, and when Christian 
was seriously threatened by a revolt in Jutland in 1523 he quitted 
Denmark in despair, only to return to it nine years later to be 
taken prisoner (p. liv). 

During the Union Literature made progress in Sweden, but 
languished in Norway. In both countries clerical education con- 

xlviii XI. HISTORY. 

tinueu to be carried on as in the great continental schools. But 
while the Old Norse language was superseded about the middle oi 
the 14th cent, by Danish as the language of literature and of the 
educated classes, and while it only survived in Iceland and in pro- 
vincial dialects, the Swedish language held its ground. The native 
literature of Norway thus became extinct, whereas that of Sweden 
began to increase, consisting of translations of parts of the Bible, 
religious writings, rhyming chronicles, ballads, and compilations of 
laws. Among these works, which as a rule show little originality, 
must be mentioned the revelations of St. Birgitta (d. 1373 ; p. 294), 
the greatest product of the middle ages in Scandinavia. While 
severely castigating pope and clergy, they are rather of a mystic 
than of a reforming tendency, and are remarkable for the richness 
and grandeur of their poetic imagery. In 1370 the gifted authoress 
founded an order of monks and nuns, who continued to be the 
foremost representatives of religious culture in Norway down to 
the Reformation. A little later arose two great centres of intellectual 
life, the Swedish university of Vpsala in 1477, and the Danish 
university of Copenhagen in 1479, the latter of which extended its 
beneficent influence to Norway also. Among the learned works of 
the period may be named the Latin 'Cronica regni Gothorum', by 
Ericus Olai (d. 1486). Popular ballads ('kampevisor', lays of the 
heroes), dating as far back as the 12th cent., at the same time 
increased in number and importance. 

Sweden after the Dissolution of the Kalmar Union. 

After Gustavus Vasa (1523-60) had won independence for his 
country he strenuously sought to promote its material and intellec- 
tual progress. At the same time he consolidated his power so 
successfully that he became an absolutist and patriarchal monarch. 
The nobility had been weakened by the cruelties of Christian, 
while the lower classes, who had vigorously assisted in throwing 
off the Danish yoke, gained importance. In 1527 the diet of 
Vesteras rejected the Roman Catholic religion, transferred part of 
the church property to the king, and made the kingship hereditary 
instead of elective. Before his death, however, the king unwisely 
bestowed dukedoms on his younger sons, thus laying the foundation 
for future troubles. 

Under Gustaf Vasa's sons Eric XIV. (1560-68) and John III. 
(1568-92), and under John's son and successor Sigisinund of Poland 
(1592-99), Sweden underwent many severe trials. In 1593 Duke 
Charles of Sodermanland, Vasa's youngest son, caused the Augs- 
burg Confession to be accepted anew by a synod at Upsala, in 
1595 he was proclaimed regent for his absent nephew, and in 1599, 
on the deposition of the latter, he succeeded him as Charles IX. 
(1599-1611). His rule was beneficial; he was a zealous promoter 

XI. HISTORY. xlix 

of commerce, mining, and agriculture; and in his wars with 
Poland, Russia, and Denmark, he made Sweden respected. 

On his death his son GustavusII. Adolphus (1611-32), greatest 
and ablest of Swedish kings, was called to the throne at the age 
of seventeen. Under him Sweden was to play a prominent part 
in European history and to attain the zenith of her fame. Gustavus 
had been admirably educated by his father, and soon displayed 
his brilliant talents as a general and a statesman, combined with 
heroic strength of will. By his successful wars he extended the 
boundaries of his kingdom, gaining Kexholm, Karelen, and In- 
germanland from Russia in 1617, and Livonia with four Prussian 
seaports from Poland in 1629. With the aid of his chancellor Axel 
Oxenstjerna he remodelled the administration of justice, founded 
a supreme court at Stockholm (1614-15), and re-organized the 
national assembly, dividing it into the four estates of Nobles, 
Clergy, Burghers, and Peasants, and giving them powers of legis- 
lation and taxation (1617). He founded new towns, favoured 
mining and commerce, extended the university of Upsala, and 
erected another at Dorpat. Above all he strove incessantly to 
improve his army, and in 1630, on the repeated requests of the 
Protestant princes of Germany, he crossed the Baltic to support 
the Protestant cause in the Thirty Years' War. After several glorious 
victories, which raised Sweden to the proudest position she ever 
occupied in history, the king's brilliant career was prematurely 
cut short at the Battle of Liitzen, where he fell on 6th Nov., 1632. 

The war was continued under his daughter and successor 
Christina (1632-54), then a minor, under the able guidance of 
Oxenstjerna, by the Swedish generals Oustaf Horn and Jo h. Baner, 
and later by L. Torstensson. War broke out with Denmark in 1643, 
but was most advantageously terminated by the great chancellor's 
masterly diplomacy. By the Peace of Bromsebro, in 1645, the 
Danes ceded to Sweden Jemtland, Herjedalen, Gotland, and 
Halland, and granted the Swedes exemption from the Sound dues. 
Again by the Peace of Westphalia (1648) Sweden gained the prin- 
cipalities of Bremen and Verden, part of Pomerania with Stettin 
and the islands of Riigen, Usedom, and Wollin, and the town 
of Wismar, besides a considerable war indemnity. Meanwhile 
Christina had assumed the reins of government (1644) ; she invited 
the philosopher Descartes and other famous scholars to Stockholm, 
and she was a collector of pictures, books, and MSS. ; but the 
extravagance of the queen and her favourites and the heavy press- 
ure of taxation caused serious disaffection. Unmarried and weary 
of government, she abdicated the throne at a meeting of the Diet 
at Upsala, in 1654, in favour of her cousin Karl Gustav of Pfalz- 
Z-weibriicken, who had been general of the Swedish troops in Ger- 
many. The same year she quitted Sweden, embraced the Romish 
faith secretly at Brussels, and then publicly at Innsbruck when on 

Bakokkek's Norway and Sweden. 9th Edit. ^ 


her -way Rome. After a chequered life in France and two attempts 
to regain her footing in Sweden, she terminated her eccentric 
career at Rome in 1689. 

Charles X. Gustavus (1654-60) strove by economy to reform 
the finances. His chief aim was to establish the sole supremacy 
of Sweden over the Baltic and its coasts. At first successful in 
his war with John Casimir, King of Poland, son of Sigismund, 
who now claimed the throne of Sweden, he was compelled by 
the intervention of Russia, Austria, and Denmark to purchase 
peace by making extensive concessions. But a war with Den- 
mark brought great success, for the Peace of Roskilde (1658) 
secured to him the coast provinces of Bohuslan, Skane, Halland, 
and Blekinge. On a renewal of the war with Denmark Charles 
besieged Copenhagen, but his sudden death in 1660 left his 
kingdom in a perilous position. 

Charles X. was succeeded by his son Charles XI. (1660-97), 
a boy of four, whose guardians made peace with their three chief 
opponents. By the Peace of Oliva with Poland, Brandenburg, and 
Austria in 1660 the King of Poland ceded Livonia to Sweden and 
renounced his claim to the Swedish crown, and by the Peace of 
Kardis with Russia in 1661 she restored her conquests in Esthonia 
and Livonia. Denmark-Norway on the other hand, by the Peace 
of Copenhagen in 1660, recovered Trondhjem and the Island of 
Bornholm, of which the peace of 1658 had bereft them. In 1666 
the S. districts of Sweden were benefited by the foundation of the 
university of Lund. In 1672, at the age of seventeen, the king 
was declared major, and in 1674 he became the ally of France in 
the wars against Holland, Great Britain, and Germany; but in 
1675 the Swedish army was signally defeated at Fehrbellin by the 
Elector of Brandenburg. At the peace of St. Germain in 1679, 
however, by the intervention of the French, the Swedes were saved 
from the loss of Pomerania. Meanwhile financial distress, party 
strife, and above all the arrogance of the nobility, who then poss- 
essed five -sevenths of the land in Sweden, and who strove to 
reduce the peasantry to the condition of serfs, caused an outbreak 
of the general discontent. After stormy debates, the king, who 
had skilfully guided the movement, was entrusted with the sole 
legislative power. Having also been authorized to revoke extra- 
vagant crown-grants, he wisely used the funds thus acquired in 
paying the debts of the crown, in re-organizing his army and 
fleet, and for other useful purposes. At the same time he pro- 
ceeded to amend the law and to remedy ecclesiastical abuses. On 
his death in 1697, this 'great housekeeper of the kingdom', as he 
was called by his subjects, left Sweden strong, prosperous, and 
highly respected. 

Under his son and successor Charles XII. (1697-1718), this 
absolutism proved disastrous. Able, carefully educated, energetic, 


and conscientious, but self-willed and eccentric, Charles XII., who 
ascended the throne at the age of fifteen, brought his country to 
the brink of ruin. In 1699 Denmark, Russia, and Poland formed 
an alliance against Sweden, which led to the great northern war. 
Aided by British, Dutch, and other allies, Charles was at first 
brilliantly successful, but during his adventurous campaign in the 
Ukraine, he was signally defeated by the Russians at Pultava 
(1709), and lost nearly all his army. He escaped into Turkey and 
resided at Bender, but quarrelled with the Sultan, who placed him 
in confinement in 1713. Having escaped and returned to Sweden 
(1715), he made every effort to continue the war, and in the case 
of Russia at least he had almost succeeded in concluding an ad- 
vantageous peace when he fell at the siege of Fredrikshald at the 
early age of thirty-six (1718; p. 101). Brave, chivalrous, simple 
in manner, and irreproachable in conduct, the memory of Charles 
is still fondly cherished by the Swedes. The short reign of absol- 
utism (Envaldstiden) now ends, and a period of greater independ- 
ence begins (Frihetstiden ; 1719-92). 

Charles XII. was succeeded by his sister Ulrika Eleonora, who 
in 1720, with consent of the Estates, resigned in favour of her hus- 
band Frederick I. (1720-51), prince of Hessen-Cassel. A new con- 
stitution was now framed by the Estates. The supreme power was 
vested in the Estates and in a cabinet responsible to them. By 
treaties of peace with Great Britain, with Prussia, with Poland 
and Denmark, and with Russia, Sweden now lost Bremen and 
Verden, Stettin and part of Pomerania, her exemption from Sound- 
dues, Livonia, Esthonia, Ingermanland, and the districts of Kex- 
holm and Viborg in Finland. She thus fell from her rank as one 
of the European great powers into a subordinate position better 
suited to her capacity. With the advent of peace trade and in- 
dustry revived and a new code of laws was drawn up (1734). But 
in opposition to the peace party, derisively called 'Nightcaps' 
(nattmossor), or 'Caps', the war party, known as 'Hats' (hattar), 
led the country into a new war with Russia, which caused the loss 
of Finland (1741). On the death of the queen without issue, 
Adolphus Frederick of Holstein-Oottorp, a relation of the crown- 
prince of Russia, was elected as the successor of Frederick I., on 
condition that the greater part of Finland should be restored. To 
this Russia agreed in order to prevent the re-union of the three 
Scandinavian crowns. 

The royal prerogative of Adolphus Frederick (1751-71) was 
farther limited by the Estates, and Sweden was soon plunged by 
the 'Hats' into the Seven Years' War, in which she played an 
ignoble part, while at home Queen Luise Vlrike, sister of Frederick 
the Great of Prussia, was a zealous promoter of art and science. 

Adolphus was succeeded by his son Gustavus III. (1771-92), 
who by means of a cleverly organized military revolution or coup- 



d'etat (1772) succeeded in overthrowing the supreme power of the 
Estates and in regaining the most valuable prerogatives of the 
crown. With the aid of the peasantry, whose condition he im- 
proved, he curbed the power of the turbulent nobles, some of whom 
were in league with Russia, and in 1789 he effected a farther 
change in the constitution, which gave him the sole prerogative 
of making war and peace. Absolutism was thus restored, but the 
liberal and enlightened king made a good use of his power. He 
abolished torture, granted liberty of the press, reformed the coinage, 
improved the army, and fostered commerce and industry, science, 
art, and literature (p. liii). After a four years' war he compelled 
Russia to abstain in future from interference with Swedish affairs 
(1790). After the outbreak of the French Revolution, the king 
proposed to intervene, with Russia and Austria, in favour of 
Louis XVI., and proceeded to levy new taxes and prepare for war. 
This led the disaffected nobles to enter into a new conspiracy 
against him. At a masked ball in the great theatre, on the night of 
15th March, 1792, this able and chivalrous, though sometimes ill- 
advised monarch was assassinated. 

His son Gustavus IV. Adolphus (1792-1809), an upright, but 
narrow and obstinate monarch, took part in the wars against France, 
-which led to the loss of Pomerania in 1807 and of Finland in 1809, 
and to his defeat in Norway also. He and his heirs were then 
formally deposed by the Estates. He retired to Switzerland and 
died in poverty at St. Gallen in 1837. 

His uncle, Duke Charles of Sbdermanland, having confirmed a 
new constitution just framed, was now elected king as Charles XIII. 
(1809-18), but as he was old and childless, Prince Christian 
Augustus- of Augustenburg, stadtholder of Norway, was elected 
crown-prince. On the sudden death of the latter in 1810, the 
Estates elected Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, one of Napoleon's 
generals, as crown -prince, who was then adopted by Charles, 
assumed the name of Charles John, and embraced the Protestant 
faith. The new crown -prince soon gained great influence, and 
directed his attention chiefly to military organisation. Having 
obtained the consent of Russia, Britain, and Prussia to his acqui- 
sition of the crown of Norway, Charles John then marched with 
a Swedish contingent into Germany and assumed command of the 
northern army which took part in the decisive struggle against 
Napoleon (1813). His participation in the war was somewhat 
reluctant, but by the Peace of Kiel (1814) he succeeded in com- 
pelling Denmark to renounce her claim to Norway. 

The Intellectual Progress of the country was greatly furthered 
by the Reformation; but parallel with the national literature thus 
influenced ran also works of humanistic and Catholic tendency 
down to the 17th cent. History was as yet uncritical, and it was 

XI. HISTORY. liii 

only with the grand political developments of the 17th cent, that 
the language was purified and ennobled. The scholars invited to 
her court by Queen Christina, a talented and learned princess 
(p. xlix), gave a great impetus to learning. Swedish history was 
now zealously studied, but still unscientifically, as witness the 
'Atlantica' of Olaf Rydbeck (d. 1702), which locates Paradise in 
Sweden and traces the ancient Gothic kingdom to a son of Japheth. 

Oeorg Stjernhjelm (d. 1672) is regarded as the founder of modern 
Swedish poetry. The keynote struck by his admirably finished 
poems, in which humanistic culture and the national genius are 
happily blended, was followed by numerous successors, inferior in 
originality, and often influenced by German or Italian pomposity. 
About the middle of the 18th cent., French taste is brought into 
vogue, chiefly by the historian and poet Olof von Dalin (d. 1763). 
This school reached its prime under Gustavus III. In 1753 the 
' Vitterhets Akademi' (academy of science) had been founded, and 
in 1786 Gustavus founded the Swedish Academy for the study and 
improvement of the Swedish language. To this academic school 
belonged Kellgren (d. 1795) and Leopold (d. 1829); but a far more 
popular and truly national poet, who has left his characteristic 
mark on the last quarter of the 18th cent., was Karl Michael Bellman 
(d. 1795), the singer of sweet and simple ballads, whose 'Fredmans 
Epistlar' were deemed worthy of a prize even by the Academy. In 
his drinking and love-songs and his enthusiastic descriptions of 
national life at Stockholm, he sets all the French rules of com- 
position at defiance, he rejects the old rhetorical character of the 
Swedish poetry, and delights his readers with his verve and native 

Among the noteworthy men of letters and science of the 18th cent, 
may be mentioned Count Karl Oust. Tessin (d. 1770), famous as an 
art-collector, Johan Ihre (d. 1780), the philologist, Sven Lagerbring 
(d. 1787), the historian, and above all Karl von Linne (d. 1778), 
the botanist. 

In the domain of art David Ktbker von Ehrenstrahl (1626-98), 
a native of Hamburg, is the first important representative of Swedish 
painting. He had been trained in the Netherlands and in Italy, 
and was appointed court-painter at Stockholm in 1661. On the other 
hand most of the Swedish painters of the 18th cent, worked abroad, 
chiefly in Paris, such as Gusl. Lundberg (1695-1786), Nils Lafrensen 
(1737-1808), and Alex Roslin (1718-93). Influenced by the English 
school were Karl Fred. v. Breda (1759-1818) and El. Martin (1739- 
1818), and of independent Swedish development the landscape- 
painter KarlJoh. Fuhlerantz (1774-1861). The first Swedish sculptor 
of note was Joh. Tobias Sergei (1740-1814), a pupil of Larcheveque 
(p. 315), educated in Paris and Rome, and appointed court-sculptor 
at Stockholm in 1779. 


Continued Union of Norway with Denmark. 

When Sweden withdrew from the Kalmar Union (1523), Duke 
Frederick of Slesvik-Holstein was elected king by the nobles of 
Jutland as Frederick I. (1524-33), and when the deposed king 
Christian II. appeared in Norway to reclaim his kingdom in 1432 
he was treacherously arrested , and afterwards died in captivity 
(p.xlvii). Frederick thus regained Norway, where he did his utmost 
to establish the Reformation. 

His eldest son Christian III. (1533-59) quelled the last re- 
bellion against the new faith and banished Archbishop Olaf 
Engelbrechtsson of Trondhjem who had headed it. He abolished the 
Norwegian council of state and made Norway a Danish province. 
Trade now began to prosper, the towns became more important, 
and the Hansa domination was vigorously checked by Christopher 
Valkendor/f, an energetic magnate of Bergen (1536). 

Christian's son Frederick II. (1559-88) cared little for Norway, 
which was oppressed by his officials, and the calamitous seven 
years' war with Sweden (1563-70) sowed a bitter hatred between 
the countries which lasted for centuries. 

His son Christian IV. (1588-1648) cared better for his northern 
kingdom. He granted Norwegian fiefs to Norwegians only. He 
revised the church ordinances, published a new Norwegian code 
of laws (1604), opposed the intrigues of the Jesuits, and improved 
the army. Mining made immense progress; the silver mines at 
Kongsberg (1624) and the copper-mines of Rotos (1645) were 
opened up. The towns of Christiania (1624) and Christiansand 
(1641) were founded anew, trading companies formed, the Hansa 
factory at Bergen strictly controlled, and Greenland and other 
countries explored. But these benefits were outweighed by the 
disasters of the Kalmar War with Sweden (1611-13), during which 
the Norwegian peasantry surprised and almost annihilated the 
Scottish auxiliaries under Col. Ramsay at Kringlen (p. 84), and 
still more so by those of the Thirty Years' War, in the course of 
which Christian IV. was defeated by General Tilly at Lutter on 
the Barenberg in 1626. In a second war with Sweden (1643-45) 
Norway lost Jemtland and Herjedalen. 

Christian's son Frederick III. (1648-70) caused new disaster 
by taking part in the Swedish- Polish war, with the result that 
Denmark lost all her S. Swedish possessions (p. 1). In 1661 the 
Danish Estates empowered the king to revise the constitution, 
whereupon he declared himself an absolute monarch. Norway was 
thus placed on an equality with Denmark, the administration was 
improved, and the revenue increased. 

Christian V. (1670-99) renewed the war against Sweden (1675- 
79), but without success. He framed new codes of law for Den- 
mark (1683) and Norway (1687), but his creation of new counties 


and baronies was harmful to Norway. His unjust treatment of 
his minister Griffenfeldt, who was cruelly imprisoned for 22 years, 
forms a blot on this king's memory. 

Under Frederick IV. (1699-1730) was waged the great northern 
war in which the Norwegian naval hero Peter Vessel (ennobled as 
Tordenskjold) took a leading part, notably in the naval battle of 
Riigen (1715) and in the capture of the Swedish fleet at Marstrand 
(1719). The country gained nothing. On the other hand the 
finances were improved, the conversion of the Lapps was promoted, 
and that of the Greenlanders begun. 

The reign of Christian VI. (1730-46) was peaceful. Trade and 
navigation throve anew, the fleet was strengthened, a militia 
organized, and education promoted. But down to the end of the 
reign Norway was injuriously infected with German Puritanism 
and suffered severely from the protective law that she should draw 
her corn supplies from Denmark alone. 

Frederick V. (1746-66) ruled as an enlightened despot. The 
tyranny of asceticism came to an end, and art and science were 
zealously promoted. The king pensioned the famous German poet 
Klopstock in order that he might work at his 'Messiah', and kept 
him at Copenhagen from 1750 to 1770. A mining school was 
founded at Kongsberg, a mathematical school at Christiania, and a 
scientific society at Trondhjem. Notwithstanding the preparations 
for war with Russia, the economic condition of Norway steadily 
improved. Under the absolute monarchy the Norwegian peasantry 
throve, their number having risen from 450,000 to 723,000 in 1664. 
The number of Norwegian ships also increased from 50 to 1150. 
The exports far exceeded those of Denmark, which enjoyed much 
less commercial freedom, and whose population had fallen off from 
the same cause. The Norwegian sense of independence was thus 
fostered, while intercourse with England and other foreign countries 
further expanded the national mind and paved the way for striking 
mental developments. 

The authority of the imbecile Christian VII. (1766-1808) was 
wielded by ministers, the first of whom was Joh. Fried. Struensee, 
his German physician (1737-72). Struensee was an enlightened 
reformer, but as his methods were harsh, and as he showed contempt 
for the Danes, a conspiracy was organized against him, and he was 
turned out of office and executed. His successor was Ove Guldberg, 
a Dane, whose policy was exclusively Danish, who entirely ignored 
the distinct nationality of the Norwegians, and who ruined the 
finances by a reckless system of banking. But a happier era dawned 
in 1784, when the Crovm Prince Frederick assumed the government 
with Count Bernstorff as his minister. When the Danes desired to 
maintain an armed neutrality in the Napoleonic wars in 1800-1, 
Great Britain objected and attacked Copenhagen. Six years later 
Napoleon's scheme of using Denmark's fleet against Great Britain 


led to the bombardment of Copenhagen by the British fleet, which 
resulted in the surrender of the whole Danish and Norwegian fleet. 

Under Frederick VI. (1808-39) these disasters, aggravated by 
the over-issue of paper-money, led to national bankruptcy (1813). 
At the same time Norway was entirely cut off from Denmark by 
the British fleet. From 1807 onwards Norway had been governed 
by a separate commission, headed by Prince Christian Augustus of 
Augustenburg , who defended the country so vigorously against 
Sweden that it lost nothing by the peace of Jonkoping (1809). 
Thus further stimulated, the native love of independence and the 
liberal principles inspired by the Revolution widened the breach 
between the Norwegians and the absolutist government of Den- 
mark. A small, but influential party now advocated union with 
Sweden, a proposal rendered feasible by political events, inas- 
much as, by the peace of Kiel in 1814, the Swedes compelled 
Denmark to cede Norway to them. The union of Norway with 
Denmark, which had subsisted for more than four centuries, was 
thus dissolved. 

The Literature of Norway from the Reformation to the end of 
the union is inseparable from that of Denmark. To that common 
literature Norway made important contributions, partly trans- 
lations of Old Norse sagas and codes of law, but chiefly historical 
and topographical works. The first Norwegian poet was Peter Dass 
(d. 1708), the still popular author of 'Nordlands Trompet'; but 
the most important poet of this period was Ludvig Holberg of Bergen 
(d. 1754), the creator of a truly national literature which overthrew 
the barriers between learned and unlearned. His comedies, such 
as 'Jeppe', his mock-heroic poem of 'Peder Paars', and his moral 
romance, the 'Subterranen Journey of Nils Klim', have gained him 
a European reputation. As a historian also Holberg is noted for 
his spirited descriptions. 

In contrast to the imitators of Klopstock , Chr. B. Tullin 
(d. 1765) wrote idyllic poetry, while French influence was ridic- 
uled by J. H. Vessel (d. 1785; the zealous promoter of the 'Norsk 
Selskab', founded at Copenhagen in 1772) in his 'Kjarlighed 
uden Stromper' (love without stockings), a kind of parodied 
tragedy. Lastly may be mentioned E. Storm (d. 1794), J. N. Brun 
(d. 1816), J. Zetlitz (d. 1821), and the brothers C. Friman (d. 1829) 
and P. H. Friman (d. 1839), who laid stress on the national Nor- 
wegian style, and who sometimes wrote in dialect. 

Among men of science the most emiuent are Bishop Ounnerus 
(d. 1773), the naturalist, and Gerhard Schbning (d. 1780), the 
historian, joint founders of the 'Laerde Selskab' of Trondhjem. It 
was not till 1811 that Norway could boast of her University of 
Christiania as the centre of her intellectual life and "higher 


Union of Sweden and Norway. 

Denmark had renounced Norway (p. lvi), but the Norwegians 
disputed the king's right to renounce. On 17th May, 1814, a re- 
presentative assembly held at Eidsvold adopted a new constitution 
('Norges GrundloV) and elected Christian Frederick, heir to the 
Danish throne and governor of Denmark, as king of Norway. But 
the guaranteeing powers, Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia, 
demanded fulfilment of the Peace of Kiel, and a Swedish army 
proceeded to occupy Norway as far as the Glommen. Christian Fre- 
derick then resigned and set sail for Denmark, where he after- 
wards reigned as Christian VIII. (1839-48). On 20th October the 
representative convention held at Christiania voted, by 72 voices 
against 5, in favour of the union with Sweden, and on 4th Novem- 
ber Charles (XIIJ. of Sweden) was unanimously proclaimed king. 
On 10th November the crown-prince Charles John (Bernadotte ; 
p. lii), as regent, on behalf of the king, solemnly ratified the 
constitution, and in the following year the Act of Union was for- 
mally passed. 

Charles XIV. John (1818-44) had a difficult task in governing 
two kingdoms with whose languages he was imperfectly acquainted. 
As a foreigner, lacking the blood royal, and brought up in the 
school of the French Revolution, he had to contend against the 
prejudices of the Holy Alliance. The internal affairs of both coun- 
tries were very unsettled, and their finances well-nigh ruined. 
In Norway the aversion of the people for the Union caused fre- 
quent conflicts with the Storthing or parliament, but the king's 
zealous promotion of their material prosperity ultimately won 
their confidence. From 1836 onwards the post of viceroy or gover- 
nor was always held by a Norwegian. The revolutionary move- 
ments in Sweden of 1830 and 1838 proved unimportant. 

Under Charles John's son Oscar 1. (1844-59; married in 1823 
to Princess Josephine of Leuchtenberg) the prosperity of both 
kingdoms increased, and the king made himself popular in Nor- 
way by presenting it with an appropriate national flag. He was 
also a scrupulous observer of the constitution of that country. He 
carried out many reforms in Sweden, but vainly endeavoured to 
effect an amendment of its constitution. His interposition in the 
German and Danish war regarding Sleswick, which led to the 
Armistice of Malmo (1848) and to the occupation of N. Sleswick 
by Swedish and Norwegian troops, was favoured by both of his 
kingdoms as a patriotic Scandinavian act. 

Oscar's eldest son Charles XV. (1859-72), a gifted and popular, 
though pleasure-loving monarch, founded the present represen- 
tative constitution of Sweden in 1865. In Norway the triennial 
Storthing was made annual in 1869. In both countries religious 
equality was extended, and new railways and roads constructed. 


A threatened conflict between the parliaments of the two coun- 
tries was happily averted through the king's influence. 

Charles was succeeded by his brother Oacar II. (1872-1907; 
married to Princess Sophia of Nassau), under whom the two king- 
doms made rapid strides, both materially and intellectually. 
But the old Norwegian love of independence gained ground from 
year to year, revealing itself in a renewed antipathy for the union 
with Sweden. The king was conciliatory, but proved powerless 
to avert the dissolution of the union. Having vetoed a bill of the 
Storthing providing for a separate Norwegian consular service, he 
was declared to have forfeited their confidence and to be 'out 
of office', and this resolution was confirmed by a plebiscite of 
362,980 votes against 182. After protracted negociations at Karl- 
stad (p. 303), relating chiefly to the frontier - fortresses , King 
Oscar formally abdicated the throne of Norway and declined the 
offer of it to a prince of his own house. 

Norway and Sweden Independent Kingdoms. 

By resolution of the Storthing and another plebiscite, Prince 
Charles of Denmark (b. 1872; married Princess Maud of Great 
Britain in 1896), second son of the present king of Denmark and 
grandson of King Christian IX., was elected King of Norway. On 
his accession (25th Nov. 1905) he assumed the style of the early 
Norwegian Kings by taking the title of Haakon VII. His coron- 
ation took place at Trondhjem on 22nd June 1906. The crown- 
prince Olaf was born in 1903. 

On the death of Oscar II. of Sweden on 8th Dec. 1907, he was 
succeeded by his son Gustavus V. (born 1858; married Princess 
Victoria of Baden in 1881). The crown-prince is Gustavus Adolphus 
(born 1882 ; married Princess Margaret of Great Britain in 1906). 

In both kingdoms the field of Literature was sedulously culti- 
vated during the 19th century. Among the older poets of Sweden 
may be mentioned Franz Michael Franzen (1772-1847), the grace- 
ful lyric poet, Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom (1790-1855), author of 
popular romances, Erik Gustaf Gtijtr (1783-1847), the historian, 
and Bishop Esaias Tegner (1782-1846), whose 'Fridthjofs - Saga' is 
justly famous. The Finnish poet Johan Ludvig Runeberg (1804-77) 
is the author of admirable lyric and epic poems, especially the glow- 
ingly patriotic 'Fanrik Stal's Sagner', which hold high rank in the 
world's literature. The poems and romances of Victor Rydbtrg 
(1829-96) are lofty in thought and artistic in form. Count Carl Joh. 
Gust. Snoilsky (1841-1903) deserves foremost rank for national 
feeling and splendour of diction. Among living poets Aug. Strindberg 
(b. 1849) is specially noteworthy. In his earlier novels and dramas 
he treats of sexual relations with repellent realism but his latest 


historical dramas and tales display deep patriotism coupled with a 
new-found piety. 

In Norway H. Wergeland (1808-45) is the first to strive for 
emancipation from Danish influence. Bjernson and Ibsen have 
earned for Norwegian literature world-wide fame. Bjernstjerne 
Bjemson (b. 1832) is noted for the strength and freshness of his 
earlier poems, romances, and historical dramas, and by the radical 
boldness and depth of ideas in his later sociological plays such as 
'Redaktaren' (1875), 'En Fallit' (1875), 'Kongen' (1879), 'Over 
Evne', and 'Laboremus'(1901). Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906), who also 
began with poems, popular tales, and satirical-philosophical plays, 
has taken the world by storm with his psychological dramas (such as 
'Brand', 1866, 'Peer Gynt', 1867, and 'Kejser og Galilaeer, 1873), 
and more so by his realistic sociological plays. Among these (mostly 
translated by W. Archer) are 'Pillars of Society' (1877), 'A Doll's 
House' (1879), 'Ghosts' (1881), 'The Wild Duck' (1884), 'Hedda 
Gabler' (1890), 'Little Eyolf (1894), 'John Gabriel Borkman' (1897), 
and 'When we Dead Awaken' (1900). These masterly plays ruth- 
lessly lay bare the shady side of modern life. — The tales and ro- 
mances of Jonas Lie (1833-1908), Alex. Kjelland (1849-1906), and 
Arne Oarborg (b. 1851) have also met with high appreciation. 

The scientific literature of both Sweden and Norway is also rich 
and important, especially in the domains of history, philology, natural 
science, and geography. The Arctic explorers Baron E. A.Norden- 
skiold (1832-1901) and Frithjof Nansen (b. 1861), and Sven von 
Hedin (b. 1865), the explorer of Central Asia, have a world-wide 

Scandinavian Art was dependent on foreign countries till the end 
of the 19th cent. Joh. Chris. CI. Dahl (1788-1857), a Norwegian, 
became a professor at the Dresden Academy and attracted a number 
of pupils. Peer Wickenberg (1812-46), a Swede, won distinction in 
France. After 1840 Diisseldorf became the seat of the northern 
painters. Foremost of these were the Norwegians Ad. Tidemand 
(1814-76) and the landscape-painter Hans Fred. Gude (1825-1903). 
The latter migrated to Carlsruhe in 1863, and to Berlin in 1880; 
among his pupils were Herm. Aug. Cappelen (1822-70), Joh. Fred. 
Eckersberg (1822-70), Morten Midler, etc. Allied with them were 
also the Swedes Bengt Nordenberg (1822-92), Ferd. Jul. Fagerlin 
(1825-1907), and Axel Nordyrtn (1828-88). Trained at Diisseldorf, 
Joh. Ed. Bergh (1828-80) settled at Stockholm in 1861. At the end 
of the sixties the fame of the colourists attracted northern artists to 
Munich and Paris. The Swede Joh. Fred. Hockert (1826-46) led the 
way, and was followed by the Swedes Nils Forsberg (b. 1842), 6. v. 
Roten (b. 1843), and C. Oust. Hellqvut (1851-90), and by the 
Norwegian Lud. Munthe (1841-96). Under the influence of the 
open-air style cultivated at Paris, the northern painters have begun 
since 1880 to develop an independent school, whose chief represen- 


tatives have settled in their own country: in Sweden Karl Larsson 
(b. 1856), Karl Nordstrom (b. 1855), Anders L. Zorn (b. I860;, and 
Bruno Liljefors (b. 1860); in Norway Fritz Thaulow (1847-1906), 
Eilif PeterssenCb. 1852), Hans HeyerdahlQ). 1857), and many younger 
painters. The most eminent of Scandinavian sculptors is the Nor- 
wegian Stephun Striding (b. 1846). 

Chronological Table. Page 

1. Prehistoric Pbriod: Ages of Flint, Bronze, and Iron 

(down to ca. 700 A.D.) xl 

2. Norway before the Union xli 

Harald Haarfager (d. C34), Ola/ Tryggmwn (d. 1000), St. Ola/ 
(d. 1030), Magnus the Good (d. 1047), Olaf Kyrri (d. 1093), 
Magnus Erlingsson (1161), Svevre (d. 1202), Haakon Haakons- 
soi (d. 1263), Magnus Lagaboetir (d. 1280), Erie Magnusson 
(d. 1299), Haakon Magnusson (d. 1319). 

Intellectual Culture xliii 

3. Sweden before the Union xliv 

Birger Jarl (d. 1266), Magnus Ladulas (d. 12o0). 

Literature xlv 

4. The Union (1397-1523) xlvi 

Margaret of Denmark (1387-1412), Eric o/ Pomerania (d. 1459), 
Christopher o/ Bavaria (1440-48), Christian of Oldenburg 
(1448-81), Hans (1481-1512), Christian II. (1513-23; d.1559) — 
Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson (d. 1436), Sten Sture (d. 1503). 

Literature x ' v >i 

5. Sweden after the Dissolution of the Kalmar Union 

(1523-1814) xlviii 

Gustavvs Vasa (1523-60), Eric XI V, (d. 1577), John 111. (d. 1592), 
Sigismund (1592-99), Charles IX. (d. 1611), Gus'avus Adolphus 
(d. 1632), Christina (1632-54; d. 1689), Charles X. (d. 1660), 
Charles XI. (d. 1697), Charles XII. (d. 1718), Frederick 1. 
(d. 1751), Adolphus Frederick (d. 1771), Gustavus III. (d. 1792), 
GuslavusIV. (1792-1809; d. 1837), Charles XIII. (d. 1818). 

Intellectual Progress ''" 

6. Continued Union of Norway and Denmark (1523-1814) liv 

Christian III. (d. 1559), Frederick II. (d. 1588), Christian IV. 
(d. 1648), Frederick III. (d 1670), Christian V. (d. 1699), 
Frederick IT. (d. 1730), Christian VI. (d. 1746), Frederick V. 
(d. 1766), Christian VII. (d. 1£08), Frederick VI. (d. 1839). 

Literature ' vl 

7. Union of Sweden and Norway (1814-1905) lvii 

Charles XIV. (1818-44), Oscar I. (d. 1859), Charles XV. (d. 1872), 

Oscar II. (1872-1907). 
Literature lvin 

8. Norway and Sweden Independent Kingdoms .... 

Haakon VII, king of Norway since 1905; Gustavus V., kins 

of Sweden since 1907. 
Literature and art in the XlXth century lviii 



Route Page 

1. Christiansand and the Ssetersdal 2 

From Christiansand to Ohristiania 6 

2. Christiania and Environs 8 

3. From Christiania by Drammen to Skien 20 

4. From Drammen by Hougsund and Henefos to the 
Randsfjord 25 

5. From Hougsund to Kongsberg and Ulefos (Telemar- 
ken-Hardanger) 27 

From Kongsberg to the Numedal 32 

6. From Skien by the Telemarken Canal and the Hau- 
kelifjeld to the Hardanger 33 

7. From Christiania through the Hallingdal to Bergen 

by Rail 39 

From Gol-Rolfshus to Lserdalsaren on the Sognefjord 41 

From Hoi to Aurland on the Sognefjord 42 

8. From Christiania through the Valders to Lserdalsaren 

on the Sognefjord 44 

a. Rail from Christiania to Fagernees 44 

b. From Christiania by Lake Spirillen to Aurdal-Fagernses 46 

c. Road from Fagerntes to Lserdalstfren 48 

9. Jotunheim 53 

a. From Fagernees in Valders to Hotel Jotunheim, and 

by Lake Bygdin to Eidsbugaren 54 

From Nyboden to Lake Gjende 56 

b. From Skogstadt or Nystuen in Valders to Lake Tyin 

and Tyinholmen or Eidsbugaren 56 

c. From Tyinholmen or Eidsbugaren to Gjendeboden and 
Gjendeshejm 59 

d. From Gjendeboden to Rffjshejm til 

e. From Vinstra in the Gudbrandsdal to Gjendeshejm . 64 

f. Krom Gjeudeshejm to Glitterbejm Glittertind . . . 66 

g. From the Ottadal to Rpjshejm. Galdhjzrpig .... 67 
h. From R0jihejtn over the Sognefjeld to TurtegriJ . . 69 
i. From Tyinholmen or Eidsbugaren through the Melkedal 

and over the Keiser to Turtegr0 71 

k. From Aardal on the Sognefjord to Vetti. Vetti3fos. . 73 

1. From Vetti to Tyinholmen 71 

m. From Vetti through the Ulladal, Gravdal, and Lserdal 

to Rajshejm 75 

n. From Skjoldea by Fortun to Turtegr0 77 

10. From Christiania through the Gudbrandsdal to Stryn 
on the Nordfjord, Marok on the Geirangei Fjord, or 

Naes on the Romsdals-Fjord 80 

a. Railway from Christiania by Hamar to Otta in the 

Gudbrandsdal 80 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 9th Edit. 1 


Route Pa J£ 

b. Road from Otta to Grotlid (Stryn, Gelranger) . . 80 

c. Road from Otta to Aandalsnaes on the Romsdals- 
Fjord 88 

11. From Domaas in the Gudbrandsdal over the Dovre- 
fjeld to Steren (Trondhjem) 90 

Snehsetta 91. — From Austhjerg to Ttfnsset 92 

From Bjerkaker to Orkedalstfren 92 

12. From Christiania to Trondhjem by Railway .... 93 

13. From Christiania to Charlottenberg (Stockholm) . . 97 

14. From Christiania to Gotenburg by Railway .... 97 

15. From Christiania to Gotenburg by Sea 102 

1. Christiansand and the Ssetersdal. 

Cheistiansand, the largest town on the S. coast, where numerous 
steamers touch, lies at the mouth of the Scetertdal, which is seldom chosen 
as an avenue to the interior, as the mountain-paths from the head of the 
valley to Telemarken or the Hardanger Fjord are rough and fatiguing. 

Christiansand. —Hotels. "Ernst's, hy the principal harbour, Vestre 
Strand-Gade, corner of Raadhus-Gade, with electric light and baths; R. from 
2>/2, B. 3/4-2, D- (at 1.30 p.m.) 2V2kr.,S.lkr. 600. — Gea^d HoTEL,DroDningens- 
Gade, R. from l'/2 kr., very fair ; Salvesen, Dronningens-Gade ; Norge. 

Post & Telegraph, corner of the Raadhus-Gade and Markens-Gade. 

Sea Baths : Siflyst, on the Oddere (st'.e below) ; for men 12-2 and 5-9 
(hath 20 0.). Warm Baths hy the cathedral (40-80 0.). 

Bookseller, A. Conradi, opposite the post-office. 

British Vice-Consul, American Consular Agent, and Lloyd's Agent, 
Mr. Berne Reinhardt, Vestre Strand-Gade 10. 

Steamers to Christiania, to Stavanger and Bergen once or twice daily 
(Com. 213, 224a); to Frederikshavn in Denmark daily (Com. 115) ; to Copen- 
hagen weekly (Com. 117); to Hamburg twice weekly (Com. 64. 22ia); to 
London weekly; to Hull weekly; to Leith weekly; to Liverpool fortnightly; 
also to Amsterdam, Antwerp, etc. Small local steamers ply daily to Arendal- 
Brevik and to Mandal (Com. 210, 212, 214, 256); also to Farsund (Com. 258). 

Christiansand, with 15,370 inhab., the seat of one of the five 
Norwegian bishops and of a district governor, was founded by 
Christian IV. of Denmark in 1641, and after repeatsd fires was 
rebuilt in 1892. It lies at the mouth of the Otteraa, or Torrisdals- 
Elv, on a square peninsula, bounded on the N.E. side by the river. 
The chief harbour, at which the large steamers touch, is on the W. 
side. Between the Raadhus-Gade and the Gyldenleves-Gade is the 
Cathedral (PI. 4), rebuilt in the Gothic style since 1880. (Altar- 
piece, Christ at Emmaus, by Eilif Petersen.) 

The Envibons are picturesque. From the S. angle of the town, 
where the Vestre and the 0stre Strand-Gade meet a bridge crosses 
to the Oddere, a fortified rocky island. The Selyst Baths (see above) 
lie to the right. The path straight on passes the Quarantine Hospital 
(on a hill to the left) and leads to the right to the Peisstue (restau- 
rant). The other parts of the Oddera are not accessible on account 
of the fortifications. 

Geography AnstaHrv-oiL 

~W a gner &D eb e s , 1 eip 11 g . 

CHRIST1ANSAND. 1. Route. 3 

Opposite the E. angle of the town, on the left hank of the 
Otteraa (bridge), is the Hamreheia (right), a^ood point of view. 

At the W. angle of the town, near the station of the Satersdal 
Kailway (see below), begins the Mandal road ('Vestreveien'), leading 
past the pleasant grounds of the Bellevue. Close by are several old 
Norwegian cottages. The Dueknip, ascended thence, affords a fine 
view.— To the N. of the railway-station, in the Tordenskjolds-Gade 
begins the Ssetersdal road (see below), shaded at first with lime-trees 
lo the left, a short way out, lies the Cemetery, containing a monu- 
ment to the Danes who fell in the naval battle of Heligoland (1864). 
On this side of a bridge across the Sstersdal Railway, 3/ 4 m. from the 
town, a road to the right leads to the Ravnedal. It passes (10 min.) 
a pond and ascends a steep rocky slope to the left to (25 min.) the 
Ravnefjeld (view). We descend thence S.W. to (i/ 4 hr.) the Satersdal 
road, or we may go from the Ravnedal N.E. to the Egsasyl and return 
thence to the town. 

About 3 M W. of the Ravnelal rises the Graamandsheia (810 ft ) — 
On the right bank of the Otteraa, 2'/ 2 M. up, are the 'Omvendle Buad- 
la land-mark) and Oddersjaa, commanding the river and its mouth — 
b.eamers ply twice daily from Christiansand up the Topdalsfjord, e' of 
Gbristiansand, tc 'Ronene and Bom, an industrial place on the Topdkls-Elv 
(there and back 2'/ 2 -3 hrs.). 

A steamboat and an electric launch ply, S. of Christians.rad, to the 
Vxe with lighthouse and meteorological station, and to the (fiM.) Flekkera 
with tha Skjwrgaards-Sanatorium (R. iy 2 -2 kr., B. 70 D li/ 2 S HA kr )' 
with sea-baths, promenades, and extensive view. ' 

The Ssetersdal. 
1st Day. Rail to (78 Kil.) Byglandsfjord (33/, -4 hrs.: fares 3 kr. 90, 
?, -o« 1 ); Steamkk (Com- i'iS) thence to (35 Kil.) Ose (3y 2 -4 hrs.; fare 
lkr.8O0.), or, if water permit, 10 Kil. farther to Langeid or Granheim — 
2nd Day. By Road (skyds) to Tiken. - 3rd Da?. Skvds to Flaleland, and 
walk thence, with guide, to (4'/ 2 hrs.) the club-hut on the Store Bjernevand 
— 4th Day. Walk to Balm, fully 12 hrs. — Or drive (skyds) on the 3rd day 
to Bykle, and walk or ride thence on the 4th day to (10-11 hrs ) Bredvik- 
thence walk or ride (12-14 hrs.) on the 5th day to the Suldalsvand. — Public 
telephones m the Ssetersdal up to Viken. Information to be had from the 
Knshansands & Oplands Turistforening at Christiansand . S je alio Abrahamsons 
Ovemgtskart (1 kr ) and Abruhamsons Reisehaandbog oner SaUrsdalen (3 kr ) 
The tariff for the tourist-huts is 3 kr. a day for bed and board or 2 kr 
without dinner; at the tourist-stations not much higher. ' 

The Satersdal, a valley running N. of Christiansand, about 
230 Kil. (143 Engl. M.) long, watered by the Otteraa, is interest- 
ing both for its scenery and for its inhabitants, a tall, strongly- 
built race, who cling to their old habits and costumes. 

The light Railway ascends the right bank of the Otteraa, pass- 
ing many farms. 7 Kil. Kvernvolden, with the farms of Stray. Near 
(10 Kil.) Mosby, with its cotton-mill, we cross the river. From 
(15 Kil.) Vennesla a short branch-line runs to Vigeland and the 
paper-mill of Hundsfossen. Beyond (20 Kil.) Orovene we recross 
the river. 28 Kil. Reiknes ; 35 Kil. loeland; 39 Kil. Gaaseflaa; 
44 Kil. Hcegelind, on the Kilefjord (460 ft.). 52 Kil. Hornesund; 

4 Route 1. S^TERSDAL. 

56 Kil. Moisund; 63 Kil. Homnes (Hotel), whence a road leads by 
ZvreDaasvand to Aaseral (5 hrs.; p. 107). We cross a long bridge 

67 Kil Evje fHot. Dalen). Near it are the nickel and copper 
mines of Evje Nikkelvcerk and many tombs of the 5th- 6th century. 

About 17 Kil N.E., on Lake H0vring, is the tourist-station of Lauvaas 
(1861 fU by road to tie lake 15 Kil., then row across the lake or walk 
round it). 

74 Kil. Systveit. 

78 Kil Byglandsfjord (Bail. Rest.; Hot. Breidabhck, good, D. 
li/ 2 kr.), the terminus of the line, lies at the S. end of the Byglands- 
fjord, a basin of the Otteraa. 

The Steamboat Journey on the Byglandsfjord is pleasant. The 

5 part of the lake, enclosed by low but steep hills, is called the 
Aardalsfjord. On the right is the Aardalsnut (2494 ft.). We pass 
the church of Aardal, round a promontory with the farms of Freirak 
and Berg, and enter the Byglandsfjord proper. On the right are the 
steep Faneklev and the church of — 

Bygland, at the foot of the Lysheia (2773jft.), where the steamer 
stops after about 2 hrs. The Satersdalens Sommerhjem (820 ft. ; pens. 
5 kr.; Engl. Ch. Serv. in summer; fishing to be had), y 4 hr. from 
the pier, is recommended for a stay. 

The navigable channel narrows. Beyond Urdviken the steamer 
passes through a lock (where it remains when the water is low), and 
under a bridge of the high-road to the Aaraks fjord, the N. part of the 
Byglandsfjord. On the E. bank is the church of Sandnas. On the 
W. bank, on the high-road, lies Freisnaes (beds at Ole Torbj«rnsen's). 
In 2 hrs! from Bygland the steamer reaches Ose, its last station. 

Ose (tourists' quarters at T. J. Heistad's), 18 Kil. from Bygland 
and 15 Kil. from Urdviken by road. One of the farm-houses here 
has two interesting old Stabbure and several curiosities (bridal orna- 
ments, etc.). A little up the valley is the church of Osstad. 

The Road follows the W. bank of the river, skirts the Rustfjeld 
(3510 ft.), and passes the gaard of Langeid, which the steamer 
sometimes reaches if the depth of water serves (10 Kil. from Ose; 
1 hr.). Good quarters at T. H. Rystad's gaard of Granheim, about 

4 Kil. from Langeid. 

From Granheim a rough mountain-path leads by the (i'/j hrs.) tourist 
station of Hwgsteil (1870 ft. ; quarters) to the (4>/ 2 -5>/2 hrs. more) tourist- 
hut on the Gaukheivand (2525 ft.; quarters; fishing to be. had) whence we 
may go (a day's walk in either case; guide and provisions) to the S. to 
Aaseral's Bolel (p. 107), or N.W. to the Lysefjord (p. 110). 

17 Kil. Besteland (modest quarters , with beds for tourists). 
About 8 Kil. farther on is the church of Hyllestad. 

At Flaarenden, about 15 Kil. from Besteland, the road crosses 
to the E. bank of the river. Scenery grander. To the left are the 
Hallandsfos, a waterfall with some of the largest 'giant's cauldrons 
in Norway, formed by glacier action (one of them lb ft. deep), and 
the Skuggebakfos, or 'shade-fall' (serving as a clock to the peasants, 
being in the shade after 2 p.m.). 

S.ETERSDAL. 1. Route. 5 

15 Kil. Viken i Valle (Hot. $ Skyda-Stat.). The church of Valle 
has an altar-piece by Fed. Barocci. The gaard of Aamlid, on the 
W. side of the river, contains an ancient 'Aarestue' (hut with open 
fire-place). The Svarvarnut (4525 ft.), ascended from Aamlid, is 
a fine point of view; another is the gaard of Homme, near Valle. 

From Viken the Bispevei ('Bishop's Way') joins the road mentioned 
at p. 36 about 6 Kil. S. of Veum (12- lb hrs. ; horse and guide from Viken 
to Veum about 14 kr.). 

From Aamlid over the mountains to Aardal on the Stavanger Fjord 
(p. Ill), two days ; guide 12-14 kr. 

12 Kil. Flateland, where the mountain-route to Dalen diverges 
(see below). "We then ascend to the right by the old Byklestig, once 
a rugged flight of steps, passing the Bykle Kirke, to — 

32 Kil. Byklum (1800 ft.; Byklums Skyds-Stat.). Near it is the 
Sarvfos, the highest fall (100 ft.) of the Otteraa; good path, there 
and back 1 hr., with guide. 

About 3 Kil. W. of Byklum lies the Bosvand (1750 ft.; 8 M. long; boat 
for 1 pers. 2, for 2 pers. 3, for 3 pers. 4 kr.), at the W. end of which is 
Brattelid i Bykle (S0ren Lund's tourist-stat.). Rough paths, crossing several 
torrents, lead thence W. to the Hj0senfjord (p. Ill) and N.W. to 0iestad 
on the Suldalsvand (p. 113), each 15-16 hrs. (with guide). 

A fair road on the W. bank of the river (horse and guide 8 kr.) 
ascends past the gaards (where bread, coffee, and milk only are to 
be had) of (12 Kil.) Haslemo and (11 Kil.) 0rnefjeld to (12 Kil.) 
the gaard of — 

Bredvik or Breive (Knud Olsen Breivik's touiist-inn). 

Fkom Flateland to Dalen, i. l / 2 day (guide 8 kr., with horse 
22 kr.). This is one of the best mountain routes out of the Saeters- 
dal. The path ascends by the gaard of Rygnestad (with a 16th cent, 
'stabbur' or storehouse) and past the basin -shaped Vaiagjuv and 
the Lille Bjernevand (1.) to the lower end of the Store Bjernevand. 
There should be a boat here for crossing the lake. If not, we cross 
the outflow of the lake and walk along the N. bank to the Bjerne- 
vandshytten (ca. -P/q hrs. from Flateland), a club-hut where the night 
is spent. Next day we again ascend a little, and then walk on the 
nearly level hill to Kjenningsvik, the first saeter in Telemarken, and 
past several lakes and sseters and across small streams, to the gaard 
of Grimedalen (ca. 9 hrs. from the club-hut). A good path, with a 
view of the Bandaksvand, passing near the Skafse-Kirke, descends 
thence to (3 hrs.) Dalen (p. 35). 

The Pass from Bkedvik to the Suldalsvand (13-14 hrs., 
incl. rest of 2-3 hrs.) is fatiguing and almost necessitates horse and 
guide (from Bredvik to Roaldkvam 14 kr.). Provisions must be taken. 
The route leads at first over marshy ground and crosses several 
streams and torrents, some of which have to be forded. The walk 
across the huge Meienfjeld, where reindeer are often seen, is inter- 
esting. In descending from the pass (ca. 3900 ft.) we have fre- 
quently to dismount, while the guide leads the horse. We pass vast 

6 Route 1. ARENDAL. Frcm Christiansapd 

snowflelds and smooth granite rocks, while around rise snow-clad 
and icy peaks. By the sseters of Bleskestadmcen is a club-hut. Lastly 
a steep descent to the gaard of Bleskestad, whence a good path leads 
to (6 Kil.) Roaldkvam (plain quarters). From Roaldkvam to Nms 

(p. 114), 1/2 hr- by boat (iy 2 kr.). 

Less interesting is the route from Bredvik to the Bwte Hotel, on the 
Bartevand (p. 36), or up the Saetersdal from Bredvik to (15 Kil.) Bjaa, the 
highest gaard in the valley (beds at Knud B. Bjaaen's), and to Flaalhyl on 
the HaukeJi Road (p. 37). Each of trese routes takes a day. 

From Christian sand to Christiania. 

Steamboats of the 'Sommer Postrute' (Com. 218) daily in 20hrs. (fares 
15 kr. 60, 9 kr. 75 0.); distance, as the crow flies, 39 Norwegian S.M., or 
156 Engl. M. (tut with the windings far more); 12 stations. For other 
lines see Com. 64, 67, 74, 77, 80, and 224 a. The voyage is chiefly inden- 
skjcers, i.e. within the Skjwrgaard, or belt of islands flanking the coast, 
where the water is smooth. The distances in Norwegian sea-miles (S. M.) 
are given from station to station (fee Introd., p. vi). 

The first station is Lillesand (Hot. Norge), with 1330 inhah. 
(light railway to Flaksvand, 17 Kil.). Then past the Uombcrgsund- 
fyr to Grimstad (Hot. Victoria), a pleasant little town (pop. 2800), 
8 Kil. N.E. of which is Fevig, a sea-bathing place, where the local 
steamers only call. We next steer through a picturesque channel, 
with two lighthouses ( Torungeme), between the Hise and the Trome, 
to the Galtesund and — 

10S.M. Arendal (Grand Hotel, on the quay, R. 2-3, B. H/2, 
D. 21/4, S. 172 kr -; Fenix, by the church, both good; pop. 10,500, 
incl. suburbs), picturesquely situated on the hill at the mouth of 
the Nid-Elv, a busy trading and ship-building place, with an ex- 
cellent and animated harbour. The modern Gothic brick church, with 
its lofty spire, was built by Christ. Furst. Fine view, from a small 
terrace planted with trees above the quay, of the small towns of 
Kolbjarnsvik (on Hise) and Raevesand (on Troma), to which small 
steamers ply. The view from the Stintehei, above the town, is more 

Railway from Arendal to Grimstad by Froland (Com. 27). — A posting- 
road leads from Arendal to (11 Kil.) Braekke i Moland and (18 Kil.) the 
small seaport of Tvedestrand (Fram Hot.), then inland by (14 Kil.) Vberg 
to (18 Kil.) Simonstad, at the N. end of the Nelaagfjord, amidst fine woods, 
where the beaver still occurs. A shorter route is by road to (35 Kil.) the 
Nelaagfjord, and thence by boat (ordered from Simonstad by telephone) 
across the Fjord. From Simonstad to the M.'servand, p. 35. 

Farther on, to the left, is the little town of Barbo, immediately 
N. of Arendal. The banks of the Tromesund, through which we 
steer N., are finely wooded. We pass numerous hamlets and land- 
ing-places. Near the N. end of the sound, to the left, rises the Flang- 
stad-Kirke. Farther on, the Mekkelas fyr marks the entrance to the 
Oxefjord (for Tvedestrand, see above). Then past the Lynger to — 

6 S.M. Riser (Hot. Thiis, Hot. Riser, both well spoken of), with 
4000 inhab., beyond which the coast is unprotected for some way. 

to Christiania. CHRISTIANIA FJORD. /. Route. 7 

4 S.M. Krager«r (*Central Hotel, 5 min. from the pier, R. 2, 
D. 2, S. 1^2 kr.; Grand Hotel; pop. 5030), a busy trading port op- 
posite the island of that name, has a large church, by G. Bull, and 
a monument to Prof. Schweigaard (p. 12), a native of the place. 
Passing the latter, we reach (7 min.) a terrace above the town, with 
a large school and a bust of Oscar II. (*View). — Apatite, a kind of 
phosphorite abounding in the environs, yields artificial manure. 

From Kragerg a posting-road leads by (10 Kil.) Steen, (17 Kil.) Lenms 
on the Tokevand, and (21 Kil.) Holte i Drangedal to (18 Kil.) Bel (Inn). 
Beavers are still often found on the Lille Buvand, in the Drangedal. — 
From B0 about 30 Kil. more to Strand i Vraadal (p. 35). 

The coasting steamers pass through the picturesque Langesund, 
a strait between precipitous rocks, very narrow at the Kreppa, the 
N. end, while the large steamers choose the wider channel past the 
lighthouse (r.) on Jomfruland. Langesund (Central Hot.; Victoria), 
with 1400 inhab., lies on the Langesunds- Fjord, which is prolonged 
N. to Skien by the Eidanger Fjord and the Frier fjord. To the right 
rises the lighthouse, Langesunds- Fyr. 

The Skien (p. 24) and Christiansand and the Skien and Christiania 
steamers (Com. 244 and 197) ascend the Eidanger Fjord, touching at Brevik 
(p. 24) and Porsgrund (p. 24). 

Steering out into the open sea, the steamer passes the Nevlung- 
havn, and then enters the pretty approach, past the Svennerfyr and 
the Fredriksvarn-Fyr , to Fredriksvcem , with 1300 inhab. , once a 
small fortress. We then steer N. through the Laurvik-Fjord to — 

7 S.M. (from Kragero) Larvik (p. 23). 

Farther on, the steamer passes the mouth of the Laagen, rounds 
the furrowed Hummerberge, and crosses the mouth of the Sande- 
fjord , at the N. end of which lies the little town of that name 
(p. 23), with sulphur and sea baths. 

The Fcerder-Fyr, on a cliff to the right, marks the entrance to 
the Christiania Fjord, which, with its broad basins, studded with 
islands, and its river-like reaches, extends N. for about 50 M. Its 
rocky banks of moderate height, wooded with birches and pines, 
are enlivened with numerous villages, where the larger steamers do 
not touch. Geologically it may be described as a rent in the prim- 
aeval mountains, with sunken layers of Silurian slate and limestone 
overlaid by huge masses of volcanic rock (syenite, porphyry, and 
granite). The same varied formation characterizes the whole region 
from Langesund to the Mjasen (p. 80). 

On the left are the Tensberg-Tende , headlands where many a 
ship has been wrecked, at the mouth of the Tensberg-Fjord (p. 22), 
and the Tjeme. On the Bolamn (right) is quarried a valuable dark 
syenite, with veins of iridescent blue feldspar, which, when polish- 
ed, is known as Labrador. 

On the E. coast is the beacon of Torgauten. Nearer lies the is- 
land of Hanker, the most fashionable of Norwegian bathing-resorts, 
with three hotels (R. 1 1/2-6, D. 2i/ 4 , S. I 1 /.,, hoard 3y 2 kr.), numer- 

8 R 0U te 1. DR0BAK. Christiania Fjord. 

ous villas, splendid pine-woods, view-tower, and other attractions. 
(The bath-inspector gives information. Steamers daily to Christia- 
nia in 41/2 hrs., to Fredrikstad in 1 hr. J 

On the W coast lie Valle, a small industrial town with petro- 
leum -refineries (6 Kil. from Tensberg, p. 22); Aasgaardstrandm 
(Central Hot.), with sea -baths; Horten {Serbyes Hotel; Victoria; 
pop 8900) with sea-baths ; and Karl-Johansvarn, the chief govern- 
ment dockyard. Railway to Skoppum and Holmestrand, see p. 34. 

On the E. bank, behind the island of Hjelle or Jele, lies Moss 
(p 80) at which some of the larger steamers touch. 
~ ' On the left opens the Drammens-Fjord (p. 21). We next enter 
a strait narrowing to 1/2 M., about 91/2 M. long, connecting the 
outer with the inner Christiania Fjord. On the right lies — 

Drtfbak (Grand Hot.; Beenskoug's Hot.), a pleasant watering- 
place with 2300 inhab., numerous villas , and a marine biological 
station of Christiania University. We pass the fortified islets of 
Oscarsborg and the bleak Haa-0, beyond which the inner fjord 
expands. To the N.W. now appear the porphyry (ranges of the 
Kolsaas (1227 ft.), the Skougumsaas (1130 ft.), and to the W. the 
Vardekolle (p. 21). On the W. bank is the cement - factory of 
Slemmestad. In the fjord are the islands of Steilene, with large tanks 
of petroleum, and Elgjarnes, with sea-baths. By the headland of 
Ncesodtangen (lighthouse), on the E. bank we sight Christiania, 
with its palace on the hill, the fortress of Akershus in the fore- 
ground, and the Tryvandsheide (p. 19) rising in the distance: a 
beautiful picture. 

We steer past several islands : on the left the Linda and the 
Hovede (with interesting strata of greenstone) ; on the right the 
Grcesholm and the Bleke , where we obtain a fine glimpse of the 
Bundefjord, with its many country-houses. We land at the Bjervik, 
the harbour of Christiania (see below), on the E. side oj the city. 

2. Christiania and Environs. 

Arrival. The large Steamers land their passengers near the Custom 
House (Toldbod; PI. F, 4; customs- examination on board). — Railway 
Stations: 0st- or Eoved - Banegaard (PI. F, 4; customs - examination ot 
registered luggage from Sweden), to the E. of the town, for all the 
lines except the W. Railway to Drammen, Telemarken, Hougsnnd, and 
Kr0deren, the trains of which Start from the Vest-Banegaard (PI. D, 4). 
From autumn 1909 the trains to Bergen will start from the Hoved-Banegaard 
fcomp p. 39). Porters at the railway-stations and at the quay ; those with 
badges only should be employed (for 56 lbs. or less into the town, 50 «r.). 
Cabs, p. 9. Hotel-omnibuses at the principal trains (IO0.-lkr.). 

Hotels fcomp p xxiv). "Grand Hotel (PI. g; E, 31, Karl-Johans- 
Gade 31 by the Eidsvolds-Plads, R. 3'/2-12, B 1, lunch 21/2, D. (2-6 p.m.) 
2 3 kr • "Victoria (PI v: F, 4), corner of Raadhus-Gade and Dronningens- 
Gade,'in a quiet site, R. 3-6, B. 1, D. (2.30 p.m.) 3 kr. - Skandinavie 
(PI s • F 41 corner of Karl - Johans - Gade and Dronmngens - Gade, 
R '2V2-6 B l' D 21/2 kr. — Hot. Continental (PI. C; E; 3), Storthings 
Gade, corner of Klingenberg-Gade, on 2nd and 3rd floor (lift), R. 2-5 


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Practical Notes. CHRISTIANIA. 2. Route. 9 

B. 3/4-1, D. 2-3, S. 2kr., good; H. du Boulevard (PI. b; E, 3), Storlhings- 
Gade 8, 2nd floor, R. 2-7, D. l-2Vz kr.; each of these two have a cafe on the 
ground-floor and a restaurant on the first floor; H. National (PI. n; E, 3), 
Storthings-Gade, corner of Tordenskjolds-Gade, 2nd and 3rd floors, K. IV2-6, 
B. I-IV2 kr. ; H. d'Angleterre, by the station, E. V^-i^k kr. ; H. Bri- 
tannia, by the custom-house. — Hospices: Augustin, Toldbod-Gade 24, 
with lift, R. H/2-3, B. 1, D. IV2, S. 1 kr., good; Hospitset, Eosenkrantz- 
Gade 1 (PI. E, 3, 4), E. ii/4-6, B. 8/4, D. l'A kr.; Missions-Hotel, Kongens- 
Gade, corner of Eaadhus-Gade (PI. R, F, 4), R. I-41/2 kr. 

Private Hotels (generally on the upper floors of large houses, with 
lifts, and managed by women ; in the better houses English or German is 
spoken): S0Strene Labsen, Karl-Johans-Gade 39, R. l>/2-5, B. U/4, D. 2kr. ; 
H. Belvedere, Karl-Johans-Gade 35, E. 2-4 kr., B. TO 0., D. 2, S. I1/2 kr. ; 
Nobel, Karl-Johans-Gade 33, R. 2-8 kr.; S/jstrene Scheen, Prindsens- 
Gade 26b, E. li/s-5 kr., B. 80 0.-IV4 kr., D. lVi-2 kr. ; Fun Bye, Akers-Gade 26, 
corner of Karl-Johans-Gade. R. IV2-6, B. l'/2, D. 2, S. l'/2 kr. ; S0stkene 
Waalen, Karl-Johans-Gade 12, E. l'| 2 -6, B. 1, D. lV2kr. ; Westminster, Karl- 
Johans-Gade 45, R. 1V2-5, B. »| 4 kr., well spoken of; Tostrupgaarden, Karl- 
Johans-Gade 25, R. from IV2 kr. ; Bellevue, Kirke-Gade 36, R. l>/2-3 kr., 
B. 1, D. 2, S. 1 kr. ; Fr0ken Meter, Storthings-Gade 10, R. from V/4 kr. 

Cafes-Restaurants. "Grand Hotel, ° Continental ('theaterkafe'en'), and HSt. 
Boulevard, with seats in the open air, Eidsvolds-Plads, see above; Logen, 
in the Freemasons' Lodge (p. 12), D. (1-4.30 p.m.) 2-4 kr. ; "Frokostbersen, 
Kongensgade 33, corner of Karl-Johans-Gade; Tostrupgaarden' s, Karl-Johans- 
Gade 25; Christophersen' s Efterfelger , Bankplads 1. Pleasant in fine 
weather : 'Restaurant in the park of St. Hanshaugcn (p. 16) ; 'Royal Yacht 
Club Restaurant, in the island of Dronningen (with covered terrace), 
D. 3 kr. — German beer: Rest. Pilsen, Tolhod-Gade 8, corner of Dron- 
ningens-Gade (PI. F, 4). — Tea-rooms: Iris (Tostrupgaarden, see above), 
Karl-Johans-Gade 25 ; Alliance, Karl-Johans-Gade 31 (in the Grand Hotel). 

Cabs. The fares are for one-horse cabs in the Inner Town, to which 
nearly the whole area of the Plan belongs. The driver is called l Vogn- 
mand\ Per drive for 1, 2, 3, or 4 pers. 50, 60, 80 0., 1 kr. ; per hour I1/2 kr. ; 
for each pers. more 25 0. At night (11 p.m. to 8 a.m. from 1st May to 
30th Sept.; 10p.m. to 9 a.m. the rest of the year): 1, 2, 3, 4 pers. 80 0., 
1 kr., 1 kr. 30, lkr. 50 0.; to or from the station, 15 0. more. Luggage up 
to 56 lbs. free; overweight 250. — Motor Cabs, with taximeters, are stationed 
at several points in the town. 

Tramways (two companies; uniform fare 10 0.; with transfer to another 
route of same company 10; to route of the other company 15 0.). The 
stations of interest to strangers are by the Storthings-Bygning (PI. E, 3, 4; 
p. 11). To the W. of it, in the Eidsvolds-Plads, is the crossing-place of 
the lines from the st-Banegaard (PI. F, 4) to Skarpsno (PI. A, 3) and 
Bygde) (p. 16), to Majorstuen (PI. C, 1; corresponding with the electric line to 
Holmenkollen ; comp. p. 18), and to Frogner (PI. B, 2, 1), which follow the 
same rails to beyond the Slotspark ; also the line from Munkedams-Veien 
(PI. D, 4) to Grunerlekken (PI. G, 1, 2), Sandaker, and Grefsen (p. 52); 
the line from Homansby (PI. D, 2) to Oslo (PI. H, 5), with branch-lines to 
Vaalerengen and Kampen, also passes close by; then through the Karl- 
Johans-Gade, on the N. side of the Storthings -Bygning, run the lines 
from Fwstnings-Brygge to St. Hanshaugen (PI. E, 1; p. 16), and from the 
Fastnings-Brygge to RodeUkken (PI. H, 1) and Sagene, etc. 

Post and Telegraph (PI. F, 4), corner of Kirke-Gade and Karl-Johans- 
Gade. Post Office 8 a.m. to 7.30 p.m.; Sundays 8-9 a.m. and 5-6 p.m. 
Telegraph Office day and night. 

Banks (open 10-2). Norsk Credit-Bank, Kirke-Gade 24; Kristiania Bank 
og Credit- Kasse, Stor-Torv, W. side; Norges Bank (PI. 22; E, 4), Bank- 
Plads ; Central-Bank for Norge, Toldbod-Gade 20. Circular notes changed. 

Legations and Consulates. British minister, Sir Arthur J. Herbert, 
Damensveien 79; consul, Mr. F. E. Drummond-Hay, Prinsens-Gade 9; vice- 
consul, Mr. F. B. Martin. American minister, Hon. Herbert H. D. Peirce, 
Kronprinsens-Gade 17; consul, Mr. Henry Bordewich, Storthings-Gade 14; 
vice-consul, Mr. M. Alger. 

1U Route 2. CHRISTIANIA. Practical Aotes. 

Tourist Offices: Thos. Bennett & Son.', Karl-Johans-Gade 35; F. Beyer, 
Karl-Johans-Gade 33, corner of Rosenkrantz-Gade (both agents for sleeping- 
cars); Thos. Cook & Son, Karl-Johans-Gade 33. — Forening for Reiselivet i' 
Norge (tourists' society), Storthings-Gade 2. 

Shops (close at 7 p.m.)- Booksellers: Aschehoug's Boghandel, Karl- 
Johans-Gade 43, near the University; Cammermeyer' 'i Boghandel. Karl- 
Johans-Gade 41 ; J. W. Cappelen, Kirke-Gade 15 ; Jac. Dybwad, Karl-Johans- 
Gade, opp. post-office. — Jewellers (noted for silver and enamel): T. Prytz, 
successor of /. Toslrup , Karl-Johans-Gade 25, opp. the Storthing; D. 
Andersen, Prinsens-Gade 12, corner of Kirke-Gaden. — Wood Carving, 
Embroidery, etc. : Den Norske Husflidsforenivg, Karl-Johans-Gade 45. — 
Art Dealer: Blomqvist, Karl-Johans-Gade 35 (exhibition of pictures; adm. 
50 0.). — Photographs: Kristiania Eunsthandel, Karl-Johans-Gade 39. — 
Photographic Requisites: Nerlien, Nedre Slots-Gade 13; Abel, 0vre Slots- 
Gade 7. — Travelling Requisites: W. Schmidt, Karl-Johans-Gade 41 ; 
Steen & Strem, Prinsens-Gade 23. — Spoiting Articles (for hunting and 
fishing; ice-axes; snow-shoes): Torgersen & Co., Storthings-Gade 4, Eids- 
volds-Plads; Hagen & Co., Kirke-Gade 19. — Preserved Meats, etc.: 
Jensen, <fc Co., Torv-Gade 5a; Bergwitz, 0we Slots-Gade, corner of Karl- 
Johans-Gade; Oluf Lorentzen, Carl-Johans-Gade 33. 

Steamers, very numerous, from the Toldbod-Brygge, the Faettnings- 
Brygge, or the Jernbane-Brygge (PI. D, E, 7), see 'Norges Communicationer'. 

Baths. Kristiania-Bad, corner of Munkedamsveien and Ringsgangen, 
nearly opp. University, with Turkish baths, etc. — Bathing in the fjord: 
best on the Bygde (p. 16), at Bygdenccs-Bad (PI. A, 5), on the E., to which 
steamers ply every 1 /t hr. from the Piperviks-Brygge (PI. B, 7); at Bygde- 
Sebad (p. 17), on the W., to which steamers from Piperviken also ply 
hourly, in 72 hr. The water of the fjord is only slightly salt. The rise 
and fall of the tide averages 1-2 ft. only. 

Theatres. National Theatre (PI. E, 3; p. 12), from 1st Sept. to 1st 
June; Ibsen and Bj0rnson in August also; orchestra 5, parquet A 3-372, 
parquet B 2V2-3 kr. — Two small theatres, in winter only : Central, Akers- 
Gade 38, and Fahlstrem's, Torv-Gade 9, near Stor-Torvet, operettas and 
comedies. — At the Tivoli (PI. E, 3), opp. the National Theatre, concerts 
and varieties daily (adm. 60 0., and various extras). 

English Church (St. Edmund's), M0ller-Gade. Service at 11 a.m. 

Sights. Art Museum (p. 12): Sun., Tues., Wed., Thurs., Frid., 12-3, 
free. At other times apply to the Vagtmester (N.W. side of building; 
V2-I kr.). 

Art Union (Kunstforening; PI. 19; E, 3), Universitets-Gade 14, corner of 
Pilestrede; varying exhibitions of modern pictures: Sun. 12-3, week-days 
(except Sat.) 10-6, 50 0. 

Art-Industry Museum (p. 15): Tues., Wed., Thurs., Frid., 12-3, free; at 
other times, Vagtmester 50 0. 

Historical Museum (p. 12) : historical and ethnographical collection, Sun. 
12-3 and 6-8; Tues., Wed., Thurs., Frid., 1-3, free; coins, Sun. 12-3, free; 
Gj0a collection, Tues., Wed., Thurs., Frid., 11-1, '2b 0. 

Norwegian National Museum in the Bygd0 (p. 17): daily 11 a.m. to 
11 p.m.; collections till 8 only; Sun. 26, week-days 50 0.; catalogue 40 0. 

Storthing Building (p. 11): in summer daily; apply to the Vagtmester 
(entrance on S. side, Storthingf-Gate ; fee V2-I kr.). 

Vikings' 1 Ships: Gogstad ship (p. 12), Sun., Mon., Frid., 12-2, free; at 
other limes, Vagtmester 25 0. (middle building of University). Oseberg 
sbip (p. 14), Sun. 12-3, week-days 11-3 and 5-7, 50 0. 

Foe Limited Time: Walk through the Karl-Johans-Gade; see Art 
Museum (p. 12), Vikings' Ships (p. 12, 14), views from St. Hanshaugen (p. 16) 
and Oscarshall (p. 17); take excursion to Holmenkollen (p. 19) and steam- 
boat trip on the Fjord (p. 20). 

Christiania, or Kristiania, the Norwegian capital and seat of 
government, is beautifully situated at the foot of pine-clad hills, 

History. CHRISTIANIA. 2. Route. 11 

at the N. end of the Christiania Fjord, and on the Akers-Elv, a small 
river falling into it (in 59° 54' N. lat. and 10° 50' E. long.). The 
mediaeval Oslo lay on the E. bank of the river. It was founded by 
Harald Haardraada about 1050, and was afterwards a settlement of 
the Hanseatic League. In the old cathedral of St. Harvard several 
Norwegian kings were interred, and in 1589 James VI. of Scotland 
was married to Anne of Denmark. After the Are of 1624 Christian IV. 
of Denmark founded the modern town, to the N. of the old fortress 
of Akershus, and named it after himself. In 1686, 1708, and 1858 
Christiania suffered severely from fires. The population (almost 
entirely Protestant) in 1815 was 11,000, in 1875 it was 96,000, in 
1894 it was 183,000, and in 1905 it was 226,472. Its trade is con- 
siderable. Half of the imports (meat, grain, textile fabrics, colonial 
products, coals, etc.) and one-quarter of the exports (timber, pack- 
ing-paper, paving-stones, herrings and other fish, and ice) pass 
through Christiania, which owns about 100 sailing-vessels and 200 
steamers. In and near the city are many engine-works, nail- factories, 
ship-building yards, breweries, cotton and paper mills, etc. 

The principal street is the Karl-Johans-Gade (Pi. F 4, E 3), 
extending from the 0st-Banegaard (chief railway-station; PI. F, 4) 
to the palace at the W. end. Some of the new houses are partly 
built of beautiful granite, reddish syenite, and 'labrador'. Halfway 
between the station and the Eidsvolds-Plads, on the right, is the 
Stor-Torv (PI. F, 3, 4; 'great market'), known as Torvet, with a 
Statue of Christian IV., by Jacobsen (1874). On the E. side of the 
Torv rises the — 

Vor Frelsers Kirke, or Church of Our Saviour, consecrated in 
1697, and restored by Chateauneuf of Hamburg in 1849-50. The 
altar-piece is by E. Steinle of Diisseldorf , and the marble font by 
Fladager. — In the Torv-Gade, N. of the Torv, is the Dampkjekken 
('steam kitchen'; PL 4; E, 3), founded in 1858, where about 2000 
persons daily get a dinner for 35-50 0. 

Beyond the Stor-Torv begins the busiest part of the Karl-Johans- 
Gade. Among the handsome buildings may be noticed Tostrup- 
Oaarden (No. 25), designed by Fiirst & Hansteen, with labrador 
stone below and white marble above, and fine wrought iron- work. 
On the S. side of the street rises the — 

Storthings-Bygning (PI. E, 3), or Norwegian Parliament House, 
built in 1861-66 from designs by Langlet. The chief facade towards 
the Eidsvolds-Plads is flanked with two lions in granite by Borch. 
The Storthing ('great assembly') consists of 123 members (41 from 
the towns, 82 from the country), one fourth of whom form the 
Lagthing ('law assembly'), a kind of revising committee or upper 
house, while the remaining members form the Odelsthing. The 
sittings begin in January. The Storthings-Sal contains a large picture 
by Oscar Wergeland, representing the discussion of the Norwegian 

12 Route 2. CHRISTIANIA. University. 

constitution (p. lvii). - In the Akers-Gade to the S. of the 
Storthing Building, is a oust of the poet J. H. Wessel (p. In). Op- 
posite is the Masonic Lodge, with cafe and restaurant (p. 9) 

In the Eidsyolds-Pi ads (PL E, 3) is a statue of the poet Henrik 
Werqeland fp. lix), by Bergslien. On the W. side rises the National 
Theatre (PI E, 3), erected in 1895-99 by Henrik Bull. In front of 
it are colossal statues of Ibsen and Bjernson, by Stephen Smding; at 
the back a statue of Johannes Bruun, the actor, by Bergslien. 

The University (PI. E, 3), founded by Frederick VI. of Denmark 
in 1811, has five faculties with 65 professors and about 20 lecturers, 
attended by 1500 students. It consists of three buildings, erected 
in 1841-53 by Orosch, partly as suggested by Schinkel of Berlin. 
In front of the central building rises a statue of the Norwegian jurist 
and politician Ant. Martin Schweigaard (d. 1870), by Middelthun. 
The E. wing, 'Domus Academical, contains the great hall, and the 
W. wing the Library (420,000 vols.). 

In the grounds at the back of the central building is a wooden 
shed containing a * Viking's Ship of the 9th cent., found in 1889 at 
Gogstad, near Sandefjord. Adm., see p. 10. 

As the ancient Germanic kings were buried with their war-steeds, so 
the Viking chiefs were laid to rest in their ships with their arms and 
treasures. The ship exhibited here owes its preservation to the Blue clay 
in which it was imbedded. Its total length from stem to stern is 77 it., 
length of keel 66, breadth 16 ft. To the mast in the centre a large square- 
sail was attached by a pulley. In the third plank from the top are sixteen 
rowlocks The rudder was placed on the right side (whence starboard, 
steering side). By the mast was placed the wooden tomb-chamber, prob- 
ably pillaged at an early period. — A second shed contains fragments ot 
a similar boat, found in Smaalene in 1867, and several old church-paintings 
from the Hallingdal. 

In the Universitets-Gade, N. of the University, is the Museum 
of Art (PI. E, 3), a brick edifice in the Italian Renaissance style, 
built in 1879-81 by Adolf Schirmer at the cost of the Christiania 
Savings Bank, and enlarged in 1903-7. The gTOund-floor contains 
a large collection of casts. On the upper floor is a picture-gallery 
which affords a survey of the Norwegian painting of the last century 
and the present. The pictures bear the names of the artists, but are 
not numbered. Catalogue 30 0. The director is Hr. Jens Thiis. 
Adm., see p. 10. 

Upper Floor. — Staircase : St. Striding, Captive Mother, Man and Wife, 
both works in bronze; A. Rodin. Thinker, in bronze. — Room I: Sculp- 
tures by O. Vigeland (b. 1869), incl. Hell, a relief in bronze; on the walls 
Dutch pictures of the 16th-17th cent., incl. Jac. Jordaens, Allegory of the 
Peace of Westphalia; Jan Fyt, Dogs and wolves. To the right we enter 
a suite of five rooms, lighted from above. 

II. Room. Danish, Swedish, and other painters: M. Ancher, Cape Skagen; 
K Zahrtmann, Queen Eleonora Christina in prison (p. 417); J. F. Skovgaard, 
Angel moving the water at Bethesda; A. Zorn, Bocky islands; N. Kreuger, 
MoorinOland; Prince Eugene of Sweden, Evening landscape; E. A. Josephson, 
Spanish smithy ; B. Liljefors, Guillemots ; F. J. Fagerlin, Bachelor's woes ; 
J E. Bergh, Beech-forest; B. Nordenherg, Swedish village church; /. F. 
Rafaelli, Street in sunshine; Claude Monet, Coast of Etretat in rain; F. Wide, 

Historical Museum. CHRISTIANIA. 

2. Route. 13 

Actor; P. S. Kreyer (p. 417), Concert in a studio. — Opposite the entrance 
we enter four Cabinets, containing several Italian works of the 17th cent, 
(such as a good copy of Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa), German of the 
16th cent. (L. Cranach, Bart. Beham), Dutch of the 17th cent. ( Wouverman, 
Mondecoeter), and German of the modern Diisseldorf School (A. Achenbach, 
0. Achenbach, E. Geselschap, C. W. Hubner, B. Jordan). — From the last 
cabinet we enter — 

III. Room, which, with two following cabinets, is occupied by Norwegian 
painters of the early 19th cent., chiefly of the Diisseldorf School (p. lix): 
(right) Lud. Munthe, German landscapes, Norwegian coast; A. Askevold, 
Mountain-lake; Morten Mailer and Joh. 

Ghr. G.Dahl (Dresden), several pictures; 
H. A. Cappelen, Waterfall in Telemarken, 
etc. ; H. F. Gude, "Christiania Fjord, etc. ; 
others by K. Baade and Joh. Fr. Eckers- 
berg. Then scenes from Norwegian 
peasant -life by Ad. Tidemand, such as 
Wedding in the Hardanger in a land- 
scape by Gude, Meeting of Haugianists, 
Lonely parents, Bear-hunter. — Cabinets : 
1st. B. F. Gude, Eocky islands. The 
staircase adjacent on the left contains 
several large canvases : Ghr. Krogh, News 
of a death, Vikings on the N. American 
coast in the year 1000; K. Ucherman, 
Flock of sheep ('an enemy coming') ; 
Ax. Jungsledt (a Swede), Mines of Danne- 
mora. — 2nd Cabinet (right of 1st) : 
Landscapes by 0. Isaachsen, Am. Nielsen, 
etc. — In the 3rd Cabinet begins the 
modern Norwegian School, developed 
since 1880 (p. lix): O. Sinding, Night in 
the Arctic Ocean; N. G.Wenlzel, Interior; 
N. Gude, Portrait of his father, H.F. Gude. 
— 4th Cabinet: H. Heyerdahl, Portrait 
of himself, Old fisherman, Family group ; 
G. Munthe, Eggedal. 

IV. Room. Entrance - wall : Eilif 
Petersen, Mother Utne in the Hardansrer; 

H Heyerdahl, On the Christiania Fjord; Eyolf Soot, Child - murdress ; 
G. Munthe, Summer day. First end-wall: Werenskiold, Telemarken peasant 
girl, Fru Erika Lie-Nissen; Ghr. Krogh, Struggle for existence; Petersen, 
Grieg, the composer. 2nd end-wall: Fritz Thaulow, The Hougfos by Modum; 
Werenskiold, Peasant's funeral ; Petersen, Portrait of a woman, Nap in an 
osteria. — Next Cabinets : 'Mother watches', a group in marble, and 
'Tired' in bronze, by Math. Skeibrok. Pictures: J. M. Grimelund, Mexico 
dock at Antwerp ; Fr. Kolste, Salmon-fishing ; 0. Binding, Harbour of Reine 
in the Lofoten Islands; G. Munthe, Fantastic scenes from Norse myths, 
in water-colours. , ... . 

V. Room. Entrance-wall: left, Ghr. Skredsmg , Pladsen, by Vmje 
Eyolf Soot, Jonas Lie, the poet, and his wife. - 2nd side-wall: Sven 
Jergensen, Unemployed ; K. Uchermann, Dog-cart ; N. G. Wentzel, Breakfast, 
Dance in the Sa;tersdal, Confirmation festival. By the exit : Kitty L. Kielland, 
Summer night. , e . ,.., 

VI Room. Entrance-wall: Sin. Sinding, Interior; E. 0fsti, Midsummer 
night. Left wall: Ed. Munch, Spring, Portrait of himself. End-wall: 
H. Sohlberg, Summer evening. Second side-wall : Th. Erichsen, Landscape 
in Telemarken. 

The Historical Museum (Plan 11 ; E, 3), in the Frediiks-Gade, 
contains the Northern Antiquities, the Cabinet of Coins and the 
Ethnographical Collection of the University. Adm., see p. 10. 

14 Route 2. CHRIST1ANIA. Palace. 

On the Geousd Flook we enter, to the right, the 1st Room : Weapons of 
the Flint Period (to about 1500 B.C.). Interesting unfinished tools in the glass 
cass by the middle window, in licatini the method of manufacture. Then 
axes, spear-heads, and trinkets of the Bronze Period (about 1500-50C I B.C.). — 
2nd Room : Objects from the earlier Iron Period (about 500 B.C. to 700 A.D) ; 
at the end, gold trinkets and gold rings used as counters. — A passage 
leads to the 3rd Riom, containing relics from the later iron age ( Vxkmg 
Period, 8th-10th cent.) : weapons, implements, trinkets ; among the latter, 
a number in gold, from Hoon, near Hougsmd (p. 25); also a spur with 
rich filigree work, from R#d on the Christiania Fjord. — We return to 
the entrance vestibule and mount the stairs to the Central Floob. The 
Cabinet of Coins here consists of over 45,000 coins and medals. Here also 
begins the Ethnographical Collection, formed by the Arctic navigator Roald 
Amundsen during his K. pole and N.W. passage explorations (1903-7). Also 
Prof. Collett's Biological Groups. — On the Upper Flook five rooms con- 
tain the rest of the ethnographical collection. Descriptive catalogue 50 0. 

A hut on the other side of the Fredriks-Gade, next to the 
Chemical Laboratory (PL 14; E, 3), contains a -well-preserved bik- 
ing's Ship, found at Oseberg near Tensberg (p. lOj, and carefully 
restored in 1906. Its dimensions are similar to those of the Gogstad 
ship (p. 12), but its bow and stern are adorned with carving, dating 
probably from about A.D. 800. 

On a hill at the W. end of the town, in a beautiful park, rises 
the Koyal Palace (Slot ; Pl.D, 3), a long, plain edifice with an Ionic 
portico, erected in 1825-48. It contains pictures and sculptures by 
Norwegian artists. Admittance, when the royal family is absent, 
on application to the Slotsfure'r in the S. wing (fee). 

In front of the palace rises an Equestrian Statue of Charles XIV. 
John (Bernadotte), by Brynjulf Bergslien (d. 1898), inscribed with 
the king's motto 'The people's love is my reward'. — In the S.E. 
comer of the palace-garden is a monument to N. H. Ahel, the Nor- 
wegian mathematician, by G. Vigeland. 

The modern quarter (PL D, 2), N. of the palace park, named 
Homansby after its founder, consists of villas and pleasant gardens. 
On the S. side of the palace grounds runs the Drammensvei, No. 19 
in which, on the right, is the Nobel Institute (PL 23; C, 3; comp. 
p. 317). From the E. end of the Drammensvei runs to the S. the 
Victoria Terrace (PI. D, 3), with its double rows of shops below 
and its three lofty turreted dwelling-houses above. 

The Akers-Gade leads S. from the Storthing Building to the 
Jobannes-Kirke (PL E, 4), a brick edifice by Bull (1878), with 
an altar-piece by E. Petersen. ('Kirketjener' or sacristan, Akers- 
Gade 1.) — Opposite the church, to the N., in the 0vre Slots-Gade, 
is the Christiania Savings Bank, a handsome granite edifice, with 
a colonnaded balcony and characteristic northern sculpture, built 
by H. Nissen in 1900. — To the S. of the church, in the Bank- 
Plads, is Norges Bank (PL 22; E, 4), a new building by Hjorth. 

Farther W., Riadhus-Gade 25, is the new Seamen's Some. — 
In the Tordenskjolds-Plads (PL E, 4) is a statue, by Axel Ender 
(1901), of Peder Vessel Tordenskjold, commander of the Danish- 
Nortvegian fleet in the northern war (pp. lv, 202). 

Art-Industry Museum. CHRISTIANIA. 2. Route. 15 

The Fortress of Akershus (PI. E, 5), besieged in vain by Duke 
Eric of Sweden in 1310, by Christian II. of Denmark in 1531-32, 
and by the Swedes again in 1567 and in 1716, is used as an arsenal 
and a prison (now under restoration). It also contains the garrison- 
church. Permission to visit the Museum of Artillery and "Weapons 
is obtained at the office of the 'Felttedm ester' in the Faestnings- 
Plads, opposite the main entrance to the fortress. 

In the, N. of the Karl-Johans-Gade, are the new 
Courts of Justice (PL 1*2; F, 3), where the supreme court sits, and 
opposite are the new Government Offices (PL F, 3), complete 1 in 
1905. — Farther N. is the Trefoldigheds - Kirke (PL F, 2), or 
Trinity Church, a Gothic edifice with a dome, partly designed by 
Cbateauneuf of Hamburg, and erected in 1853-58. The interior, 
a handsome octagon, contains an altar-piece by Tidemand and a 
font with an angel by Middelthun. — A little to the W., at the 
corner of the Keysers - Gade and Munch-Gade, is the Enkekasse 
(Widows' Fund; PL 5; E, 3). 

By the Rom. Cath. St. Olafs-Kirke (PL F, 2), erected in 1853, 
the Akers-Gade divides into the Akersvei, to the right, and the 
Ullevoldsvei, to the left, the latter leading direct in 10 min., the 
former past the Gamle Akers-Kirke in i/jhr., to St. Hanshaug. — 
The first house to the left in the Ullevoldsvei, at the corner of 
St. Olafs-Gade, is ihe'School of Art and Handicrafts, which contains 
the Art-Industry Museum (PL E, F, 2; entered from St. Olafs- 
Gade; adm., see p. 10). 

On the Ground Floo::, to the right, is the library ; on the left is the 
Ancient Norwegian Collection of woven stuffs, notably tapestry (including 
a piece dating from the 12th ont.), embroidery, trinkets, domestic 
utensils, etc. ; also carved mangle-boards from the Gudbrandsdal (18th and 
19th cent.). In the furthest room, in a glass-case, are two bridal croWDS 
from Voss (p. 139) and the Gudbrandsdal; by the right end-wall are casts 
of the two carved portals of the old churches of Aal (p. 40) and Sauland 
(p. 30), both of the 12th cent. — We now mount the stair.i, made of Nor- 
wegian serpentine, to the Centka!. Flook. Room A: cups, vase - -, embossed 
goblet! (including the nautilus goblet of Math. Walloaum, Augsburg, 
16th cent.), and some small utensils. Rooms B-, €: Chinese and Japanese 
curiosities. Rooms D-K: Furniture, etc. ; note in Room F a piece of 
French Gobelins of the 17th cent. — Room L: pain'ed room from a 
peasant's cottage of 1759, S. Norway. — On the TJppeb Floor: porcelain, 
chiefly from Dresden and Copenhagen, Norwegian glasses of the 18th cent., 
fayence, etc. from Herrab0e by Frederikshald (1760 2); also antique vases 
and terracottas. In Room B are the pulpit, altar, font, etc. of Vor Frelsers 
Kirke (p. 11), of the 17th and 18:h cent. Lastly Room O contains specimens 
of pointing and binding. 

Between the Ullevoldsvei and the Akersvei rises the cemetery, 
Voa Fkelsers Gbavlund (PI. E, F, 2), well laid out and worthy 
of a visit. It may be entered by the lower gate and left by the 
upper. In the central part, about 150 paces E. from the entrance 
opposite the Frimanns-Gade, a lofty obelisk of labrador stone marks 
Ibsen's Tomb. The mallet is an allusion to his poem of 'The Miner' 
('Break me a way to the mountain's heart). — The Qamle Akers- 

16 Route?. BYGD0. Environs 

Kirke m F 1), mentioned before 1150, perhaps founded by King 
Olaf Kyrre, 'is a Romanesque basilica of the Anglo-Norman type. 
It was restored in 1861 and 1904-5. It terminates in walls with 
curious openings like portals communicating with the joining 
choir, transepts, and nave. The 'Kirketjener' lives in the httle 

^^San^Iugen, or 'St. John's Hill' (PI. E, 1; 280 ft.), is 
a public promenade, much frequented in the afternoon and evening 
Near the lower entrance (electric tram station, p. 9) is a good 
Restaurant (music in the evening), and farther on is a so-called 
Sportstue (p. 19), both timber-built in the Norwegian style. On 
the top is a reservoir of the city water-works, the tower of which 
commands an admirable survey of the city, the fjord with its islands, 
the Ekeberg to the left, Oscarshall to the right, and Frognersaeter on 
the hill- to theN.W. The overseer, for whom the visitor rings, 
names the chief points (fee). Below the reservoir is a seated figure 
of Peter Christen Asbjernsen (1812-85), the writer of fairy-tales, by 
B. BergsLien. In the grounds behind the reservoir are a den with 
two Norwegian bears and several cages with other animals. 

The Botanic Garden (PI. H, 2, 3; open till dusk ; hot-houses 9-12 and 
2-7) affords a fine view of the city from the E side. The Zoological 
Collection formerly at the University (p. 12) is to be transferred to a new 
building here. 

Environs of Christiania. 

The Bygd<* is best visited either by Electric Tram (p. 9), from the 
stations of Skillebselc and Skarpsno, whence we reach the ferries in a Sew 
minutes, or by the small Steamers which ply every i/s-1 hr. between fiper- 
viken (PI. D, E, 4) and various points on the Bygd0 (fares 10-A) 0). — 
The Railway Station for Bygd0 is Skeien (p. 20), 1 M. S. of Oscarhall. 

The peninsula of Bygdtf, to the W. of Christiania, with the 
royal chateau of Oscarshall, the National Norwegian Museum, and 
two sea-bathiug resorts, affords a charming object for an afternoon s 
excursion. The N. part resembles a well-wooded paTk. 

The Electric Tramway follows the Drammensvei (PL D, C, 3') 
flanked with villas. About 1/4 M. S. of the station of Skilleba-k 
(PI. B, 4), at the end of the Framnasvei, is the pier of the steam- 
launch (10 0.) to Dronningen (see below). A finger-post at the 
station of Skarpsno (PI. 3) points the way to the steam-ferry to 
Oscarshall (5 0. ; from the pier on the other side we ascend to the 
left to the chateau in 5 min.). 

The chief stations of the Steamers from Piperviken are on the 
E. side of the peninsula: 1. Christiania and Bygde Line : Byg- 
denaes Bad (PL A, 5 ; p. 10 ; where bath visitors land) ; Dronningen 
(PL A, 4), a rocky islet connected with the Bygde by a floating 
bridge and containing the restaurant of the Eoyal Yacht Club (p. 9; 
from the W. end of the bridge we reach the Fredriksborg and 
Oscarshall road); Oscarshall (see below; pier adjoining that of the 


of Christiania. OSCARSHALL. 2. Route. 17 

above-named steam- ferry). — 2. Christiania and Fredriksborg Line: 
Fredriksborg, a summer-resort on the hay of Langviken (PI. A, 5), 
with villas and gardens. To reach (20-25 min.) Oscarshall from this 
point we take the path leading past the Fredriksborg Tivoli to 
(3 min.) a road, follow the latter to the right, and again turn to 
the right (1/4 hr.) beyond the Norwegian National Museum. — 
3. Steamers also ply to the Bygde Sebad (p. 10), on the N.W. bank 
of the Bygde. The road thence to (25-30 min.) Oscarshall passes 
'Paraplyen' and the Museum. 

The chateau of *Oscarshall (80 ft.; PI. A, 4), built in the Eng- 
lish Gothic style by Nebelong for King Oscar I. in 1849-52, and 
adorned with paintings by Norwegian artists, is chiefly interesting 
for the sake of the view. The 'Vagtmester' lives at the back, S.W. 
side (fee y 2 -l kr.). 

The Dining Room in the detached building is adorned with Norwegian 
landscapes by J. Frich. above which are ten fine scenes by A. Tidemand 
(p. 13) from 'Norsk Bondeliv', or Norwegian peasant life. — The Drawing 
Room, on the ground -floor of the chateau, contains statues of Harald 
Haarfager, Olaf Tryggvason, St. Olaf, and Sverre, in zinc, by Michelsen. — 
A room on the First Floor contains nine bas-reliefs from Frithjof's 
Saga, by C. Borch, and four fine landscapes by H. Oude (comp. p. 146). — 
On the Second Floor: paintings, wood-carvings, portraits, and relics. 

A winding staircase of 28 steps ascends to the flat roof of the chateau, 
and 43 steps more to the top of the tower, where we have a charming 
"View of Christiania, its fjord, and environs (best by evening-light). 

A road to the W. of the Vagtmester's house leads to (10 min.) 
the Museum, which may also be reached from Dronningen in 15, 
or from Fredriksborg in 20 min. ; comp. above). 

The Norwegian National Museum (Norsk Folke - Museum ; 
adm. see p. 10; photographing prohibited), opened in 1902, re- 
sembling the open-air museum of Skansen near Stockholm (p. 338), 
affords an insight into the civic and rural life of Norway prior to 
the era of modern culture. 

The Entrance Gate is a copy of a town-gate of Bergen of 1628. 
Straight on we reach an open space with buildings after Christiania 
models. The first on the left is the Depot-Hus, where carts, sledges, 
and harness from different districts, and stoves and fire-places are 
exhibited. Opposite is the Ridehus, the 32 rooms of which, together 
with an upper gallery, contain the chief part of the collection: 
textile fabrics, furniture, pictures, domestic utensils, etc., those from 
the country being arranged by districts, beginning on the right. The 
Gudbrandsdal (Rooms 5-7) is very fully represented, and Telemarken 
(RR. 11-15) shows its peculiar style of art. In the 18th Room begins 
a series of household articles of the 17th and 18th cent., showing 
distinct marks of foreign influence, and arranged chronologically. 
Rooms 28, 29 are devoted to W. Norway, Rooms 30, 31 to N. Nor- 
way. Room 32 contains historical memorials. In the upper Gallery 
are (right) costumes, table-requisites, (left) musical instruments, 
copper and tin utensils, fayence, glass, trinkets. The Church contains 
Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 9th Edit 2 

18 Boute2.-Map, P .16. EKEBERG. Environ* 

carved and painted altar-pieces, pulpits, and other objects of the 
16th, 17th, and especially the 18th cent. Behind the Ridehus are 
several old cottages from various provinces; the oldest is the Kau- 
landsstue, with a carved doorway and Runic inscription earlier than 
1300. Passing the church, we may cross the street to the restaurant 
of Gildesluen. - A little higher up, to the N.W., hidden in the 
wood is the *Church of Ool (p. 42), a 'Stavekirke' or timber-built 
church of the 12th or 13th cent. (comp. p. 28), first mentioned in 
1309 brought here in 1884, and freely restored, partly after the 
church of Borgund (p. 51). Around are several farm-houses, in- 
cluding one from Telemarken, with their original furnishings. The 
road on the E. side of the National Museum leads past the Land- 
brugs- Museum, a collection of agricultural implements (daily, 10-2 
and 4-7), to the old royal Kongsgaard, a model farm, with a plain 
mansion fitted up as a summer residence for the royal family. We 
may walk thence to (i/ 4 hr.) the Sceterhytte, a restaurant on the 
Dronningbjerg, where the steamers from Piperviken sometimes call. 

The Ekeberg. — Electric Tramway from the Storthing (p. 9), through 
the Stor-Torv, to the end of the suburb of Oslo (comp. PI. F G 4, H 5); or 
Steamer from the Jernbane-Brygge (PI. F, 4) to Kongshavn (10 0.) or Oi-m- 
sund (20 0.), about 12 times daily; comp. Com. 140, 141. 

A few paces beyond the tramway terminus (PI. H, 5) we reach 
the point where the Ljabrovei and the Kongsvei fork. The former, 
to the right, skirts the railway and the fjord. The Kongsvei (left) 
ascends the slope of the Ekeberg. After 12 min. a path to the right 
ascends to a rocky knoll, which affords a beautiful view (best by 
morning-light) of the harbour of Christiania with the islands in 
front of it, and of the Orma to the S. About 40 paces farther a path 
to the left leads to other points of view, while the Karlsborgvei, to 
the right, descends through wood to (5 min.) the restaurant and 
sea-baths of Kongshavn (steamb. stat., see above), situated on the 
Ljabro road % M. from the tramway-terminus. — The Kongsvei 
leads through wood, passing several taverns (to the left, above), 
to (25 min.) Bcekketaget, a group of villas (above the rail. stat. 
mentioned at p. 98), and on to Ljan. 

HoLMENKOLLBN and Fbognees^ITEE. — From Majorstuen, the 
tramway terminus (p. 9; 10 0.), an electric line runs to Holmenkolkn 
(25 min. up, 17 min. down; fare 25 0. ; every >/« Qr - on week-days, every 
TVz min. on Sun.). — From Holiuenkollen we -walk to (30-40 min.) 
Frpgnersaster, The excursion takes 3'/2-4 hrs. in all. — From Holmen- 
kollen omnibus twice daily to Voxenkollen (1 kr.). 

The Holmenkollen Light Railway (4 M. ; many stations, but 
cars only stop when required) runs from Majorstuen (PI. C, 1), 
passing several country-houses, and in view of the Vestre Akers Kirke, 
a Gothic brick church, to the right, to a point near the lunatic 
asylum of Gaustad. The cars ascend, and at Riis intersect a new 
villa-colony. — 2 M. Stemdal. The line is hewn in the rock or 
carried along the slope by embankments. Maximum gradient 

of Christiania. FROGNERS/ETER. Ma Pl p. 16.— 2. Route. 19 

1 : 25. Beautiful pine-wood. The last station is Midstuen. We cross 
the old Frognersster road (see below) by a lofty bridge and turn 
S.W. to the terminus at (4 M.) Holmerikollen ("797 ft.") V. hr 
below the hotel. J ' * 

*Holmenkollen (1040 ft), with its splendid open view of 
Ohristiania and the fjord, is the most popular resort near the Nor- 
wegian capital. In winter snow-shoeing ('skileb') is practised here 
with great energy. In February there is a three -days' national 
festival for ski-racing, when the shops and schools of Christiania 
are closed. Near the top is a Tourist Hotel, a handsome building 
erected by 0. Sverre in 1896-7, with a good restaurant (D. 3, S. l^kr., 
or a la carte ; R. in de'pendance 2-5 kr.). The rooms are adorned 
with scenes by Norwegian painters. On the slope in front (short- 
cut from the station), to the right, is a so-called Sportstue (cafe" 
and beer-house). — A lofty 'bautasten' commemorates the visit of 
Emp. William II. and King Oscar II. on 2nd July, 1890. The road 
forks here : to the right the 'Keiser Wilhelms Vei' ; to the left, 
leading to the Sanatorium (pens. 35-45 kr. per week) 'Kone 
Oskars Vei'. Jl 

From the Kong Oskars Vei a path diverges to the right, on this 
side of the archway leading into the Sanatorium , and above the 
Besserud-Tjern (see below) ascends to the left to (15-20 min.) the 
Holmenkoltaarn , a view- tower on the top of the Holmenkollen 
(1040 ft.). Halfway up, another path ascends to the right to the 

The Keiser Wilhelms Vei leads from Holmenkollen to the 
(35 min.) Frognersaeter, almost all the way through wood. After 
10 Min. we pass the Peisstue (rfmts.), on the Besserud- Tjern (1015 ft.), 
an artificial lake, and in 10 min. more, beyond a new chapel, we 
reach the Wilhelmshei Hotel (D. 2kr.), just before the road forks to 
Voxenkollen (see p. 20). A 'bautasten' here commemorates Eivind 
Astmp, the Arctic traveller, who perished on the Dovrefjeld in the 
winter of 1895-96. Passing the initials W(ilhelm) and O(skar) cut 
in the rocks in 1890, we reach (i/ 4 hr.) the — 

Trognersueter (1410 ft.), the country-seat of the late Consul 
T. J. Heftye (d. 1886), purchased by the city in 1889. It com- 
mands a superb view of Christiania and the fjord. The Restaurant, 
to the left, was built in 1891 by H. Munthe, in the Norwegian style 
(pleasant seats on the upper balcony). To the right are several old 
timber-buildings from Telemarken and the Hallingdal , and the 
Villa, which contains a collection of Norse antiquities (adm. 25 ».). 
A litte to the E. is a Sportstue, or refreshment- room. 

The view ig more extensive from a scaffolding (with mountain-irdi- 
cator) on the "Tryvandshaide (1702 ft.), to which we ascend past the 0vre 
Frognersaiter in 25 min. In clear weather we see the Telemarken Mts to 
the N. (Gausta, p. 31), those cf the Hallingdal to the N.W. (Norefjeld, p. 39), 
and the hills en the Swedish frontier to the E. — From the 0vre Frogner- 
sseter a good woodland path leads in 20-25 min. to Voxenkollen Sanatorium 
(P- 20). 



Route 3. — Map, p. 22. SANDVIKEN. From Christiania 

Walkers may return from the Frognersaeter to Christiania by the old 
road, which descends, immediately E. of the Villa Heftye, through wood 
to the 0/2 hr.) station of Midstuen (p. 19). It then leads under the electric 
railway and past a small 'bautasten', erected to Heftye, where it joins 
the old Holmenkollen road (right), and past the Fosheim Sanatorium to 
(V2 hr.) Elemdal (p. 18). 

The above-mentioned road (from which after Y4 hr. another di- 
verges to the Voxenkollen Hospice,-p. 19) leads W. from the Wilhelms- 
hei Hotel, past *Anne Kure's Hotel (1383 ft.; pens. 4 1 /2-7 kr.), to 
Voxenkollen (1540 ft.), a granite rock commanding a fine view (near 
which is a royal villa), and to (V2 hr. from Wilhelmshei Hotel) 
Dr. Holm's * Voxenkollen Sanatorium (1555 ft. ; pens., with baths, 
42-70 kr. per week). 

A pleasant trip on the *Christiania Fjord may be taken by the 
steamer Turisten (twice daily from Piperviken, PI. D, E, 4; 2 1 /2hrs. • 
fare 2 l / 2 kr. ; restaurant on board), or by one of the other steamers 
(Com. 140, 141, 144, 145, 161). 

A fine view of Christiania is obtained from the Hoveda, S. of the for- 
tress of Akershus (p. 15). The island, which belongs to the fortifications 
(powder-magazine), contains remains of a Cistercian abbey, founded by 
English monks in 1147 and destroyed in 1532. Permission to visit the island 
is obtained at the office of the l Feldt0imester' (p. 15). Rowing-boat from 
Piperviken or from Grev Wedels Plads, according to tariff, there and back, 
90 0., 2 pers. 1 kr. 35, 3 pers. 1 kr. 80, 4 pers. 2 kr. 70 0. 

3. From Christiania by Drammen to Skien. 

204 Kil. Railway: to Drammen, express in l'/ihr. (fares 3 kr. 45, 2 kr. 
25«r.), ordinary in 2'/4 hrs. (fares 2 kr. 65, 1 kr. 75 0); to Skien, express 
in 6V2 hrs. (U kr. 90 0.), ordinary in 71/2 hrs. (9 kr. SO, 6 kr. 20 0.). 

The train starts from the W. Station at Christiania (p. 8). Views 
to the left, where we soon see the beautiful Christiania Fjord and the 
peninsula of Bygda, with the white chateau of Oscarshall. 3 Kil. 
Skeien (p. 16); 6 Kil. Lysaker, at the mouth of the Serkedals-Elv. 

To the right rise the porphyry hills of the Kolsaas (1247 ft. ; 
extensive view), Skougumsaas, etc. The Silurian strata are here 
streaked with thick veins of greenstone, especially near (10 Kil.) 
Hevik, where a vein 2 ft. thick intersects the disintegrated slate. 
The train skirts the Enger-Vand, on the right. 

13 Kil. Sandviken (Sandvikens Hotel, beyond the bridge over the 
Sandviks-Elv) is prettily situated on the fjord. 

From Sandviken to Sdndvolden (skyds should be ordered by message 
from Christiania the day before) the road skirts the Sandviks-Elv and then 
ascends the Isidal. On the hill to the left is the old church of Tanum, 
to the right rises the Kolsaas (see above). The highest point on the road 
is 1068 ft. above the sea. 15 Kil. Sottihagda, in wood. By the rocky 
gateway called Skaret our road joins the 'Svangstrandsvei' coming from 
Lier (p. 21), and then descends to the Tyrifjord (p. 25), lying far below. 
29 Kil. Sundvolden (p. 25). 

The train ascends through cuttings and two short tunnels. 
20 Kil. Hvalstad (219 ft. ; Hvalstad Sanatorium), at the foot of the 
Skougumsaas (1130 ft.). It then crosses a timber viaduct, 90 ft. high. 




to Skien - DRAMMEN. 3. Route. 21 

,r ^ 3 , KiL f^fl ( 340 ft ^' with a new chuich. We skirt the massive 
Vardekolle (1148 ft.), a granite hill to the S.W., and pass the small 
lakes Bondivand (325 ft.) and Qjellumvand (315 ft.). At the S end 
of the latter is (29 Kil.) Heggedal, beyond which we skirt the abrupt 
Brejmaas. Beyond (34 Kil.) Reken the line turns sharply to the W 
Numerous cuttings. 

Beyond a tunnel a striking *View of the Drammens-Fjord and 
the Lier valley is disclosed to the left, though partly shut out by 
trees and cuttings. —We then descend through another tunnel and 
several cuttings, in a long curve, to (46 Kil.) Lier 
„„ 2* A 2 C , a f Lls f *T om a y r er b y Sjaastad to (21 Kil.; li/ 4 hr.) Svangstrand 

To SUSmfizi™ " 2o of the Tyrifjord (p - *»• 

We now run through a fertile tract to (51 Kil.) Bragereen, sta- 
tion for the E. quarter of Drammen, and cross the Drammens-Elv 
and the island of MMlerholm or Holmen, with its timber-yards to 
the principal station. ' 

53 Kil. Drammen. — Bail. Restaurant, breakfast station. — Hotel 
° E X E 1v' Wl 6 , the station , entrance in a side-street, with garden 
and baths, R. lVs-5kr. ; Britannia, near the station; Gband Hotel, nlar the 
Bragernaes-Torv, new. - British Vice-consul, Mr. Anders Sveaas. 
dam occSnaTl Chrlstiauia dail y ( Com - 185-188) ; to Hamburg and Rotter- 

Drammen, junction of the Hougsund-Kongsberg, the Houg- 
sund-H*-nefos, and the Krederen lines (pp. 27, 25, 39), a town 
with 24,500 inhab., picturesquely situated at the influx of the 
broad Drammens-Elv into the Drammens-Fjord, and enclosed by 
lofty hills, consists of Bragernces on the N. bank, Stremse on the S. 
bank, and Tangen to the S.E. Its prosperity is due to its export 
of timber, which is nearly one-third of that of the entire country 
(about 4 million logs annually). It also exports zinc and nickel from 
Skouger and Ringerike, and wood-pulp from the factories on the 
Drammens-Elv and the Baegna. The commercial fleet of Drammen is 
one of the largest in Norway (over 200 sailing-vessels and steamers). 
Sea-going vessels are berthed at the fine stone quay of Bragernais. 

By the railway-station a Timber Bridge crosses the Drammens- 
Elv from Strermse to Bragernais. The fire-station (see below), with 
its two flagstaffs, is conspicuous on the hill to the right. The bridge 
leads to the Bragernas-Torv, in which, to the right, are the Ex- 
change (with the Post and Telegraph Offices behind it; entrance in 
the Nedre Stor-Gade) ; then, on the right, the Raadhus and Byret 
(court-house), inscribed Ret og Sandhed ('justice and truth'). 
Straight on, passing between two small towers, we ascend the Kirke- 
Gade to the conspicuous Bragernces Church, a Gothic brick edifice 
by Nordgre'n, built in 1866-71, containing a Resurrection by Tide- 
mand and an Angel over the font by Borch. (The 'Kirketjener' lives 
in the small white timber house opposite the sacristy, to the left.) 

To the E. of Bragernaes Church we reach (12-15 min.) the 
Bkandpostbn (fire-station), which affords an extensive survey of 

22 Route 3. T0NSBERG. From Ohristiania 

Tangen, Strains*, and Bragernaes, the island of Holmen with its 
timber-yards, the valley of the Drammens-Elv, and the fjord. The 
veranda of the watchman's house is open to the public. 

The road then ascends to the (35-40 min.) Klopkjcern (754 ft.), 
a sequestered lake in the wood, which supplies the town with good 
water. Pleasant grounds (rfmts.). A path ascends to the right in 
5 min. to Prinds Oskars Vdsigt. 

A promenade ('Oskarsstien') connects the Klopkjiern with 
fine points of view on the slope of the Bragemcesaas, which may 
also be reached direct from Bragernaes in 35-40 min. by an easy 
but shadeless zigzag road('Albumstien'), with benches and a restau- 
rant. The finest points, Toppen, Furulund, and Breidablik, are 
marked on the plan. The last affords the best view up the valley, 
especially at sunset. 

About 5 M. S.W. of Drammen (omn. thrice daily, l 1 /* kr.), on the 
Konerudsaai, lies the Konerudkollen Hotel & Sanatorium (1300 ft. above the 
sea; baths; good pens. 4-5 kr.). — A fine point of view is the Storstent- 
fjeld (1740 ft. ; refuge-hut), 7 M. to the N. of Drammen, also ascended from 
Lier (p. 21). 

The train turns S.W. (fine view of Drammen), passes the 
suburb of Tangen, and rapidly ascends (1 : 80) the Kobberviksdal, 
to its highest point (250 ft.) at (63 Kil.) Skoger. 69 Kil. Galleberg; 
73 Kil. Sande, with a church, near the Sandebugt, of which we get 
a fine view to the left. The train then skirts the fjord. 

86 Kil. Holmestrand (Rail. Rest.; Hot. Societeten, near the sta- 
tion, R. 2-2y 2 , B - li s - 172 kr -! Central, same charges), a sea- 
bathing place with 2320 inhab., is prettily situated at the foot of a 
steep porphyry cliff, to which a zigzag path ascends (view of the 
fjord). Timber church of 1674. — Branch-line to the W. by Hille- 
stad to (30 Kil.) Vittingfos. 

95 Kil. Nykirke. 100 Kil. Skoppum, near the Borrevand ; branch- 
line hence to Borre and (7 Kil.) Horten, on the Ohristiania Fjord 
(p. 7j. _ 103 Kil. Adal; 109 Kil. Barkaaker. To the right we see 
the chateau of Jarlsberg. Beautiful woods. The train stops at the 
N. end of the Tensberg-Fjord, and then runs back for 2 Kil., through 
a short tunnel, to — 

115 Kil. Tensberg (Victoria Hot., near the station, R. 2, B. 1, 
D. 2, S. lV2 kr -> good; Hot. Klubben; Hot. Royal), with 9330 inhab., 
long famous for its seafarers, dating from the time of Harald Haar- 
fager. About fifty seal - hunting vessels start annually from this 
port. Following the Anders-Madsens-Gade near the church (where 
the 'Vagtmester ved Slotstaarnet' lives in a house on the left), we 
then ascend to the left to (1/4 hr.) the Castle Hill, under which the 
railway tunnel passes. The Slotstaam at the top affords a fine view 
and contains a few antiquities and whaling implements. — Branch- 
line to the N., by Hillestad (see above), to (48 Kil.) Eidsfos (Eids- 
fos Hot.), at the S. end of Lake Ekern, with its railway carriage 
works (comp. p. 27). 



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t0 Mien. LARVIK. 3. Route. 23 

At (121 Kil.) Sem or Semb we cross the Oulie-Elv. 128 Kil. 
Stokke; 135 Kil. Raastad. To the left is Gogstad (see p. 12). 

139 Kil. Sandefjord (Grand Hot, good, R. 2, D. 2, S. l'/ 2 kr.; 
Hot. JiTon^ Karl), a town with 5030 inhab. and busy shipping, and 
also a favourite watering-place with sulphur, salt, and iron springs, 
lies on the fjord of that name. In autumn the sea swarms with 
medusae ('maneter'), which are said to he beneficial to bathers. The 
Jcettegryder near Gaard Aasen are interesting; the largest is 23 ft. 
deep. Similar 'giant's cauldrons' at the (31/2 M.) Vindalsbugt may be 
visited by boat. The whole region between Trasberg and Larvik 
is historic ground. At Hjertnas are several 'bautastenar'. 

144 Kil. Jaaberg; 149 Kil. Tjelling, with a view of the Larviks- 
fjord as far as Fredriksvaem. We cross the Laagen (p. 27) by a long 
bridge, to the suburb of Thorstrand, and pass through two tunnels 
to — 

1 58 Kil. Larvik. — Rail. Restaurant. — Grand Hotel, R. 21/2-4V2, B. 1, D. 
(at 2 p.m.) 2, S. li/ 2 kr.; Thora Hansen's Hotel, R. la/ 4 -3, B. li/ 4 , D. (at 
l.dO p.m.) 2, S. l'/skr., both near the station and the pier; Larviks Hotel. — 
Larviks Bad, with mineral and sulphur springs and mud-baths; board 18 kr 
weekly, 64 kr. monthly, R. 20-50 kr. per month. 'Kurpenge', or visitors' tax 
22 kr. per week, 90 kr. per month. — Sea Baths, W. of the harbour — 
British Vice-Consul, Chr. Nielsen. 

Larvik, Larvig, or Laurvik, formerly the capital of a county 
with 10,400 inhab., and its suburbs Langestrand to the W. and 
Thorstrand to the E. (with bottle-works), are beautifully situated 
on the Larviksfjord, near the mouth of the Laagen, a noted salmon- 

The station is on the harbour, which the railway skirts. Pleasant 
walk on the long piers. The streets running inland ascend to the 
*Begeskov, a fine beech-plantation behind the highest houses to the 
N. of the town. Near the entrance are a cafe and a pavilion, where 
a band often plays. One of the walks in the wood leads from the 
pavilion to the right (N.E.) to a fine point of view overlooking the 
Farisvand. Another walk is from the station E. to Larviks Kirke 
(view of the fjord) and Herregaardsbakken (in all 172-2 hrs.). — 
The large building to the S., conspicuous from the sea, is the old 
manor-house of Fritseehus. 

The train (views to the right) crosses the Faris-Elv (which drives 
the Fritsee Jernvark and other factories), ascends to the Farisvand 
(69 ft. ; about 872 sq. M. ; 420 ft. deep), and skirts its W. bank, 
passing through many short tunnels. Pleasing field and woodland 
scenery. — 169 Kil. Tjose; 182 Kil. Aaklungen, on a small lake 
(135 ft.). Then several other lakes. 188 Kil. Bjerkedalen (235 ft.). 

192 Kil. Eidanger, 72 hr. from the station, pleasantly situated 
in woods at the N. end of the Eidanger Fjord (sea-bathing). 

From Eidanger to Brevik, 9 Kil., railway in 22 min. (fares 45, 30 1 at 
first through fine woods. 2 Kil Nystvand (Eidanger Hotel), on the Eidanger 
Fjord, the W. bank of which the train skirts. 6 Kil. Heistad. — Brevik 
(Hot. Stiansen), with 2530 inhab. , is charmingly situated at the S.E. end 

24 Route 5. — Map, p. 32. SKIEN. 

of a rocky peninsula which separates the Eidanger Fjord from the Friers- 
fjord. Opposite, to the S., is the little town of Stathelle. — From 
Brevik steamers ply to Christiania (Com. 197, 198, 199) and Christiansand 
(Com. 244). . 

195 Kil. Porsgrund (Stiansen's Hotel; Victoria, an old mansion, 
plainly fitted up, 5 min. from the station, good, E. 2kr.; British 
Consul, J. W. M. Franklin), a town of 5220 inhab., lies on both 
banks of the Skiens-Elv, which descends from the Nordsje and falls 
into a bay of the Friers fjord 1 1/ 2 M. below the town, bringing yearly 
IV2 million logs of timber to the sea. Porsgrund is noted for its 

We ascend the left bank of the broad Skiens-Elv, through a 
smiling district with many farms, and pass through a tunnel. 

204 Kil. Skien. — "Hpyeb's Hotel, with electric light and hatha, 
R. 21/4-6, B. 11/2, D. (2-5 p.m.) 21/4, S. H/2 kr. ; Royal Hotel, R. from IV2, 
B. 1, D. 2, S. 172 kr., good; both near the station and the quay; Gkand 
Hotel, Telemarks - Gade , with view of the quay of the Telemarken 
steamers, with baths and electric light, good, R. 172-5, B. I74, D. (2.30 p.m.) 
2, S. I1/2 kr. ; H. Tukisten, R. H/2, B. l'/ 4 , D. 2, S. I1/2 kr. — Cafi-Restau- 
rant in the Festivitets-Lokal (also warm baths, 50 0.-1 kr.). — Post Office, 
Torv-Gade, near the harbour. 

Steamers. To Telemarken twice daily (once on Sun.), both to Ulefos- 
Dalen (Com. 470) and to Ulefos-HitterdaHv. 28; Com. 468); pier above the 
Damfos, 72 M. from the rail. stat. (cabs in waiting). — Sea-going steamers 
daily to Porsgrund, Langesund, and Christiania (Com. 197, 198, 199). 

Skien (pron. Shane), the railway terminus, a commercial and 
industrial town with 11,870 inhab., founded as Skida in the 
14th cent., repeatedly burned down (last in 1886) and rebuilt, 
■was the birthplace of the dramatist Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906). It 
lies on the N. bank of the Skiens-Elv, which descends from the 
Nordsje, breaks through a rocky barrier in two falls, and then 
forms a roomy harbour. In the Jernbane-Torv, by the harbour, 
are the Railway Station and the Raadhus, with arcaded porch. The 
broad Prindsens-Gade ascends hence to the new Church, a Gothic 
brick building by J. H. Bergh, with two lofty slate-covered spires. 
The square in front of the church is adorned with a Bust of Ibsen, 
by Visdal. Adjacent is Skien s Festivitets-Lokal, with a public 
library, baths, and cafe. 

From the Grand Hotel the street named 'Broerne' (quays) leads 
to the Damfos and the Klosterfos, the two waterfalls mentioned 
above. On an island between them formerly stood the nunnery of 
Oimse, founded in 1110. 

On the steep Bratsbergklev, S.E. of the town, are the ruins of 
the Bratsberg Chapel, which has given its name to the whole pro- 
vince (fine view by morning-light). It is reached from the station 
in 20 min. by the Nedre Skotlandsvei and a flight of wooden steps. 


4. From Drammen by Hougsund and Hanefos 
to the Randsfjord. 

89 Kil. Railway (express has through-carriages from Christiania) to 
Henefos in 2'/2-3 hrs. (fares 3 kr. 55, 2 kr. 30 0.), to Randsfjord in 3'/4-4 hrs. 
(4 kr. 15, 2 kr. 65 0.). — Steamer from Randsfjord to Odnses, see p. 26. 

Drammen, see p. 21. The Randsfjord line (views to the right) 
ascends the broad valley of the Drammens-Elv. 2 Kil. Oulskogen; 
11 Kil. Mjendalen. 

17 Kil. Hougsund (Rail. Best.), junction for Kongsberg (p. 27; 
change). To the W. rises the Jonsknut (p. 27). Near Haugsund is 
the Hellefos, a fall of the Drammens-Elv, -with salmon-fishery. 

The Randsfjord train turns N., still ascending the Drammens- 
Elv. Beautiful scenery. Views on both sides. Several fine water- 
falls. 22 Kil. Burud ; 27 Kil. Skotselven, with a wood-pulp mill. 
"We cross the Drammens-Elv, which here forms the Deviksfos. — 
33 Kil. Aamot, on the left bank. A suspension-bridge crosses to 
a large saw-mill, driven by the fall of the Simoa descending from 
the Sigdal, and to the Nykirke. Scenery very fine. Farther on, the 
Snarums-Elv descends from the Hallingdal. We recross to the right 
bank. 39 Kil. Ojeitkus, with the Gravfos and a large paper-mill. 
Pretty walk to the Hirsdal with the St. Olafsgryder, 'cauldrons' of 
the ice-period. 

43 Kil. Vikesund {Krona Hot. $ Skyds Stat., modest), junction 
for Krederen (p. 39), lies at the efflux of the Drammens-Elv from 
the Tyrifjord. A long bridge crosses the river to the church of 

To the W. of Vikesund lies (4 Kil.) Bad Modum, with a chalybeate 
spring (St. Olafslilde), mud-baths, etc. (pension, incl. baths, medical ad- 
vice, etc., from 6 kr.). Beautiful wood walks, with views, to the Kaggefos 
and other falls of the Snarums-Elv. This district is the scene of many 
traditions of St. Olaf. About 5 Kil. W. are Cobalt Mines (closed) and the 

We skirt the W. bank of the Tyrifjord (200 ft.; area over 
51 sq. M. ; depth 920 ft.), with its many arms, the fourth largest 
of the Norwegian lakes. 

On a bay of the B. bank of the Tyrifjord lies Sundvolden (Hot. Sund- 
volden, R. l'/2-4, B. or S. H/4 kr.), reached by road from Sandviken (p. 20) 
or by steamer from Svangstrand (p. 21). From Sundvolden we may ascend 
the "Krogklev (1452 ft.). The path ascends through a gorge to (3/ 4 hr.) Klev- 
stuen, a rustic inn, then to the right, following the white crosses on the 
trees, to (25-30 min.) "Kongens Udsigt (King's View; 1243 ft.). Beautiful 
view of the fjord and the district of Ringerike. 

The numerous islands in the fjord are said to be stones once vainly 
hurled by a giantess at the church of Steen. — From Sundvolden to H0nefos 
14 Kil. (carr. at the inn). The road crosses the Krogsund by a long em- 
bankment. It passes the ruined church of Steen, the tumulus of King Half- 
dan (d. 860), and then Jforderhovs Kirke, with a memorial stone (to the left) 
to the pastor's wife Anna Kolbjornsdatter, by whose stratagem in 1716 
the Swedish Col. Lciwen was captured. 

52 Kil. Nakkerud; 58 Kil. Skjcerdalen, with saw- mills, and near 
it Ringerikes Nikkelvcerk; 65 Kil. Ask. The train quits the Tyrifjord. 

26 Route 3. — Map, p. 20. RANDSFJORD. 

71 Kil. Henefos. — "Glatved's Hotel, 7 2 M. from the station (om- 
nibus 50 0.), with baths, electric light, garden on the Bsegna, host speaks 
English, R. 2-6, B. H/4, D. 21/2, S. I1/2 kr. ; Grand Hotel, nearer the sta- 
tion ; Jeknbane Hot., at the station. — Skydt to Sundvolden (p. 25) cariole 
3i/4, carr. for 2, 3, or 4 pers. 6, 8, or 10 kr. ; to Sandviken (p. 22) for 2, 
3, or 4 pers. 18, 22V2, 25 kr. — Engl. Ch. Service at Glatved's Hotel. 

Henefos (314 ft.), a little town of 2340 inhab., lies at the con- 
fluence of the Baegna or Aadals-Elv , which descends from Lake 
Spirillen, and the Rands-Elv, coming from the Randsfjord. These 
rivers form the Stor-Elv, which falls into the Tyrifjord. TheBaegna- 
Elv, the larger of the two, has two falls, together known as the 

From the station we descend the street to (5 min.) the market 
place, and then turn to the left to the bridge which crosses the 
Baegna close to the falls. Though spoiled by saw-mills, flour-mills, 
and factories, the falls are imposing, especially in May and June 
when swollen by the melting snow. On the left bank, above the 
bridge, is a channel which conveys timber to the mills. Glatv ed's 
hotel is 6 min. below the bridge. 

A road on the left bank of tjie Bsegna leads in 1 hr. to the Hofsfos, 
another cascade, close to the railway to Heen (carr. 4 kr. ; to Heen, 6kr.). 

The "Ringkollen (2268 ft.), 5 M. E. of Htfnefos, is an admirable point 
of view (there and back 5 hrs ; cariole 5 kr. ; carr. for 2, 3, or 4 pers. 8, 
10, or 12 kr). The road leads by Gjermundiro, and ends at the Gjermundbro- 
Sceter (tourists' hut). Walk to the top 3 A hr. 

At Henefos the Randsfjord railway will be crossed by the new 
line to Bergen (p. 39). Our train ascends and crosses the Baegna. 

78 Kil. Heen (Jernbane Hotel, Anderson's Hotel, both by the 
steamboat-pier, 1/2 M - f rom tne station, very fair), with several 
mills. Travellers alight here for the Lake Spirillen Steamer (p. 46). 

Turning E. , the train skirts the Hejaas (1490 ft.) and the 
Askelihoug (1503 ft.), traversing a sequestered wooded district. 

89 Kil. Randsfjord Station (Hot. Berger, by the station ; Rands- 
fjord Hot., 5 min. further, on the opp. bank) lies on the Rands- 
Elv, at its efflux from the S. end of the Randsfjord. A bridge 
crosses the broad river to Hadelands Glasvark, which employs many 
Bohemian hands. — The pier of the lake-steamers is close to the 
station. (To Odnaas 4 1 / 2 -5i/2 hrs. ; fares 4 kr., 2 kr. 80 0. ; restaur, 
on board; Com. 452.) 

The Randsfjord (446 ft. ; 45 M. long, 52 sq. M. in area, and 
355 ft. deep) is bounded on the E. by the fertile Hadeland, and 
on the W. and N. by Valders and Land. The banks, rising grad- 
ually to 2000 ft., well cultivated at places, and wooded at the top, 
are somewhat monotonous. The steamer stops at many stations j 
Reikenvik (Hotel), Hov, and Fluberg are rail, stations also (comp. 45). 

The inns at Odnas (p. 45) are 8 or 10 min. from the pier. 


5. From Hougsund to Kongsberg and Ulefos 

( Telemarken-Hardanger) . 

Railway to Kongsberg, 28 Kil., in iy 3 hr. (fares 1 kr. 45, 80 0.). — 
Road from Kongsberg to Notoddtn, 28 Kil., a drive of 4'/2 hrs. -, stolkjeerre 
for 1 or 2 pers. 67a or 91/2 kr.; carr. and pair for 2, 3, or 4 pers. I41/2, 
lG'/2, 19 kr. — Steamer from Notodden to Ulefos (Com. 463) twice daily 
in 2'/ 2 hrs.; fare 2 kr. 30 0. 

A visit to the Bjukanfos (p. 30), which has heen sadly spoiled by the 
electric and saltpeter works, will hardly pay any more. New railway- 
lines are being constructed from Notodden to Tinoset and from Fagerstrand 
to Fosso (p. 29), on account of these works. The two lines will then be 
connected by lar^e ferry boats on the Tinsj0. 

Hougsund, see p. 25. The Kongsberg train affords the finest 
views to the left. 5 Kil. Vestfossen, with factories; 7 kil. Flesaker, 
on the Ekernvand or Fiskumvand (58 ft. ; steamer twice daily to 
Eidsfos, p. 22), hounded by lofty mountains on the E. 11 Kil. Darbu; 
15 Kil. Krekling (412 ft). Farther on we have a fine view of the 
mountains to theS. 22 Kil. Skollenborg (540ft.); 7 4 hr. to the S.W. 
is the Labrofos, 131 ft. high, a fall of the Laagen, which the train 
now approaches. Sterile soil, chiefly granitic sand. To the left rises 
the Skrimsfjeld (2851 ft.). Near Kongsberg the Laagen forms the 
Hammerfos, which works a government arms-factory. 

28 Kil . Kongsberg. — 'Grand Hotel, on the left bank, near the 
station, R. 1-3, B. iy 4 , D. (1.30 p.m.) 2-3, S. ly 2 ki\; "Victoria, in the 
W. quarter, right bank, R. I1/2-6, B. I1/2, D. 2y 2 , S. IV2 kr. Both hotels 
have omnibuses at the station, baths, etc., and are often crowded in summer. 
English, French, and German are spoken. 

Kongsberg (488 ft.), a town of 5670 inhab., on both banks of 
the swift Laagen or Laugen, in the S. part of the Numedal (p. 32), 
owes its origin and its former prosperty to the neighbouring silver- 
mines, discovered in 1623 in the reign of Christian IV., but now 
almost worked out. Most of the houses are timber -built, but the 
large Church of the 18th cent., by which rises a monument (1883) 
to Christian IV., and the Raadhus are of stone. In the Smeltehytte, 
or smelting-works, specimens of the ore may be purchased. The 
Laagen is crossed by two bridges. The Udsigt (^hr. W.) commands 
a good view of the town, and S. over the valley of the Laagen. 
The names of two of the mines, 'Gotteshilfe in der Not' and 'Armen- 
grube', recall the Saxon miners once employed. 

The Jonsknut (2979 ft.), about 2 M. to the W., is ascended from Kongs- 
berg in 4 hrs. (there and back 6-7 hrs.). We follow the mining road by 
Saugrenden to 'Kongens Dam', and walk thence to the top in */ 4 hr. 
A path indicated by red and white marks leads from the Jonsknut, by the 
Li-Sceter, the Nor-Soeter, and the Selsli-Sceter, to (7 hrs.) Bolkesj/j (see below). 

From Kongsberg byBolkesj0To Tinoset, 52km. The road ascends the 
Numedal (p. 32) on the right bank of the Laagen for 5 Kil. , turns to the 
left into the Jondal, and ascends through pines on the right bank of the 
Jondals-Elv. Farther on we cross the river. After a drive of 4 hrs. or 
a walk of 5-6 hrs. we reach the highest point of the route (1790 ft.), where 
we obtain a striking view of the mountains of Telemarken, particularly 
the Lifjeld (p. 31) and the Gausta (p. 31), which appears like a blunted cone 

28 Route 5. NOTODDEN. From Hougsund 

25kil. (pay for 36) Bolkesj0 (1287 ft.; Hotel & Sanatorium, E. 2-3, B. 
1V4, D. 2-3, S. l'/2kr. ; Grand Hotel, same charges, both good) lies above 
the little lake of that name (1030ft.) and commands fine views; below, 
farther S., lies the Folsje (740 ft.); to the N. rises the Bleifjeld (4488 ft.). 

We ascend, passing the farms of Helleberg. Fine views of the valley 
to the left. After an hour's drive a road diverges to the right to the church 
of Hovin (about 20 Kil. X. ; p. 29). Our road turns S.W., passing several 
lakes on the right. Then a rapid descent to the Tin-Elv, which we crose 
an hour later at Kirkevolden, near the church of Gransherred, where we 
reach the Hitterdal road (p. 29). 

27 Kil. (pay for 36) Tinoset, see p. 29. 

The Telemakken-Road, after about 4 Kil., turns W. into the dale 
of the Kobberbergs-Elv. To the right rises the Jonsknut (p. 27). 
We ascend the wooded Medheia, and after 2-272 hrs. reach Jern- 
gruben (1352 ft. ; tolerable inn), where the horses rest for y 2 hr. 
The road still ascends, and then traverses the plateau (1476 ft.) 
in numerous undulations. Quitting the forest it descends into the 
Hitterdal. Beautiful view : in front the Telemarken Mts., the 
Himingen (3448 ft. ; p. 29), and the Hceksfjeld, to the left the Hitter- 
dalsvand. A tablet calls attention to the view of the Gausta. Our 
road unites with the Skien road on the E. bank of the Ilitterdals- 
vand (p. 29). 

28 Kil. (pay for 36) Notodden (Hot. Furuheim, good, K. 2, 
B. I1/4, D. 21/2, S. l'/2 kr. ; Victoria, commended) lies near the 
N. end of the Hitterdalsvand. A few hundred paces further the 
road crosses the Tin-Elv, which, 5 min. above the bridge, forms the 
*Tinfos. The huge volume of water descends in three cascades 
about 65 ft. high. It supplies several factories with motive power. 
One of these manufactures saltpetre from the nitrogen of the air 
by means of electricity, according to the process of the Norwegian 
engineers Birkeland and Eide. 

About 6 Kil. from Notodden, on the right, rises *Hitterdals 
Eirke, the largest of the existing twenty-four mediaeval Norwegian 
'Stavekirker', or timber-built churches. It dates from the 13th cent., 
and is first mentioned in 1315. The architecture and ornament- 
ation of these singular churches belong to the 12th cent., the plan, 
so far as difference of material allows, being that of Anglo-Norman 
churches of that period (comp. p. 16). To the rectangular body of 
the church is added a square choir ending in a semicircle. The 
broad and lofty nave is separated from the low aisles by wooden 
columns. Over the gabled roof of the nave rises a square gabled 
tower, which terminates in a slender spire. The dragon -head 
ornamentation of these gables resembles that of a ship's prow.- 
The roof of the choir is lower and is surmounted by a round turret. 
Round the whole building runs a low arcade (Lop), probably used 
as a shelter in bad weather before or after service. The capitals 
of the columns and the doors and door-frames are embellished with 
elaborate and fantastic carvings, representing dragons and other 
figures. The interior was adapted to modern use in 1850 , and has 


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to Ulefos. FAGERSTRAND. 5. Route. 29 

lost part of its primitive character by the insertion of windows. 
The nave contains twelve columns and the choir four. The key 
('Neglen') is obtained at the parsonage, opposite the entrance. 

The Hitterdalsvand (50 ft. ; 12 M. long) is uninteresting. The 
steamboat -pier (p. 27) is near the Furuheim Hotel. From the 
S, end of the lake, near Farodden or Farvolden, issues the Sauer- 
Elv, which soon expands for a short distance into the Brafjord. 
Passing Aslaksborg or Aarnas, the steamer reaches the Nordsje (p. 33) 
and steers down that lake to Ulefos, atrip of 2^ hrs. from Notodden. 

Vlefos, and thence to Dalen and Odde, see p. 33. 

Fkom Notodden to the Tinsj» and thb Rjukani-os. Railway, 
see p. 27. The road passes the Hitterdals-Kirke (p. 28) and the 
gaards of Bamle and Kaasa. Conspicuous on the left is the 
Himingen (3450 ft.), a pyramidal mountain, sometimes ascended for 
the view (from Hitterdal over the Himingen to Levheim, 7-8 hrs., 
with guide), beyond which rises the Haeksfjeld (p. 28). The road 
to L»vheim (p. 31) diverges to the left. 

The Tinsje road leads N., at the base of the Kjeivingfjeld (2263 ft.), 
and then ascends the course of the 0rvatlla, which has forced its 
way through huge masses of debris, now overgrown with pines. 
"We cross the stream several times. At the 'Plads' Bakken, about 
21 Kil. from Notodden, the horses are rested. About 5 Kil. farther 
the road from Gransherred and Bolkesjfl (p. 28) joins ours on the 
right, and after 5 Kil. more we reach • — 

32 Kil. Tinoset (Hot. Tinoset, R. 2, B. li/ 2 , D. 2, S. I1/2 kr.), 
a group of houses at the S. end of the Tinsj* (605 ft. ; 17^2 sq. M. 
in area; 1436 ft. deep.). This lake resembles the Spirillen (p. 46), 
but its banks are not so high. 

The steamer from Tinoset to Fagerstrand (2 kr. ; Com. 266 ; comp. 
p. 27) calls at Sanden (left), Hovin (right), and other stations. The 
finest point in the landscape is the Haakenasfjeld. Beyond it, 
23/4 hrs. from Tinoset, we reach — 

Fagerstrand (Fagerstrand 1 s Hotel, R. iy 2 -2, B. 1, D. 2, S. l 1 /^., 
very fair), near the church of Mai, at the mouth of the Maan-Elv. 
The steamer goes on to Sigurdsrud at the N. end of the lake. 

From Fagerstrand to Fosso near the Rjukanfos 26 Kil., a good 
road (stolkjaerre for 1 or 2 pers. 4 kr. 40, 6 kr. 60 0.; carr. and pair 
for 2, 3, or 4 pers. lO 1 /^) 13, 14t/2 kr. ; there and back a fare and 
a half), ascending the beautiful Vestfjord- Dal, on the left bank of 
the Maan-Elv. To the right opens the Haakedal. The imposing 
Gausta (p. 31) soon becomes visible on the left. 9 Kil. Nyland, 
■whence the Gausta may be ascended in 6 hrs. (guide 4-5 kr., may 
be dispensed with by experts). 3 Kil. the straggling village of Bale. 
The road ascends, at first gently, then steeply, with the Gausta 
behind us, to Vaae (1730 ft.), 22 Kil. from Fagerstrand. Then a 
further ascent in windings. On the left, a little short of Fosso, is 

6V B. 5. — Map, p. 29. KJUKANFOS. From Haugsund 

a small platform on the left -which affords the best survey of the 
Rjukanfos. About 4 Kil. from Vaal, after a drive of 4-4^2 nrs -i we 
reach — 

Fosso (2480 ft. ; *Rjukan- Turist-Eotel$ Sanatorium, R. i l lr^ l l% 
B. I1/4, D. 21/2, S. I1/2 kr-)- Just bel ° w th e hotel a path leads to 
various points of view. The Rjukanfos ('reeking' or 'foaming fall'), 
formed by the Maan-Elv, takes two leaps into the ravine, one of 65 ft., 
the other of 492 ft. The upper fall, the Kvemhusfos, is used for 
generating electricity. A tunnel is being constructed to divert the 
whole volume of water to supply a factory where saltpetre is made 
by the new electric process (p. 28). 

Fkom the Rjukanfos to the Hakdangek Fjord : two routes, one to 
Odde, another to Eidfjord; the former preferable, but both fatiguing, and 
not to be attempted before July. Guides are necessary on parts of both 
routes. Provisions should be brought. 

To Odde, 4-5 days : — 1st Day (11-12 hrs., with guide, who rows across 
the lakes). From Fosso we ascend the road on the left bank of the Maan- 
Elv. After 2'/a hrs. the road ends for the present. By a gaard a rough 
path diverging to the left leads in 3 /4 hr. to Holvik (poor inn), on the 
Mjesvand (2960 ft.; 1572 sq. M. in area; 131 ft. deep). To the W. rises 
the huge Raulandsfj eld (5124 ft.). From Holvik we row either direct 
across the E. bay of the Mj0svand (10 min; 50 0.), or W. to the (1-174 hr.l 
Erlandsgaard. From each landing-place rough and partly marshy paths 
(insufficiently marked) lead to (3-4 hrs.) the gaard of Gibeen (poor quarters), 
on the S.E. arm of the Mjesvand. We row thence across the lake (10 min. ; 
50 0.) and walk to (4-5 hrs.) Berge, on the Totakvand (2248 ft. ; 1472 sq. M. 
in area; 820 ft. deep; good quarters at the Midgaard, J / ( M. farther W.). 
— 2nd Day (5'/2-6 hrs.; guide advisable). We follow the N. bank of the 
Totakvand, past the church of Eauland, to (27s hrs ) Killingthveit, then 
cross by boat to Brunelid (no houses) at the foot of the Flaatebunut (or 
row direct from Midgaarden to Brunelid in 2 hrs. ; I72 kr. each pers.). 
Then a steep ascent of 20 min. to a more level tract. Before we again 
descend we have a striking view of the Grungedal, lying lengthwise be- 
fore us. Lastly a steep descent of 72- 3 A hr. to the road mentioned on 
p. 37, which we reach near the bridge over the Grungedals-Elv. This 
road leads W. to ( 3 / 4 hr.) the Rui Hotel (p. 37). From Rui to Odde by 
skyds in two or three days. — [The following route is easier, bat rather 
longer: row from Midgaarden in 1 hr. (IV2 kr. each pers.) across the 
Totakvand to Kosthveit on the S. bank, whence a cart-track leads to 
(172 hr.) Jamsgaard on the Hitterdal and Hardanger road (p. 32), 3 /4 M. 
from the skyds-station Vinje.] 

To the V0eingfos and Eidfjokd, 3-4 days, guide advisable all the 
way. — 1st Day (about 12 hrs.). From Fosso to Holvik (see above) in 
372 hrs. ; row in 3'/2 hrs. to Mjesslrand, and in 372-4 hrs. more to the N. 
end of the lake; walk in I72 hr. to Mogen (poor inn, closed in 1C03). — 
2nd Day (9-10 hrs.; horse and guide 17 kr). We go N.W. to the (6 Kil.) 
Gjuvsjei, abounding in fish, then W., past the three Skaritjerne on the left, 
to the (3V 2 hrs.) Fjeldsje, the N. bank of which we follow for 1 hr. Then 
to the N.W. (with a view of the Bjernefjord) to the Lakensje, and row 
across the strait which separates this lake from the great Nordmandslaagen 
(4157 ft.). On the further bank is the good tourist-hut Sandhoug (bed 
O/4 kr., B. 80 0., S. 1 kr. 20 0.; kept by Sylvfest L. Ssebo, a guide certi- 
ficated by the Norweg. tourists' union). — 3rd Day (10-11 hrs.; horse 16 kr.). 
We at first skirt the N. bank of the Normandslaagen, then continue N.W., 
with fine views of the Hardanger-Vidda, to Bera/telen, 9 hrs. from Sand- 
houg. A good path leads thence in 2 hrs. to the (9 Kil.) Fosli Hotel, above 
the Vevingfos (p. 127). 

to Utefos. SKOVHEIM. Map, p. 29.— 5. Route. 31 

Fkom Notodden to Kirkeb0 and Heggestoi,. Road to the poiut 
where the Tinsja road diverges, see p. 29. Here we turn to the 
left and ascend the valley of the Hjcerdals-Elv, by Landsvcerk, to — 

22 Kil. L«vheim (Levheim's Hot.), prettily situated, a little E. 
of Saulands Kirke. 

Fkom L0vheim to Siljoed (see below), about 24 Kil., a bill-path leads 
S.W. up the Gfnmdingsdal, watered by the Mjmlla. On the Slaakuvand, 
halfway, is the Hot. Lifjeld, at the foot of the Lifjeld (see below). 

From Ltfvheim a road ascends the Grimdingsdal to the N., passing Moen 
and the Semlandsvand, to Hot. Bjaar; then past the Bjaarvand, the church 
of Tuddal, and the Kovstulvand to (32 Kil.) the Tuddals Sanatorium (3193 ft. ; 
R. 1-3, board 8 l /2-4 kr.), situated in pine-woods on the Kovstujheia. Walks 
with fine views. — The Gausta (6180 ft.), the highest mountain in S. Norway, 
is ascended from the Sanatorium in 4-5 hrs. Tourist-hut at the top (adm. 
1 kr. ; 12 beds at 1 kr., B. or S. i.1/2 kr.), often full. We may descend 
to the Ejukanfos (p. 30); path with red marks. 

Beyond Mosebei the scenery becomes grander. The Hjarsje 
(490 ft.) lies on the left. 

18 Kil. Skovheim i Hjcerdal, or Skogheim i Hjertdal [Skogheim 
Hot., R. 2, B. IV2, D. 2, S. H/2 kr -> go°°0, is the starting-point 
for the ascent of the Vindegg (4906 ft. ; with guide, 5-6, there and 
back 8-10 hrs.), which towers to the N. 

About 7 Kil. from Skovheim the Kirkeba and Heggesttfl road 
diverges S. from the road to (23 Kil.) Aamotsdal, crosses the watershed 
of the HjBerdal, and descends in zigzags to the little church and 
scattered gaards of Flatdal. It then skirts the E. bank of the Flat- 
dalsvand. The Skorvefjeld (4443 ft.) rises in the background. By 
the lake rises the Spaadomsnut, which, according to tradition, will 
fall into the water when the end of the world is at hand. Farther 
on we sight the Siljordsvand (384 ft.), a picturesque lake, 872 M. 
long, and the Lifjeld (5087 ft.), on which two French aeronauts 
from Paris descended in 1870. By the church of Siljord (Hotel) we 
cross the feeder of the lake. On the left comes a road from Ulefos 
( P . 33). 

22 Kil. Kobbervolden (Hotel) ; Oppebeen (Hotel), a little further. 
At (14 kil.) Brunkebergs- Kirke (1290 ft.) the road forks. The left 
(S.) arm leads to (17 Kil. from Kobbervolden) Hvideseid-Kirkebe, 
a station of the Bandaksvand steamer (p. 35). 

The road to the right (N.W.) leads through the Morgedal, passing 
two small lakes (1390 ft.), to — 

16 Kil. Heinmestveit i Brunkeberg; then past the church of 
HeidaUmo (Landsvjerk Hotel) and the Oftevand to — 

19 Kil. Mogen (Mogen's Hotel), where a road diverges S. to 
(11 Kil.) Laurdal on the Bandaksvand (p. 35). — "We cross a high 
range of hills. Near (15 Kil.) Aamodt we cross the Toke-Elv, which 
descends from the Totakvand and forms the Hyllandsfos (288 ft.), 
a fall 3/4 M. N. of Aamodt. We pass Thveiten. 

20 Kil. Mule, above the E. end of the Vinjevand. The very 
hilly road now skirts the N. bank of the lake, passing many farms, 

32 Route 5. — Map, p. 29. SKJ0NNE. 

one of which is the Jamsgaard, -where a load diverges to Kosthveit 
on the Totakvand (p. 30). About 1 /i hr. farther a steep road ascends 
to the right to the (5 min.) skyds-station of Vinje (good). The main 
road descends to the church of Vinje, near the N.W. end of the 
Vinjevand. Fine view of the Midt field (4578 ft.) and of the Orm- 
Eggen to the S.W. By the gaard of Pladsen a 'hautasten', on the right, 
with a medallion portrait, commemorates the poet A. 0. Vinje, who 
was born here. 

12 Kil. Heggestel. We cross the Vinje-Elv by a high bridge and 
join the road mentioned at p. 36. To the Rui Hotel, 12 Kil. more. 

From Kongsberg to the Numedal. 

Road with 'fast' stations to Breslerud (123 Kil.); then a lcng day's walk 
across the mountains to Gjeilo on the Bergen railway (p. 40). This route 
is little used except by Norwegians. 

Kongsberg, p. 27. The road ascends the right bank of the Lougen. 

17 Kil. Svennesund. We cross the Lougen and pass the church 
of Svenne, on its left bank. 

14 Kil. Seindre Flesberg, near the chuTch of Flesberg. The valley 
contracts. We re-cross to the right bank by an iron bridge. 

16 Kil. Alfstad {Inn, well spoken of). The valley is wider here. 
The gaard Fikkan or Fekjan, 6-7 Kil. from Alfstad, affords good 
quarters; the owner has built a hut for sportsmen and anglers on 
the Sorkevand or Serkjevand, 10 M. to the W. The Fikkan Salter 
belongs to Frithjof Nansen, the Arctic explorer. At the Vagli-Kirke 
we cross the stream, which has a small fall here, to the Brobakken 
Hotel, near the skyds-station. 

17 Kil. Helle (Inn, commended). The road ascends, and then 
descends to the Ytre Nore-Fjord or Kravik-Fjord (868ft.), whose 
bank it follows. To the left rises the Eidsfjeld (4516 ft.). By Gaard 
Kravik is an ancient timber building. On the opposite bank are the 
old and the new church of Nore. The road then skirts the 0vre 
Norefjord (12 Kil. long), and leads past the farm of Sevli, to — 

27 Kil. Skjenne (947 ft. ; good inn), with several old buildings. 
The road crosses the Laagen and turns W. into the Opdal. The 
Opdals-Elv has several falls. Then a steep ascent to the Fennebu~ 
fjord (1567 ft.). 

11 Kil. Liverud, at the W. end of the Fennebufjord, lies near 
the old Stavekirke of Opdal. We ascend past many farms and the 
new church of Opdal. 

21 Kil. Br-esterud or Brostrud (2625 ft. ; tolerable inn). Quarters 
also at Nerstebe, a little to the W. 

The road ends here. We follow a bridle-path, past the Vass- 
Sa-ter and the Hefde-Sater, to (17 Kil., in 4 hrs.) the church of 
Ddgali (2837 ft.), near which quarters may be had at the gaards 
of Aasberg and Kjenaas. We then cross the fjeld to the (10 Kil.)- 

ULEFOS. Map, p. 22. — 6. R. 33 

Skurdal (2821 ft.; quarters at the Guttormsgaard), and again cross 
the fjeld to (17 Kil.) Ojeilo in the Ustedal (p. 40). 

The Mountain Route to the Hakdanger (100 Kil.) takes three days 
(guide Thore Gundei-sen Videsjorden of Opdal). Provisions should be brought 
from the lower valley. 1st Day: From Nurstebtf we ascend the saeter-path, 
and then cross the plateau of the Hardanger Viddi (3300-4100 ft.), where 
we have an unlimited view of the vast and dreary expanse, unbroken save 
by a few rocky knolls. Passing the Skarseand. we come to (he fikars-Stxter, 
and cross the river by boat. We pass the night, after a walk of 11-12 hrs., 
in the tourists' hut on ihe Laagelidbjerg. — 2nd Day: We skirt, the river, 
then the Gjetsje and the. Store Nordmandssloebet, and after a walk of 10 hrs. 
spend the night in the tourists' but at the confluence of the Bjdrein and 
the Svinla. — 3rd Day: Wc pass the Nybu-Rwlre (3772 ft.), on the Jfyousjer, 
the first huts on the W. side of the field, and then generally follow the 
course of the JSjereia, which lower down forms the Vtfringfjs (p. 127), 
crossing snow, brooks, and marshes, to S'orlien, Maurswl, and Gar'en, and 
the Fosli Hotel (p. 128). 

6. From Skien by the Telemarken Canal and the 
Haukelifjeld to the Hardanger. 

Four Days. From Skien to Dalen, 105 Kil. Steamer twice daily from 
about mid-June, in 811 hrs. (fare 8 or 4 kr. ; to Xllefos 1 kr. 80 0., 1 kr.; 
restaurant on board, B. I 1 /?, D. 2'/4 kr.). — Road from Dalen to Odde, about 
180 Kil. ; skyds tariff, see p. xxi ; landau for 2 pers. 85, 3 pers. 100, 4 pers. 
110 kr., one night being passed at the Voxlid Hotel (p. 37), and a second 
at the Breifond Hotel (p. 114). The Haukeli road (p. 37) is often covered 
with snow till July. If a day be devoted to the Ravnejuv (p. 36) we drive 
at once from Dalen to Eerie (p. 36), and spend the next nights at the Hau- 
keli-Smter fp. 37) and at Seljestad or at the Hotel Udsigten on the Seljes'.ad- 
juv (p. 115). 

The steamer ascends the Skiens-Elv , passes several factories, 
and reaches ('/ 2 hr.) the *Locks ofLeveid, hewn in the rock (1861), 
like those of Trollhattan. The passage takes 20 minutes. The fourth 
lock is used -when the water is high. A bust recalls Amtmann Aall, 
the founder of the canal. 

We pass several small islands and enter the Nordsjc (48 ft. ; 
23 sq. M. in area; about 17'/ 2 M. long; 540 ft. deep), a lake fed 
by many other Telemarken lakes, and flanked with low wooded hills. 
By the entrance to it, on the right, is St. Mikaelshul, a cave where 
Rom. Cath. services were once held. Farther on, to the right, we see 
the church-tower of Romnses and the N. part of the lake (where the 
Hitterdal steamer plies ; p. 38). About 2 hrs. from Skien we reach — 

Ulefos i Holden (Nielsen's Hot., plain; carr. in waiting for pass- 
engers bound for Aaheim's Hotel, 10 Min., see p. 34; pop. 1500), 
situated on both banks of the Eids-Elv, which here falls into the 
Nordsja, driving several wood-pulp and other factories. The owners 
reside in pretty villas with gardens, among which we note the 
castellated villa of the Aall family (right). To the left is the church 
of Holden. 

At Ulefos begins the *Bandak-Nordsj> Canal, constructed in 
1889-92, at a cost of 3,000,000 kr., which in its course of 17 kil. 

Baedeker's Norv*y and Sweden. 9th Edit. 3 

34 R.6. — Map, p. 22- KIRKEB0. From Christiania 

overcomes the difference of level (187 ft.) between the two lakes 
by means of 17 locks. The work presented special difficulties , as 
the locks had in some cases to be formed by huge dams of masonry. 
The steamer takes 2 3 /4"3 hrs. to ascend from Ulefo3 to Hogga, the 
last lock (descent, 2^2 hrs.). 

The Vlefos, the lowest fall of the Eids-Elv, is 36 ft. high. At 
the second of the three locks the river is crossed by an arched 
timber-bridge. On the S. bank lies Aaheim, where the express 
steamers do not touch (Aaheim s Hotel, with pretty grounds, R. 2, 
B. 1, D. 2, S. l'/-2 kr., good; omn. from Ulefos free). We next 
reach the Eidsfos (32 ft. high; seen to the left), overcome by two 
locks, and the rapids of the * Vrangfos, avoided by six locks. At 
the top of these is a dam of red granite, 105 ft. high and 69 ft. 
thick, where the overflow forms a cascade of 75 ft. (right). The 
banks are connected by an iron bridge. 

The steamer takes nearly an hour to ascend from the lower Eidsfos 
lock to the highest Vrangfos lock (or 40 min. to descend). We may there- 
fore land at the Eidsfos, cross to the right bank, and follow a pleasant path 
through the woods to (25 min.) the uppermost Vrangfos lock. Near the 
hitter, on the right, is a platform with a stone table, affording a fine view 
of the whole staircase of locks. Passengers in the reverse direction should 
also take this walk. 

The steamer now ascends the broad river, deepened by its 
enclosing dams. The banks are wooded, with here and there a 
gaard in a clearing. By a bay on the S. side of the river we see 
the Nuke field (1286 ft. ; ascended from Ulefos in 3-4 hrs.), and to 
the N. the Lifjeld (p. 31). On the left (N.) bank rises the church 
of Lvnde, opposite which is Lundefaret, where the steamers some- 
times call. We mount 10 ft. by the lock of Lunde or Qrootevje, 
7 Kil. from Vrangfos, and 10 ft. more by the lock oiKjeldal, 3 Kil. 

The last locks at (2 Kil.) Hogga raise the steamer 23 ft. more. 
The level of the lakes above Hogga is maintained by a huge dam. 

Between the Flaa-Kirke, on the N. bank, and Strcengen, a 
station opposite, the steamer enters the Flaavand (236 ft.). The 
elk still occurs in the forests on the banks. 

We now enter the narrow Fjaagesund and reach the Hvidesjfir. 
The mountains become higher and steeper : to the right rises the 
Brokefjeld (3545 ft.); to the left, in the distance, the bare Robolt- 
fjeld (3348 ft.); to the W., near the Bandaksvand, the pointed Rau- 
berg-Nuten. At the end of the lake lies the wooded island of Buke. 

To the right opens the bay of *Sundkile (4 Kil. long), sur- 
rounded by picturesque mountains, and entered by a narrow strait, 
crossed by a drawbridge. The afternoon-steamer (express) does, 
not enter the Sundkile. The others enter it and call at KirkeW 
(Hot. Hvideseid, at the pier), pleasantly situated at its head. A 
skyds-road runs hence N. to (17 Kil.) Kobbervolden (p. 31), passing 
Brunkebergs Kirke. 

to the Hardanger. DALEN. Maps, pp.22, 29. — 6. R. 35 

The steamer returns to the mouth of the Sundkile, rounds the 
headland of Spjosodden, and stops at Smedodden, on the S. bank, 
by the church of Hvideseid, at the W. end of the Hvidesja. 

Fkom Hvideseid to Arendal (145 Kil.). The road ascends rapidly, 
and then descends to (7 Kil.) Strand i Vraadal (tolerable quarters), a 
little W. of which lies the Vraavand (see below). We turn S. and skirt 
the E. bank of the Nis&ervand, a fine sheet of water, 21 M. long (steamer). 
The next stages are: 17 Kil. Vik i Nisserdal; 26 Kil. Homme i Treungen; 
then past the Hegfos, formed by the Nisser-Elv; 19 Kil. 0% i Aamli; 
16 Kil. Negaarden i Aamli (good inn) ; 13 Kil. Simonslad (p. 6). Thence 
to Arendal, see p. 6. 

We next steer through the artificial channel of Skarperud- 
stremmenfjj Kil. long), connecting the Hvidesja with the *Bandaks- 
vand (236 ft); area 24 sq. M. ; depth 725 ft.), a long and pic- 
turesque lake, enclosed by imposing mountains. The first view of 
the lake, beyond the high rooky island of Bandakse (left) and tho 
station of Apalste (right), is very striking. Farther on, to the left 
above us, is a rock called St. Olafs Ship. The lake then becomes 
a little monotonous, but the W. end is enclosed by the fine moun- 
tains near the Ssetersdal. 

About 1 hr. from Hvideseid we touch at Triset, by the church 
of Laurdal (Bakke's Hot., by the pier), situated in a fertile dale 
on the N. bank of the lake. A good road leads hence to Mogen i 
Heidalsmo (11 Kil.; p. 31). On the S. bank of the lake, opposite 
Laurdal, lies Bandakslid, where some of the steamers call. 

From Bandakslid ('slow' station) the hill is crossed by a zigzag road 
to (5 Kil.) Midlgaarden (fast station). We then pass the W. end of the 
Vraavand (814 ft. ; steamer), and ascend the course of its W. affluent, 
which forms the picturesque "Lille Rjukanfot near the road, and emerges 
from the Skredvand (1079 ft.), a little higher up. We follow the E. bank 
of this lake to (8 Kil.) Rindebakken (slow station); then past Veum to 
(15 Kil.) Moland, on the Fyrisvand (25 Kil. long). Between Veum and 
Moland the Bispevei diverges W. to Viken in the Ssetersdal (p. 5). 

The lake contracts ; the mountains become grander, especially 
on the N. About 1 hr. from Triset is the steamer's terminus — 

Dalen (105 Kil. from Skien). — "Hotel Dalen, i| 4 hr. from the 
quay, with garden, electric light, baths, and view of the lake, E. 2-6, B. l'/2, 
13. (2 p.m.) 21/4, S. (8 p.m.) l'/z kr. (noisy on the arrival of the late steamer). 
— Hot. Bandak, good, R. 1V2-2, B. 1, D. l>/s, S. 1 kr., omn. free; Las 
tein's Hot., by the pier, good, R. Pfe, B. 1 kr. ; Hot. Folkvang. — En- 
glish Church Service in July and August. 

Dalen, at the "W. end of the Bandaksvand, into which the Toke- 
Elv falls here, is the starting-point of the road over the Haukeli- 
fjeld. There is no lack of horses and vehicles (comp. p. 33), but 
landaus should be engaged beforehand. 

Excursion to the Ravnejcv, attractive (there and back on foot 6-7 hrs. ; 
stolkjserre to Eidsborg 5 kr.). The narrow road, beginning 1/4 M. from 
the quay (or reached thence by a short-cut), ascends the N. hill-aide in 
windings. After 1 hr. it turns inland, becomes more level, and reaches 
the gaard of (20 min.l Reffelbrcek (post-office). About 200 paces further 
the road forks. We follow the bianch to the left to the lake and the 
(10 min.) old timber church of Eidsborg (2282 ft.), mentioned as far back 
as 1354. The portal is adorned with defaced carving ; the interior is 
modernized. We leave the church 011 the left, skirt the lake high above 


36 R.6.—Mnp,p.29. B0IITEVAND. From Christiania 

it, and by a bad bridle-path ascend the steep Eidsborgaas. For a time 
nearly level, it then again ascends rapidly. The highest point (1 hr. from 
Eidsborg) affords a fine view of the dark-green mountains to the N. We 
now descend, amid rocks and wood, to 0/2 hr.) a small saw-mill. A path 
diverges here to the left to the Molands-Sceler; we go straight on and 
cross the brook. A finger-post, about 10 min. farther, indicates the way 
to the *Kavnejuv, or Jiavnedjup, a rock 1033 ft. sheer above the To&e-Elo, 
where we have a superb view of the Libygfjeld and the district of Nses- 
land. When paper is Ihrown into the abyss a constant current of air 
ascending thence carries it back over our heads. To the left, in the 
valley, we see the great bend of the road described below. A pavilion 
recalls the visit of King Oscar II. in 1879. Close by is the tourist-hut 
Jlavnejuv-Sater (five beds). — Riders and walkers may continue their 
journey N. from the Ravnejav. The path at first leads through forest, and 
afterwards descends rapidly and crosses the Toke-Elv. In 1-1 V4 hr. we 
come to Jfasland, where gaard Sandok affords good quarters and vehicles 
(To Mule, in li/ 2 -2 hrs., 4 kr. ; p. 31.) 

Pas? from Dalen to the Swtersdal, see p. 5. 

The Road to the Hardanger crosses the broad Toke-Elv by an 
iron bridge, 1 Kil. from Dalen, and soon enters the forest. Farther 
on, at the mouth of the Botnedal, the old road to Mo (see below) di- 
verges to the left. The new road crosses the stream and ascends 
in a long bend high above the brawling Toke-Elv. "Where it crosses 
the Bokke-Elv walkers may cut off the bend of the road by a steep 
short-cut on the left bank. The road ascends for at least 2 Kil. more 
on the W. bank of the Toke-Elv, affording a grand view of the valley 
and the steep haights to the E. (Ravnejuv, see above). At another 
sharp bend a road to Naesland (see above) diverges to the right. 
The road, partly hewn in the rock, leads through beautiful pine- 
woods, high on the N. slope of the Rokke-Elv valley. At an 
opening in the wood we see the church of Mo to the left, on a 
small lake. On the hill-side are several gaards. 

15 Kil. Moen. Farther on we cross the river, joining the old 
road on the right bank. Beyond the parsonage of Mo we reach the 
lower end of the Bertevand. The road passes Berteosen, on the 
"W. bank of the lake, above which towers the abrupt Rautefjeld 
(4693 ft.). The E. bank is uncultivated, and rises in jagged rocks, 
sprinkled with trees. We cross the Berte-Elv. 

10 Kil. (from Moen) Hot. Berte (D. 2 kr. , very fair). The 
bridle-path to Bredvik in the Saetersdal diverges here (p. 5). The 
road turns inland and crosses the hill of Bertegrenden, beyond 
which we have a fine view of the upper end of the B»rtevand. We 
gradually ascend the Berteheia, through beautiful pine-woods. A 
little beyond the top the view is more open. The road descends in 
windings and, at (9 Kil.) a 'Landhandleri' joins the Hitterdal road 
(Heggestel, p. 32). 

The old road, which we now follow to the left, is rather rough. 
It crosses the Rus-Elv and, with numerous dips, ascends the valley 
of the Smerklep-Elv, on the E. slope of the Smerklepfjeld, passing 
several gaards. The Flaatebunut (p. 30) rises to the N., and remains 
in view all the way through the somewhat monotonous valley. At 

to the Hardanger. HAUKELI. Maps, pp.29, 119.-6. R. 37 

the small Hot. Grungedahbro, about 15 Kil. from Borte, the road cross- 
es the river, and is here joined on the right by a path from Brunelid 
on the Totakvand (p. 30). It then turns sharp to the W. and near — 

31 Kil. Bui (Rui Hot., R. 11/4-2, B. l'/ 4 ,!D. 2, S. l>/ 4 kr., fair) 
reaches the pretty Qrungedalsvand (1590 ft.). 

The road skirts the green lake, enclosed by wooded hills, in 
view of the Gurifjeld, and past the yellow-brown Grungedal Church 
The scenery is picturesque, but the road is very bad. By the gaards 
of Edland we come to the — 

12 Kil. Hot. Haukeli (R. 2, B. or S. iy 2 kr., good), where the 
road crosses the foaming Geislaus-Elv. Fully 1 Kil. farther is the, 
Grand Hot. Haukelid (same charges). We next follow the left bank 
of the Flaathyl-Elv. To the left (S.), by kil.-stone 170 (from Skien) 
we see the fine Vafos, descending from the Nedre Langeidvand to 
the S. The route, now monotonous, passes a few farms, of which 
the two of Flaathyl are the chief. The Flaathyl-Elv forms several 
Hel, or pools, and breaks through a rocky barrier in a series of 
falls. The largest of the waterfalls (to the left, close to the road) is 
the Lille Rjukanfos ('little smoking fall'), best seen from a project- 
ing rock near its foot. The largest II0I is the Ekelidhel (2293 ft.). 

16 Kil. Bctten or Botn (2587 ft. ; good station, with an inter- 
esting 'Stabbur') lies above the pretty Voxlivand (2512 ft ) which 
the road skirts. About 1 Kil. farther on, to the left, is the Voxlid or 
Vaagsli Hotel (very fair; R. iy 2 -2, B. 1, S. U/ 2 kr.), finely situated 
on the lake. 

We pass several farms and the last sparse crops of larley and 
potatoes; then the small Hitel Nystel and the Arrebuvand and 
Evenbuvand. This region is almost uninhabited, and studded with 
many dead pines. Beyond kil.-stone 190 we reach the Krakledyr 
Skar, where a view is revealed of the mountains to the W.- to the 
left the Vasdalsegg (5415 ft.), then the Kistenut, the Kallevasheia, 
and the Svei. Below us, to the left, lies the Kjalavand (1948 ft.)- 
to the S. rises the Kjcelatind. Trees disappear. ' 

18 Kil. Haukeli -Saeter (* Knud Haukelisceter's Inn, several 
houses, dining-room in the Norwegian style, rooms also in the 
pretty 'Stabbur', R. l-2y 2 , B. li/ g , D. 2'/ 4 , S. iy 2 kr.), at the E. 
end of the Staavand (3088 ft.), lies in a mountain solitude, with 
an unimpeded view of the fjeld. The hills and even parts of the 
plateau are covered with snow as late as August. The Kistenut 
(3936 ft.) to the S. of the Staavand (there and back, with guide 
3-4 hrs.), and the Lille Nup (3772 ft.; 6 brs. there and back"* to 
the N. of the Haukeli-Sseter, afford extensive views. " 

The good road leads N.W., skirting the Staavand. After 10 min. 
we get a glimpse of the Storefcnd to the right. About 4 Kil. from 
Haukeli-Sseter, by the 70th kil.-stone from Odde, we cross the 
Clevaa-Elv, which descends from the N. and forms the boundary 
between the districts of Bratsberg and Send re Bergenhus; to the 


R. 6. — Map, p. 119. R0LDAL. 

right it forms several low but broad cascades. After li/ 2 Kil. more 
we reach the hlevaavand (3098 ft; 3 Kil. long), to the left, theN. 
bank of which our road skirts. We are now in the heart of a fjeld 
solitude. Stakes mark the road in winter. To the right we have a 
fine view of the abrupt Store Nup and the Storefond, and to the 
left the Svei ; in front rises the Stafsnut, to the right of which are 
,the Rekkingsnut and the Midtdyr-Ruste. 

About 9 Kil. from Haukeli- Safer we cross the Midtdyr-Etv 
turn S., and at the foot of the Dyrnut, the E. part of the Stafsnut 
ascend the »Dyreskard, passing through masses of snow and a rock- 
tunnel, and reach the pass in i/ 2 hr. more (3715 ft.; watershed) 
This point vies in grandeur with the Alpine passes. 

The road now leads through a wilderness of snow and stones 
descending slightly at planes. To the right is Stafsnuten, to the left 
■Sveien and the narrow green 0isteinvand. To the left, below the 
road, 15 Kil. from Haukeli-Sseter, lies the Midtlcsger-Smter ; on the 
road is the Nye Midtlager-Sater. About 10 min. later the three 
houses of Svandalsflaaene and several small lakes appear below us 
to the left. On the road is a small tavern (D. 2 kr., tolerable) 
where the horses are usually rested. In 10 min. more begins the 
hill ot Staven, and in 5 min. more we descend. To tie right below 
is the Tarjebudal, with the saters of Tarjebudal and Nya Stel; to 
the W., in front of us, rises the Horrehei. In 10 min. we cross by the 
Risbu-Bro to the right bank of the Risbu-Aa, and then descend 
rapidly in long zigzags. Near (10 min.) the 0stmanlid- Setter we 
have a glimpse of the Reldalsvand. The scenery improves. After 
20 mm. we cross the brawling Vasdals - Elv and follow its right 
bank, high above the river. Facing us is the broad Navle-Fos, near 
which the road passes 10 min. later. The river with its numerous 
falls is constantly in sight. The Kaldalsvand again (5 min.) comes 
into sight, backed by the Holmenut and Reldalsaaten (4103 ft.). A 
drive of 12 min. more brings us to — 

30 Kil. (pay for 35 Kil. in the reverse direction) K<rldal (Hotel 
Reldal #Skyds Stat., good, R. li/ 2 -3, B. li/ 2 , D. 27 4 , S. iy 2 kr. • 
Gryting's Hotel, D. 1 kr. 70».; Fredheims Hotel, plain; Engl. Ch. 
Serv. in summer), near the N. end of the Reldalsvand (1223 ft.). 
On the lake, off the road, is the church, partly built with the 
remains of an old 'Stavekirke'. — Farther on we cross the Tufte-Elv 
and skirt the lake. Where the roads to the Bratlandsdal (p. 114) and 
the Hardanger fork, we follow the latter and ascend to (5 Kil ) the 
Breifond Hotel (p. 114). " 




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7. From Christiania through the Hallingdal to 
Bergen by Eailway. 

517 Kil. The Bkkgen Railway, begun in 1896, was opened in June 
1908, but the portion between Roa (p. 44), H0nefos (p. 26), and Gulsvik 
at tie head of Lake Krerderen will not be finished before autumn 1909. 
Through-carriages will then run from the chief terminus (Hoved Bane- 
gaard) at Christiania (p. 8) to Bergen in about 13-14 hours. — Meanwhile 
we take a train on the W. Railway to Kr0<leren (4 3 /4-5'/2 hrs.) and steamer 
thence to Gulsvik (2V2-3>/2 hrs. ; Com. 458). From Gulsvik to Bergen 351 Kil. ; 
express in 10 3 /i (the whole through-journey taking 18 ] /4 hrs.); passengers by 
slow train must ppend a night on the way. Through-fares: Christianici- 
Bergen, express 29.85. 20.30 kr. ; ordinary 24.90, 16.50 kr. ; Christiania- 
Voss, express 24.35, 15. £0, ordinary 20.40, 13 70 kr. — Dinner on board 
the steamer. Or lunch (ordered through the rail, guard) may be taken at 
tbe Krtfderen station (halt of 30min.). Restaurants on the route between 
Gulsvik and Bergen are at Kesbyen, Aal, Finse, Myrdal, Voss, Dale, and 
Vaxdal (all unpretending). 

From Christiania to Vikesund, 96 Kil., see pp. 20, 21, 25. 
Carriages changed here, except by the evening express. 104 Kil. 
Sysle; the train, with the road, ascends near the left hank of the 
Snarum-Elv. 108 Kil. Snarum (577 ft.), with magnetite mines. 

122 Kil. Kr^deren (Bail. Rest.; Hot. Krederen fy Skyds Stat., 
opp. the station'; Kalager's Hot., very fair; Hot. Hansen), at the S. 
end of the lake of that name, where we take the steamboat. 

The lower part of Lake Kr«deren (433 ft.; 16 sq. M. in area, 
100 ft. deep) is flanked with smiling hills. A new skyds-road skirts 
the N.E. bank. Beyond the church of Kredsherred or Olberg, which 
lies on that road, the lake contracts for a short way to the Noresund. 
On the W. bank are the steamboat-stations Lesteberg, Sandum (on 
the old road), and Ringnces. To the left towers the broad Norefjeld. 

On the slope of the Norefjeld are several summer resorts, to which 
roads lead from Lesteberg and Sandum: Hot- Norefjeld (2427 ft.), 3 hrs. 
from Lesteberg ; Sandum-Soeler (2100 ft.), and near it Hot. Fjeldhvil, 2 hrs. 
from Sandum, through pine -woods. From Sandum-Sseter we may walk 
N.W. across a lofty plateau (leaving the Ramsaas on the right), with a 
view of the Telemarken Mts. and the Eggedal. and then ascend in 2-2'/2 hrs. 
to the Augunshaug (3988 ft. ; extensive view). We may ascend thence in 
2 hrs. more to the Hagevarde (4919 ft. ; new tourist-hut, 40 beds), the highest 
point of ^he Norefjeld, affording a fine panorama extending as far as the 
Christiania Fjord. From the Augunshaug we may descend E. to Tungen 
and Ringnfes (see above). From the Hjjgevarde we may descend N.E. 
through the valley of the Gulsvik-Elv to (7 hra.) Gulsvik (see below). 

On the E. bank rises the Blodfjeld (2961 ft.). Between the 
steamboat-stations of Enkerud and Leknces the new railway (see 
above), coming from Henefos, will Teach Lake Krederen. After a 

passage of 2'/2 nrs - we l an( ^ at — 

Gulsvik (508 ft.), at the entrance to the Hallingdal, the tem- 
porary terminus of the Bergen Railway. The station (Rest.) is near 
the pier. Gulsvik's Hotel (R. 1, B. or S. 1.20 kr., plain) is 3/ 4 M. 
further, by a bridge across the river. 

The Bergen Railway ascends the left bank of the Halling-Elv. 
(Kilometers reckoned from Gulsvik.) Scenery uninteresting. — 

40 R.7. — Maps, pp. 20, 39. HUES. From Chrisliania 

11 Kil. Flaa (508 ft.); on the opposite bank are the church of 
Flaa and the old skyds-station of Vik. 19 Kil. Austvoll. The river 
expands into several lake-like basins, the largest of which is the 
Brommavand (590 ft.), with the small station of (33 Kil.) Bromma. 

45 Kil. Neabyen. On the right bank lies the large village of — 

Nses, or Nes (0ie's Hot., SvenkeruXs), with an old church and 
the district jail. 

FitoM NiEs to N^es-Gkancm on Lake Spikillen, 10-11 hrs. (guide un- 
necessary). A well-trodden sseter-path ascends E. to Lake Streen (fishing ; 
quarters at a saner) in 3-4 hrs., and by Djupedal in 3-4 hrs. more to Ildjavn- 
stad in the i)vre Hedal (see p. 47). 

Scenery pleasing; pine-woods and numerous farms. "We cross 
the river by the stone Svenkerud Bro. 

62 Kil. Gol (679 ft.). On the left bank is Eolfthus (Berg's Hot., 
good), the starting-point of a road through the Hemsedal to the 
Lrcrdal (p. 41) and of a hill-route to Aurdal in Valders (p. 43). 

The valley turns "W.; opposite is the month of theUeaisil(p.41). 
The Halling-Elv has many rapids and small falls. 77 Kil. Torpe 
(1073 ft.). On the opposite bank, to which a bridge crosses, is 
Skjerping (good inn), with the church of Torpe and Temains of a 
timber-church of the 13th-14th cent. (p. 18), the porch and doors 
of which are finely carved. — 87 Kil. Aal (Rail. Rett., plain; Sundre 
Hot.), with a large church, an old Thingstue (with carved door of 
1764), and the Gretastue of the 18th cent. The inhabitants of the 
upper Hallingdal still cling to their ancient manners and customs. 

The river expands into the Strandefjord. The train runs high 
above the lake on the steep slope of the Sanyerfjeld (3865 ft.). — 
101 Kil. Hoi (1980 ft.), opposite the mouth of a side-valley through 
which a route leads to Aurland on the Sognefjord (p. 152), and the 
Oddefjeld (4012 ft.). 

The valley we ascend is now called the Ustadal. The train crosses 
the river and mounts rapidly. 112 Kil. Gjeilo (2604 ft.; Inn), near 
Vstadals-Kirke, whence we may ascend the E. summit of the great 
Hallingskarv (6438 ft. ; guide 3 kr.). Pass to the Numedal, see p. 32. 

The train now ascends to the Ustavand (3204ft.), whence in the 
far W. we have a glimpse of the white glacier of the Hardanger 
Jokul (p. 41). We skirt the N. bank of the lake. Trees disappear. 
135 Kil. Haugastel (3240 ft. ; new hotel), on the Stele or Stedlt- 
Fjord, the N. continuation of the Ustavand. To the N. towers the 
long Hallingskarv, the W. summit of which (6435 ft.) is ascended 
hence; to the W. in the distance is the Hardanger Jekul. 

Fhum Haugastel to the Fosli Hotel (p. 128), over the Hardanger 
Vidda (p 33)- 12-14 hra. (guide 12-14 kr.). We row across (he lake in 
1/2 hr to ifrterddUn, walk in I hr. to the 0i-trrmvand, cross it by boat, 
and walk in V 2 hr. more to the Krsekj ahytte (4083 ft.), owned by (he Tou- 
rists' Union, whose guide Ole Larcen Aktr lives here (tithing). A night had 
better be spent here. We next skirt the Krffikjav(.nd, crofs the Krcekja- 
stubben by a bridge, and descend the ffalneboltaer to the Olafbuvand. We 
then cross the Kjelda to the Fisketjem-JSceter and the Smytte-Sceter, the first 


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to Bergen. FINSE. Maps, pp.43, 119. — 7 . II. 41 

in the Hardanger region. Crossing the Leira, which descends from ihe N., 
we now come to the Indite- Salter, whence the beaten track to Maursaet 
(2444 ft.) and the Fosli Hotel cannot be mistaken. The grand Hardanger 
Jflkul (see below) is conspicuous all the way. 

Adjoining the Stelefjord is the Nygaards-Fjcrd (3247 ft.). On 
the left is the Nygaard, formerly the highest dwelling in this re- 
gion. The train ascends the rapid Ustekveika to the Tungevand 
(3653 ft.), which forms the boundary between Buskeruds-Amt and 
Sendre Bergenhus-Amt, between the Hallingdal and the Hardanger. 

161 Kil. Finse (4010 ft.; Rail. Rest, plain; new hotel) lies on 
the Finseoand, immediately opposite the great snow-fields of the 
hardanger Jekul (6536 ft. ; pass to the Daemmevand and Sirnodal, 
or to the Fosli Hotel, 10-12 hrs., fatiguing, see pp. 129, 128; guide 
Endre Lisseth at Finse, certificated by the Tourists' Union, should 
be engaged in advance). The line reaches its culminating point at 
the Taugevand (4270 ft.), the watershed between the Skagerrak and 
the North Sea, and is protected by walls of timber against snow- 
drifts. The way is kept clear by the snow-plough until June. To 
the left in the distance is seen the Vasfjaeren near Ulvik (p. 130). 

The train winds down, past the Laaghellervand, through tun- 
nels and cuttings, affording a last glimpse of the Hardanger Jekul. 
— 182 Kil. Hallingskeit (3641 ft.), high above the valley, in which 
we see the sseter of that name. To the left rises the snow-clad Vosse- 
skavl (6738 ft.); in the valley below are the Grendalsvand and the 
Klevevand (3143 ft.), whose outflow the train crosses by a high brid ge. 
Numerous tunnels, between which are revealed striking views of 
the wild mountain scenery. The grandest of these is between the 
last tunnels before Myrdal, where we look into Frttheimsdal on the 
right, and then into the deep Flaamsdal, below the Vatnahalsen 
Hotel (p. 140), and as far as the mountains on the Aurlands-Fjord. 
Close to the line are the lakes Seltuflvand and RejUungvand. 

195Kil. Myrdal(R,a.U. Rest.). Thence to Voss, see pp. 140,139. 

245 Kil. Voss, starting-point of the roads to the Hardanger and 
the Sogne-FjoTd (p. 139). From Voss to — 

351 Kil. Bergen, see pp. 139-137. 

From to Laerdalseren on the Sognefjord- 

122 Kil. Sbyds (pay fur 132, in the reverse dir ction for 146 Kil.) in 
two days. 

Gol-Rolfshus, see p. 40. By the Hetlalro, about 2 Kil. from 
Rolfshus, the road crosses the Hemsil, which falls into the Halling- 
Elv from the N.W. and forms a fine cascade. We now quit the main 
valley, through which the Hallingdal road and the railway (see 
above) run on opposite sides of the river. 

Before the road reaches the Hetlabro a cart-road diverges to the right, 
which ascends in sleep windings for 3 /t hr., and then crts.'es the Field, 
past several sseters, to (5-6 hr3.) the Oeet-Sceter at the E. end of the Tulei- 
vand (2855 ft. ; good quarters). Thence row in 3 /<br. to the N. bank, whence 
a road leads in 3-4 hrs. to Stende-Ulntes in Valders (p. 48). 

42 Route7. — Map, p. 41. NERAAL. From Christiania 

The Lserdal road ascends the Hemsedal, on the right bank of the 
Hemsil, mounting the Golsbakker in long windings, and passing the 
new church of Ool (romp. p. 18). Beyond (10 Kil.) Leftegaard 
(1440 ft.) we recross the Hemsil and follow its left bank. The old 
road, diverging to the right, ascends on the E. side of the valley, 
passing several farms, while the W. side and the floor of the valley 
are uncultivated. 

15 Kil. Granheim (Granheim Hotel, very fair). We then pass 
Kleven. On the other side of the valley rise the Veslehorn and the 
Storhorn, from which descend waterfalls. On the right the old 
road rejoins ours. We pass Kirkebe, a poor village, with the Hem- 
sedals-Kirke, the last before that of Borgund (83 Kil.). 

21 Kil. Fauske (good inn), at the confluence of the Grendela 
and the Hemsil, which forms the Rjukande Fos ('smoking fall'), 
reached by a path. Cultivation ceases; a few scattered szeters only 
are passed. The road ascends rapidly in the bleak Merkedal, a 
grand mountain-solitude. 

20 Kil. (pay in opp. direction for 30) Bjeberg (3323 ft.; Inn, 
plain but good, frequented by reindeer-stalkers), the last station 
in the Hallingdal, lies in a dreary region at the foot of the Hemse- 
dalsfjeld. Farther on (7 Kil.) a column marks the boundary between 
the 'Stift' of Christiania and that of Bergen. The road skirts the 
precipitous Kjelberg on the left and the Eldrevand on the right. 
To the N.E. rises the Jekulegge (6280 ft.). The road reaches its 
highest point (3789 ft.), and then descends rapidly to — 

15 Kil. (pay for 22 in either direction) Breist«len {Inn, good). 
Then a descent, passing several waterfalls, to the bridge of Berlaug 
on the Valders route (p. 51). A little below the bridge is — 

12 Kil. (pay 15, in opp. direction 19) Hegg i Borgund (p. 51). 

From Hoi to Aurland on the Sognefjord. 

2'/2 Days. An interesting mountain route, hut suitable only for good 
walkers. 1st Day : Skyds to Skaro, 2>/2-3 hrs. ; 2nd Day: Skyds to Strande- 
fjord, l>/2 hr. ; boat-skvds to Smngaardsbotlen. 2i/2hrs. ; walk to the Slemberg- 
dal Hut, 5'/ 2 hrs. ; 3rd" Dav: Walk by 0&ierbz (quarters, if need he) to the 
Vasbygdvand, 9 hrs.; cross by boat- skyds in 3 /i hr. ; walk to Aurland, 
l'/4 hr. — Fjeld quarters are poor; nothing is to be had except Hadbrpd, 
cheese, coffee, and home-brewed beer ('hjerabrygget 01'). and even milk 
is scarce. The tourist- huts keep canned meats. The traveller should 
therefore carry some provisions with him. 

Hoi, see p. 40. From the station we descend to the road, cross 
the Ustaelv, ascend its right bank to the Holsfjord (1935 ft.), and 
skirt its N. bank. 

8 Kil. Neraal, or Nedreaal (good quarters at the Landhandler 
Tollef Snndre's, R., S., & B. 2>/ 2 kr.), at the W. end of the Hols- 
fjord, with the old timber-built Church of Hoi, attended on Sun- 
days by the peasantry in costume. To the W. towers the Hallingskarv 
(p. 41). — We now ascend to a higher part of the valley, passing 



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(left) the pretty Djupedahfos. We skirt the Hevelfjord (2125 ft.), 
at the W. end of which, 5 Kil. from Neraal, lies Guard Yilland, the 
seat of the turbulent family of that name about the year 1700. "We 
skirt the Vrunda-Elv , cross it by a substantial wooden bridge, and 
ascend the wild ravine of a side-stream. We cross this stream, 
and then skirt the Sundalsv and and pass the Gudbrands - Gaard 
(2553 ft.), at its W. end. 

20 Kil. (pay for 25) Skaro or Skero, with the modest inn of 
Asle Engebretsen (R. 60, B. or S. 70e., D. 1 kr. ), who provides 
boat-skyds for the Strandefjord and acts as a guide across the fjeld 
(to the Steinbergdals Hut 6-7 kr.). — The rough road ascends foT 
8 Kil. more (li/ 2 hr., walking or driving), past the Skarafos, and 
ends at the 0vre Strandefjord (3182 ft.; 14 Kil. long). In fine 
weather we take boat-skyds (see p. 42; 1 pers. 2, several 1 kr. 
each) in 2 J /2 nrs - to the head of the lake; in bad weather we walk 
on the N. bank (3 hrs.) to Svingaardsbotten, where modest quarters 
are to be had until about mid- August. 

A path, which diverges to the left from the route described below, 
beyond the Ulevaabotten and three smaller lakes, ascends the valley of the 
Vesleela and descends the Moldaadal to (6-7 hrs.) Hallingskeit (p. 41). 

The actual mountain-pass begins here (guide to the Steinberg- 
dais Hut advisable, 4 kr.), at first a sajter- track, ascending past the 
Vlevasbotten or Urevasbotten and three smaller lakes. After 1 hr. 
we reach the first and most conspicuous of the 'Varder', or stone 
landmarks on the route. For 1/2 ar - w e skirt the foot of the abrupt 
rocky Vlevasnut (5932 ft.), and then turn sharp to the right to the 
'skard', or gap, between the Ulevasnut and the Sundhellerfjeld. 
Beyond the watershed we pass several small lakes and cross brooks 
and patches of snow. Where the valley turns W. we ascend to the 
right to the Bolhevdskard (3'/ 2 hrs. from Svingaardsbotten); then 
descend gradually into the broad upper Steinbergdal, cros3 a large 
stream, where the path is again distinct, and reach the well-equipped 
Steinbergdals Hut of the Tourist Union (2955 ft.; bed for members 
50 0., for others l 1 /* kr.), li/ 2 hr. from Bolhevde. Guide to the 
Vasbygvand about 8 kr. 

The *Steinbergdal, which we now descend, on the right bank 
of the stream, is a grand valley falling away in steps, with sombre 
basins, small lakes, a few green pastures, and deep rocky ravines, 
in which theTe are several fine falls of the Steinbergdela. In 1-1 V4 ttr - 
we reach the 0ie-8ceter. About */ 2 hr. farther, at the W. end of a 
small lake, the path turns into a side-valley and ascends abruptly 
for 1/4 hr. Below the small Nosel-Sctter it is carried by a narrow 
foot-bridge over a large brook, which falls in a fine cascade into 
the main stream. At the Grenestel-Sater-we rejoin the main valley, 
which we now follow, at first high above the stream, and then 
descending in windings, to (1 hr.) Bsitrbei (decent quarters, R., S., 
& B. 2^4 kr.), the first gaard in the Sogn district, 3 J /2 hrs. from 
the tourist-hut. — After a short ascent our route descends the 

44 Route 8. — KJELSAAS. From Christiania 

steep and once formidable Nasbegalder, partly by a long ladder, 
and partly by a wooden gallery attached to the rock, above a small 
lake, to the (3/ 4 hr.) gaard of Ncesbe. The path now cuts off a bend 
of the valley and crosses a hill on which lies the Hclmen-Sater. 
In 20 min. more we descend the steep and trying Bjemestig, and 
then wind down into the ravine. We next ascend to the gaard of 
Senjareim or Sennerhejm frfmts.), 3% hrs. from 0sterb», superbly 
situated. Then down the Senjareimsgalder, provided with an iron 
railing. After II/4 hr- the valley expands. In 1/4 hr. more, beyond 
the gaards of 0ie and Stent (bed, if need be), where we engage a 
boatman, we reach the sombre *Vasbygdvand (173 ft.; area 7 sq. M.; 
depth 220 ft.), enclosed by abrupt rocky slopes, and row to (40 min. ; 
lt/ 2 kr.) its W. end. Good road thence to (6 Kil.) Aurlandfo 152). 

8. From Christiania through the Valders to Lser- 
dalsoren on the Sognefjord. 

Prior to the opening of the Bergen Railway (B. 7) the chief route 
between Christiania and the W. coast led through the Valders. 
Some travellers may still prefer it for the sake of the scenery, especi- 
ally as the tamer part of the journey (to Fagernas, p. 46) is now 
quickly performed by railway. The Lake Spirillen route (p. 46) is 
a day longer. From Fagernss to Laerdals0ren is a drive of three 
days. Another route, the so-called 'New Valders Route' through 
Jotunheim (comp. pp. 54, 56), is now rising in fa\our. 

a. Railway from Christiania to Eagerness. 

2'0 Kil. Sta'e lailway (JYordbane, connecting Chriftiania with the W. 
bank of Lake Mjasen) to Eina, and private line ( raider stone) t. he j? ce < "» 
S'/ahrs. (fare 10.45 or 7 kr). To Gj0vik on Lake Mjzsen, 124 Kil., incurs. 
(6.20 or 3.85 kr.). 

The train starts from the chief station, seep. 8. Beyond the 
suburb of Vaalertngen the Nordbane diverges from the Ostbane and 
ascends in a curve. To the left is the suburb of Kamptn with a 
reservoir of the water-works. 4 Kil. Teien; 7 Kil. Grefsen (305 ft.), 
junction of a branch-railway to Alnabru (p. 80). To the right, at 
the foot of the Grefsenaasen (1195 ft.), lies the Grefsen Sanatorium. 

10 Kil. Kjdsaas (509 ft.) lies near the efflux of the Akers-Elv 
from the Maridalsvand, on the E. bank of which the train runs, pass- 
ing through several tunnels. It then ascends rapidly through wood 
toltiUcdal (770 ft.) and again descends. 32 Kil. Hakedal (545 ft.), 
with a church and disused iron-works. We ascend the valley of the 
Haktdak-Elo, skirt the E. bank of the Harestucand, and mount 
rapidly through a tunnel to (53 Kil.) Boa (1214 ft.; near which 
diverges the unfinished part of the Bergen Railway, the Henefos- 
Gnlsvik section; comp. p. 39); then descend to (61 Kil.) Lunner 
(918 ft.) and (68 Kil.) Gran (672 ft.). 

to Lmrdalseren. DOKKA. Map, p. 39. — 8. Route. 45 

72 Kil. Jaren (680 ft.), whence a branch- line runs by Brandbu 
to Reikenvik on the Randsfjord (7 Kil. ; see p. 26). 

The main line again ascends (gradient at places 1 :50), skirting 
the wooded Brandbukamp (1656 ft.), to (81 Kil.) Bkiken (1165 ft.), 
where we have a *View, to the left, of the middle part of the Rands- 
fjord (p. 26). Farther on, through wood and past some small lakes, 
it reaches itshighestpoint (1618 ft.). At(97Kil.)//aa9aar(1404ft.) 
we come to the pretty Einavand, and skirt its W. bank. 

101 Kil. Eina (1315 ft. ; Eina Hot., Fjordkeim Hot), at the N. 
end of the lake, where the train crosses its outflow, the Hunds-Elv, 
is the junction of the Valders Railway (see below). The Nordbane 
descends the valley of the Hunds-Elv to (107 Kil.) Reinsvold (1 1 67 ft, ; 
branch-line to Skreia on Lake Mjesen, 22 Kil.), (1060 ft. ; 
with an army cartridge-factory), Breiskall, Nygard, and (124 Kil.) 
Ojevik, on Lake Mjcsen, see p. 81. 

The Valdbks Railway descends W. from Eina, past (109 Kil.) 
Trevand and (116 Kil.) Skrukli, to the Randsfjord, the E. bank of 
which it skirts (fine view). The stations of Hov and Fluberg have 
steamboat-piers (p. 39). 

140 Kil. Odnses(550ft.; OdncesHot., R. 2, S. iy 2 kr., very fair; 
Vaarnas Hot.) lies near the N. end of the Randsfjord. The traiu 
now ascends the valley of its affluent, the Etna-Elv. 

148 Kil. Dokka (Rail. Rest.), in the province of Nordre Land, 
lies at the influx of the Dokka-Elv into the Etna-Elv. The train 
crosses the latter and follows the S. side of the valley. Scenery 
rather tame. On the N. side of the valley ('Solside', sunny side) 
are several substantial gaards. 155 Kil. Nordsinnen. Above the op- 
posite bank is the church of that name, and on the road, beyond it, 
is the good Tomlevold Hotel, with its handsome old timber build- 
ings. 166 Kil. Etna; pleasant view up the valley. The railway, as 
well as the road, crosses the Etna-Elv and ascends the wooded 
Tonsaas, which separates the valleys of the Etna and the Baegna. 
Pleasant woodland scenery, with several wild gorges. 

179 Kil. Tonsaasen (1968 ft), on the top of the plateau, is a 
favourite summer resort. *Tonsaasen's Turist-Hot. § Sanatorium, 
V4 hr. from the station (pens. 5-8 kr. ; post and telegraph), has beau- 
tiful wood walks and points of view, whence we survey the whole 
of Valders, bounded by the Jotunheim Mts. To the S.W., on the 
Fjeldheim road, is the (4 Kil.) *Breidablik Sanatorium (pens. 112- 
154 kr. per month; post and telephone), amid pine-woods, also with 
flue views. From Breidablik to Fjeldheim (p. 47) a descent of 5 Kil. 

Beyond Tonsaas the train descends, past (191 K'tl.) Bjergo, into 
the Bcegnadal, crosses the Spirillen road (p. 46) at its junction with 
the Valders route, and reaches — 

197 Kil. Aurdal. On the hill-side to the left, below the road, 
lies the large villase of Frydenland, with the finely situated Hot. 
Frydenlund (R. li/ 2 -2, B. I1/2, D. 2, S. l'/okr.; English, spoken). 

46 R. 8. — Maps, pp. 39,41. LAKE SPIRILLEN. From Christiania 

About 6 Kil. W., on the S. bank of the Aurdalsfjord, into which the 
Aabioraa falls in a cataract, is Pension Move (70 kr. per month). inence 
a path leads past the Olsje, by Sinderlien and SandersMm, a 3tEter -}" n 
(4'/ 2 -5 hrs. from Hove), to (10-11 hrs.) Rolfshus in the Hallmgdal (p. 45). 
The train runs high above the Bagna, which has several falls, 
partly through wood. To the left we see the Aurdalsfjord, with its 
numerous islands, through which the B<egna flows, and the valley 
of the Aabergs-Elv. 206 Kil. Leira. On the left, below us, is the 
beautiful Strandefjord (1170 ft."), through which the Baegna also 
flows and which extends to (20 M.) Fosheim (p. 48). 

210 Kil. Fagenues I Nordre Aurdal (1247 ft.; Hot. Fagernas 
<$- Skyds-Stat., with telephone, R. or D. 2, B. or S. V/ 2 kr.; H. Fager- 
lund , similar charges, both opposite the station, good), pleasantly 
situated among pine-woods on the N. bank of the lake, is the 
terminus of the Valders Railway. The names ('fair promontory' and 
'fair grove) are appropriate. The road through 0stre Slidre to Lake 
Rygdin (p. 164) diverges to the right by the Hotel Fagerlund. 
About 5 min. from the bifurcation a steep path ascends to the right 
to a pavilion with a fine view of the lake. — Carriages for the further 
journey wait at the station, see p. 48; a motor-boat also plies to 
Fosheim (p. 48) once or twice daily in li/ 2 hr. (fare ly 2 kr.). 

b. From Christiania by Lake Spirillen to Aurdal-Fagemses. 

Railway from Christiania to Been, 131 Kil express in 4'/ 2 "".(fare 
7 05 or 4 50 kr.), ordinary train in 63/ 4 -9 hrs. (fare 6.55 or 4.10 kr ). -Steam- 

64 Kil., with fast stations. The Drivers' Union (^eselikaiet) let .car 
riaees from Sarum to Lierdal for 85, 100, or 115 kr. for 2, 3, or 4 pers , 
buf recommends previous order by telephone. «am,^— 
^f low water see D 47) be begun at Granum, 5, 6, or 7 ki. is acmea 10 
°he above fares?and 6, 8, or 10 kr. is charged for the detour to Lake 
Tyin (p 57) Fares are often reduced in the slack season. 

From Christiania to Heen, see R. 3. - The Steamer (D. on 
board 2 tor.) ascends the Bagna or Aadals-Elv, the effluent of Lake 
Spirillen. The navigable channel, with lake-like expansions, is 
indicated by stakes. To the left is the large gaard otSemmm, to 
the right the church of Ytre Aadalen, further on to the lett 6fcot- 
lerud. The banks are hilly and pine-clad. The stream becomes 
rapid To the left, 15 Kil. from Heen, lies the handsome gaara 
of Bergsund, where the steamer starts when the water is low. 

The mountains become higher and more varied. Floating timber 
abounds. We reach, 2 hrs. from Heen, the rapid Kongstrem, which 
forces its way through an old moraine, and soon enter — 

*Lake Spirillen (495 ft.; probably from spira, 'to bubble ; area 
9i/o sq M.; length 25 Kil. or 16VjM.; depth 354 ft.). The banks 
are enlivened by many gaards, with green pastures and a few corn- 
fields above which rise pine-clad hills. On our left, as we enter 

to LcerdaUeren. FJELDHE1M. Map. p. 39. —8. Route. 47 

the lake, is the Heg field (3240 ft.). The chief place on the W. bank 
is Viker or Aadalen, with a church, 8 Kil. W. of which rises the 
Oyranflsen (3543 ft.). On the E. hank lies the fine gaard of Enger- 
odden. Beyond the Ramberg (1680 ft. ; left), we sight the head of 
the lake and the church of — 

Nets, or Ncesmoen, with its wild mountain-background. The 
Bcegna enters the lake here, and is crossed by a long wooden bridge, 
under which the steamer passes. To the right, just beyond the 
bridge, about 4 hrs. from Heen, is the station of Oranum (Granum's 
Hotel & Skyds-Stat.), where the steamer stops when the water is 
low. (Skyds to Serum, 11 Kil.) 

From Nses a road leads through the valley of the Urala to the 0vre 
Hedal, in which lies (22 Kil.) Ildjamstad, with an old timber-built church, 
lately restored (comp. p. 28), in which some relics are preserved. Thence 
to Nesbyen on the Bergen Rail , see p. 40. 

The navigable channel in the broad Baegna is marked by stakes. 
On both sides are wooded hills. On the left is the Bjembratbjerg, 
on the right the precipitous Valdershorn, which looks grandest from 
a point farther on. The steamer mounts the rapids of Valdres- 
stremmen, enters smooth water, and (l 1 /* nr - from Granum, 5 hrs. 
from Heeu) reaches — 

S«rum (Serum's Hotel, very fair, R. 2, D. 2, B. or S. li/ 2 kr.), 
56 Kil. from Heen, the steamboat terminus. 

The Road up the valley from Serum leails through pleasant 
scenery. To the right, beyond the river, lies the gaard of Hougsrud, 
one of the largest in Valders. Then, to the left, is the church of 
Nedre Hedal at Tolleifsrud, where a road to the 0vre Hedal diverges 
to the left (see above). Next comes Dokken i Sendre Aurdal. To 
the left rises the huge rocky Morkollen, the base of which the road 
skirts. Farther, on we cross the Muggedals-Elv, which descends 
from the left. 

18 Kil. (mediocre). To the left rises the Tronhusfjeld, 
to the right the Fonhusfjeld. Beyond the gaard of Storsveen we 
cross the Heleraa, which descends to the Baegna in pretty falls. 
A little farther on is the gaard of Olmhus. We then skirt the Svartvik- 
fjeld. To the right opens the basin of Bang i Sendre Aurdal, on the 
left bank of the Baegna, with numerous farms, church, and par- 
sonage. Close to Fjeldheim the Baegna forms the beautiful Store- 
brufos, which the road crosses. 

17 Kil. Fjeldheim (Fjeldheim Hot., R. 11/2, D - 2 kr.)> on the 
left bank of the Baegna, belongs to the parish of Bang. — The road 
now forks, the right branch leading by the (5 Kil.) Breidablik 
Sanatorium to (10 Kil.) rail. stat. Tonsaasen (diligence), see p. 45; 
the left branch leads to Aurdal. 

The road to Aurdal ascends on the E. side of the Baegna ravine. 
To the W. rises the pointed Heldeknatten, at the base of which is 
the timber-built church of i?emii'd(13thcent.), 1 hr. from the bridge 
over the Stoiebrufos. Our road is mostly hewn in the rock. Near 

48 R. 8. -Map, V . 41. F0SHE1M. From Christiania 

the gaard of Juham, to the right, are the remains of ! a glacier 
'cauldron'. Fine views of the deep gorge of the B»gna to the lea 
After a drive of l'/ 4 hr. from Fjeldheim we ™f * h ° ^f 
point. The road rounds a projecting rock and sights the snow- 
mountains of Jotunheim, especially the Kalvaahegda and the Tur- 
flnstinder (p. 55). The hilly road, running partly through wood 
unites about i/ 2 b.r. short of Aurdal, with the Valders route, which 
skirts the railway (p. 45). 

17Kil. Aurdal, a station on the Valdefs line (p. 45). — We 

may drive on to — „ , . . * t 

13 Kil. Fagernas, to avoid changing for this short stage. 

c. Road from Fagernaes to Lserdalsoren. 

149 Kil A drive of 2-2t/j days: Skyds for one pers. about 28, for two 
-„„ ti o w an d fee- carr. and pair for two pers. about 65, three pers. 
76 80 four pers 92-95 £ " or whh a digression from Skogstad to Lake 
Tyrnfcomp p. 56), returning to Nystuen, 6, 8, or 10 kr more, heavy 
l/^aee According : to bargain Advisable in the height of the season to 
oX vehicles a g day or two beforehand. - Tbo<e who arnve in the 
afternoon bv rail may take Skyds the same evening to F osheim, and seep 
on the following nights either at GHndaheim , at Nystuen or Marx, tarn. 
But as thereto lack of good inns the journey may be broken other- 
wise It is always advisable to arrive at one's destination early » order 

t0 S T C he re S c g e n e d ry rO is m p 1 cturesque almost all the way, and in parts will repay 
WalkeIs who y may enjoy the novel experience of a night's march by 
Walkebs, y» ™> .,e thev shiuld carry provisions, as the inns are 
daylight. In this case : they J?™ 1Q Val £ ees r0 ute may be combined 

l!ake Tvin to Framnses: drive to Nystuen (comp. p. f.6). Ihose wnc i nave 
Wfl a oarria'e through to Lffirdals(»ren (see above) will limit their di- 

time to go on to Nystuen. 

The road crosses the Dal-Elv, which descends from 0stre Shdre, 
w ith several fine cascades, and follows the bank of the Strande- 
fiord, passing the churches of Strand or Svcnnas and (about 1U Kil. 

from FageinaO Vln "°- From Uln£es a long ^ S& T^ Vm 
opposite bank, where the farm of Stende lies. (Thence to the 
slter on the'Tisleivand, see p. 41.) To the W rise the snow- 
mountains on the Vangsmjasen (see p 49) and several of the 
Jotunheim peaks. The upper part of the Strandefjord is called the 
Graneimfjord. The road ascends to — 

15 Kil. Fosheim (Fosheim Hot. $ Skyds-Stat., with baths, good). 
The lake narrows to a river, the Bsgna. 

A road diverging to the left and crossing the Beegna leads in V-h 2 hrs. 
to tLZheiZvter 5 Sanatorium, well spoken of a favourite haunt of 
anglers In 2 h rs . more we may reach the Nesen-Swter (pens, from 3 kr.), 
near the Sventkenvand (2B54 ft.). 

Beyond the church of Reen, which lies above the road, on the 
right but is not visible from it, the river expands into the Slidre- 
fjord (1194 ft.), whose N.E. bank the road skirts. About 9 Kil. 

to Lardalseren. 0ILO. Map, p. 41. — 8. R. 49 

from Fosheim we reach the splendidly situated stone church and 
the parsonage of VeUre Slidre (1387 ft.), which affords a charming 
view of the lake. A narrow road diverging here to the right crossi s 
the Slidreaas to Rogne in 0stre Slidre (p. 54). Farther on , to 
the left, is Einang's Hotel, at Volden. Beyond the house of the 
'Distriktslaege', or district physii ian (right), a gate and private road 
to the right lead to gaard 0lken (1395 ft.). On the left, just beyond 
kilomi tre-stone 90, is the Vinsnes Hotel (3-3!/2 kr. per day). 

14 Kil. L«ken (1280 ft. ; Leken Hot., good, R. 1-3, B. or S. 1 V2, 
D. 2 kr. ; Engl, spoken) overlooks the Slidrefjord, with its numerous 
islands, and the snowy mountains to the W. 

The -Hvidhjafd (white head'; 3o52 ft.), a peak of the Slidieata, may 
be ascended fnm I.tfken in 2-2'/2 his. At the top is He^fjeWs Hotel. The 
view embraces the valleys of Vestre and 0stre Slidre, the Eitihorn, and 
the snow-mountains N. of Lake Bygdin. A little farther on is the Kvalc- 
heyda, where we see the whole range as far as the Vangsmjtfsen, and the 
Hallingdal mountains to the S. 

Beyond Lekeu is the church of Lomen. The road runs through 
wood, on the left hank of the Baegna, which about 6 Kil. beyond 
Laken forms the Lofos. We cross the Veslea and skirt the brawling 
Itaegna. A road to the right leads to the church of Hurum. Our 
road crosses the Baegna and passes the Vangsnces Hotel (right). We 
next cross the Ala-Elu, descending from the mountains to the left. 

15 Kil. 0ilo (1477 ft. ; 0Uo Hot. $- Skyds Stat, good), at the 
foot of the Hugakollen, 150 paces to the left of the road. Those 
who halt here may visit the Sputrefos (by the gaards of Rogn and 
Dahl, there and back 3-3V2 hrs.). 

We soon reach the *Vangsmj«sen (1529 ft.), a splendid Alpine 
lake, 19 Kil. long, and follow its S. bank. The road is partly hewn 
in the rock, especially beyond a projection of the abrupt Kvams- 
kleo. In spring and autumn the road is endangered by falling 
stones; at the worst point it is protected by a roof. Farther on, a 
grand survey of the lake is disclosed. On the right rises the Ved- 
nhfjeld, on the left the Orindefjeld (see below), and opposite us 
the Skjoldfjeld. On the N. bank is the Dresjafos. Next, to the 
right, we see the Church of Vang, which replaces the old timber 
church, removed to the Giant Mts. in Silesia in 1844. A stone by 
the churchyard-gate bears the Runic inscription: l Kbsa sunir risti 
stin thissi aftir Kunar bruthur sun' ('the sons of Gosa erected this 
stone to Gunar, their brother's son'). A few minutes beyond the 
church we reach the good Hot. Fiigerlid (Engl, spoken) and — 

10 Kil. Grindaheim(G'rjnc/afteim Hot. $■ Skyds-Stat., R. ii/ 2 -2, 
B. or S. l 1 /2 ,,cr 'i Engl, spoken, good), prettily situated on the 
Vangsmjflsen. To the S. rises the imposing Grindefjeld (5602 ft. ; 
ascent, there and back, about 6 hrs.). 

Still skirting the lake, we have a \iew of the riven rocky slopes 
on the N. bank of the lake, on which tower the Skodshorn, where a 
phenomenon similar to that seen on the Lysefjord (p. Ill) is said 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 0th Edit. 4 

50 R.8.— Map, p. 41. 


From Christiania 

to occur, and the Skyrifjeld. About 
12 Kil. from Grindaheim, near the 
W. end of the lake, into which the 
B«gna plunges in a lofty fall, lies 
the church of Bye. The road as- 
cends in a bend to a higher part 
of the valley, crosses the stream, 
and reaches the small Strandefjord 
(1675 ft.). Ascent now steeper, 
and scenery wilder. Gaards are 
seen on the sunny (N.) side of 
the valley only. The rough old 
road follows the S. side. The new 
road crosses the Bsegna. 

17 Kil. Skogstad (1883 ft.; good 
Inn, Engl, spoken). ' ■ 

Ascending slowly, we pass the 
gaards of Opdal, at the entrance to 
the Horndal, which is closed by the 
Horntind (4775 ft.). After 3 Kil. 
we recross the Baegna, which forms 
several falls. A high but unimport- 
ant fall also descends from the 
Raubergskampen (4126 ft.), to the 

Beyond kilometre-stone 140 the 
road crosses the Baagna again, and, 
by a small cottage, forks : right to 
Lake Tyin (p. 157), left to the Lar- 
dal. To the right of the latter 
is the Stelmesi. To the left lies 
the small Utrovand, above the S. 
banks of which rises the Borrenesi 
(4242 ft.). To the right is the 

11 Kil. (but pay for 17) Nystuen 
(3255 ft. ; *Knut Nystueris Hotel, 
R. li/ 2 -4, B. orS. 11/4, D.2kT.; 
Engl, spoken), once a Fjeldstue, 
or hospice, built by government, 
lies on the barren Fille field, at 
; the S. base of the steep Stugunese 
(4826 ft.) and above the N. bank 
of the Utrovand. The ascent of the 
Stugunese (about 4 hrs., there and 
back) may be made by travellers 
who omit the excursion to the 

to Lardaheren. BORGUND. Maps, pp. 41, 53.— 8. R. 51 

Skinegg (p. 57). To the W., just beyond the enclosure of the hotel, 
we diverge to the right from the road and ascend W. by a bad path. 
We then follow a fence, on the E. side of a brook descending from 
the saddle, and lastly are guided by the stone landmarks to the sum- 
mit. The view of Jotunheim is one of the finest in this region. The 
greater paTt of it is given in the annexed sketch, after E. Mohn's 
Panorama (pub. by Beyer of Bergen, 2!/2 kr.). Farther to the left, 
above the lower hills, several peaks of the Horunger are also visible, 
particularly the Austabot-Tind with its glacier. To the right, beyond 
the Skinegg, are the snow-mountains to the N. of Lakes Gjende 
and Bygdin, the latter finely grouped, from the Sletmarkpig to the 
Turfinstinder and the Kalvaahtfgda. 

The road soon reaches its highest point (3296 ft.), the water- 
shed between E. and W. Norway. About 2 Kil. from Nystuen, on 
this side of the Kirkestel-Sceter, the old road diverges to the left, 
skirting the imposing Suletind (5810 ft.), and rejoins the new road 
near Maristuen (2-2 l /% hrs. ; but marshy and hardly advisable). 
The new road crosses the river, and beyond kilometre-stone 150 
passes a column which marks the boundary between the Stifts of 
Hamar and Bergen. We then skirt the Fillefjeldvand or Upper 
Smeddalsvand and the Lower Smeddalsvand (3084 ft.), with the 
Sadel-Fjeld rising opposite, ascend rapidly to the Bruse-Sceter 
(3242 ft.), and descend thence, high above the foaming Lara. 

17 Kil. (pay for 22 in opp. direction) Maristuen (2635 ft.; *Knut 
Maristuen's Hot., R. IV2-6, B. or S. 17a, D - 2'/ 4 kr.), formerly 
the second 'Fjeldstue' on the Fillefjeld, founded as an ecclesias- 
tical hospice in 1300. 

Below Maristuen the vegetation (birches, aspens) testifies to the 
milder climate of W. Norway. The road crosses the torrent issuing 
from the Oddedal. To Lserdalseren 50 Kil. more. We descend 
rapidly and cross the Lsera by the Haanung-Bro. At Berlaug, about 
4 Kil. short of Hegg, the Hallingdal route, crossing the river, joins 
our route on the left (p. 42). 

11 Kil. (pay for 17) Hegg (1483 ft.; Hegg Hot., R., B., S., 
IY2 kr. each, well spoken of). 

Beyond gaard Kvamme the road again bends S.W. and is nearly 
level, traversing a valley which was once the bed of a lake, terminated 
by the Vindhelle (p. 52). Numerous gaards. About 9 Kil. from 
Hegg and 4 Kil. from Husum we reach Kirkevold's Hotel Borgund 
(very fair, D. 1 kr. 80 0.) and the small, age-blackened — 

*Church of Borgund (key at the inn ; 1-2 pers. 40, each pers. 
more 20 0.), the best-preserved 'Stavekirke' in Norway, perhaps 
dating from 1150, but first mentioned in 1360. It has been care- 
fully restored by the Norwegian Society of Antiquaries, whose pro- 
perty it is, and accurately shows the original character of this kind 
of church. The ornamentation, especially on the lofty portals, 
belongs to a golden period of art. On the W. portal is scratched a 


52 R. 8. — Maps, pp. 41,53. HUSTJM. 

partly obliterated Runic inscription: 'Thorir mist runar thmar 
thanOlau misso' (Thorer wrote these lines on St. Olaf s fair] and 
'Thittai kirkia a kirUuvelli (This church in the church-ground). 
The form of these runes affords a clue to the date of the building. 
The interior consists of a nave and aisles, with twelve columns, ad- 
ioined by a choir with a semicircular (perhaps not the original] apse. 
When the doors are closed the only light admitted is by small open- 
ings in the walls. Window-glass was unknown in Norway at tliat 
period and the service probably consisted solely of the mass, chanted 
in the candle-lighted choir, while the congregation knelt in the daTk 
nave. No 'Stave-kirker' were built after the Reformation. — The 
old Belfry ('Stepel'), standing between the old church and the large 
new one erected on a similar plan, was restored about 1660. 

A little beyond the two churches the road enters the picturesque 
ravine of Svartegjel, worn by the LseTa through the huge rock-barrier 
of the Vindhelle. The grandest point is the Svartegjelfos, close to 
the entrance. Farther on, to the left, at the mouth of the Dylma, 
lies Nesdalen. The gorge then again contracts to the Grimsmgjel 
After seeing the waterfall in the Svartegjel, walkers may return to 
the Hotel Borgund and aicend behind it, between houses and barns to 
the Old Road, recognisable by the telegraph-poles. Ascending this to the 
left we obtain a food view of the churches from above. Beyond the 
top oT the hill the road descends in rapid zigzags, over coking the 
Lserdal. From Hotel Borgund to Husum by this route is a walk of V* Hr. 
13 Kil. Husum (1070 ft. ; Hotel, good, R., B., S. 1 each, D. 2 kr., 
Engl spoken). The Liera forms the cascade of Holgruten. 

The road crosses the torrent by the Nedre Kvamme-Bro and 
leads on its left bank through a grand rocky *Ravine, with partly 
overhanging rocks. On the N. bank, where the old road ran, is the 
eaard of Galdeme. The water-worn rocks show how much higher 
the river-bed must once have been. At one point the road has been 
hewn through a huge 'glacier cauldron'. Farther on, to the right, 
is the fine Store Soknefos. 

The ravine expands. By Gaard Sceltun, situated on a mass oi 
debris (slcred), the road crosses the river and then follows its right 
bank. It intersects the deposits of the Jutul-Elv (waterfall to the 
right) and enters a broader part of the valley, from which the 
Opdal, closed by the Aaken or Okken (5683 ft.), diverges S.E. 

15 Kil. Blaaflaten (Inn), to the left of the road. Behind is the 
small Befos. The valley is enclosed by lofty mountains, on which 
old coast-lines are noticeable (comp. p. xxxii; rising in steps and 
forming horizontal lines), particularly after the road has crossed the 
river by the Volds-Bro, passed the church of Tenjum, and reached 
the gaards of Mri. Here the valley turns sharp to the N. Looking 
back we have another view of the Aaken, with its peculiar crest. 
Lastly the valley turns W. On the right, near 0it, is the Stenjums- 
fos, descending between the Veta-Aas and the Hegan-Aas. 
11 Kil. Lardalseren, see p. 153. 

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9. Jotunheim. 

Norway consists mainly of a vast tableland, but it has a few 
districts with the Alpine characteristics of well-defined mountain- 
ranges and valleys. Of these Jotunheim is the chief. It is bounded 
by the Sognefjord on the W., the Gudbrandsdal on the N.E., and 
"V alders on the S. It was explored for the first time by Keilhau in 
1820, and named by him Jotunfjeldene, or the 'Giant Mountains', 
but is now generally known as Jotunheim, a name recalling the 
'frost giants' in the Edda. 

The peaks of Jotunheim (called Tinder, Pigge, Home, and 
Nabber; rounded summits are Hecr) average from 5800 ft. to 6500 ft. 
in height; the Galdhepig (p. 68) and the Glittertind (p. 67j alone 
exceed 8000 ft. The Swiss Alps are much higher (Mont Blanc, 
15,784 ft.), and so is the snow-line (8850ft.), which in Jotunheim 
is about 5580 ft. The larger glaciers are called Brceer, the smaller 
Huller ('holes'). Basins enclosed by precipices of 1500 ft. or more 
are known as Botner. The valleys lie, with few exceptions, above 
the forest-zone, and are therefore much less picturesque than those 
of the Alps. A peculiarity is that they rarely end in a pass, but 
culminate in a nearly level Band, with a series of lakes; the passage 
from one side to the other is sometimes so imperceptible that the 
uppermost lake has outlets in both directions. ThTee large lakes, 
Bygdin, Tyin, and Gjende, and many small ones, all at a height of 
3000 ft. or upwards, enclosed by bare or sparsely overgrown rocky 
hills, complete this bleak northern scenery. 

Travelling in Jotunheim is less easy than among the Alps 
owing to the lack of good paths. Even the frequented routes often 
lead through the de'bris of the 'Ure' (p.xxix), across marshes, or over 
glacier-torrents inadequately bridged. The direction is usually 
indicated by cairns or single stones ('Varder'). On the other hand 
the mountain ascents are generally easier than in the Alps. Note, 
however, that inns are scarce, and that it is often impossible to 
find shelter in the event of fatigue or rain. In stormy weather the 
motor-boats on the three great lakes cease to ply. Most of the 
'hotels' are very unpretending. The rooms are generally clean and 
the beds tolerable ; but the best rooms are often occupied by boarders, 
so that the tourist has to share a room with six or eight others or 
even to sleep on a bench in the dining-room. Arrive, therefore, as 
early as possible. Members of the Turist-Forening, known by their 
club-button, have a preferential right to beds at the tourist-huts 
(except those built with state aid) until 10 p.m. The charges are 
very moderate : bed usually li/ 4 kr. (members of the Forening 50 ».). 
The day's expenditure, exclusive of guides, need not exceed 4-5 kr. 
Most of the travellers are Norwegians, often parties of ladies. 

The S-tcters (also called Steil or Sel), or chalets, which contain at 
least one living-room and a store-room , offer very rustic quarters. At 

54 R.9. — Map,p.53. VOLDBO. Jotunheim. 

frequented points rooms for visitors are sometimes provided in the out- 
buildings. The cows are usually sent up to the mountains (M Safer,) 
at midsummer (24th June), and remain there till the beginning of Sept. 
Women and girls are often their sole attendants. 

The Guides are respectable, but generally speak Norwegian only, and 
are inferior in education and equipment to their Swiss congeners. As they 
are scarce the traveller must often wait until a group of tourists is formed 
The usual fee is 4 kr. a day, but the charge for each excursion is given 
below The guide is not bound to carry more than 2 'bismer-pounds' 
(24 lbs ) of luggage, and even this he carries unwillingly. For longer tours 
we hire a porter, who receives about two-thirds of a guide's fee. No charge 
is made for the return-journey. — Ice-axes ('Isoxer') and Ropes CBd?) are 
usually provided at the chief stations of the Turist-Forening. The art of 
mountaineering is far less developed in Norway than in Switzerland, and 
is indeed less required. Strong waterproof boots are essential. — Those 
who travel without a guide should, on leaving a sseter, whence numerous 
paths always diverge, ask to be shown the way for about half-hour. After 
that they will be kept right by the Warder' or landmarks. As a rule keep 
each in view till the next is sighted. In dull or cloudy weather it 
safest to take a guide. 

Except the greater ascents, most of the excursions may be made ( 
horseback. The hire of a horse does not include the attendant's fee, wh 
if an adult ('voxen Mand'), is paid as a guide. 

Finest Points in Jotunheim are included in the following tour 
(9-10 days): 1st Day. Motor-boat on Lake Bygdin to Eidsbugaren 
(pp. 55, 56), or motor-boat on Lake Tyin to Tyinholmen (p. 57); 
ascend Skinegg (p. 57). — 2nd and 3rd Days. To Qjendtboden 
(p. 60), and excursions near Lake Gjende (p. 60). — 4th and 5th 
Days. To Spiterstulen (p. 63), ascend Galdhepiggen, descend to Rejs- 
hejm. — 6th and 7th Days. By Bavertun- Setter (p. 70 ; reached a 
day sooner by omitting Rojshejm) to Turtegrei (p. 78). — 8th Day. 
Excursions from Turtegre (pp. 78, 79). — 9th Day. By the Keiser 
and Skogadalsbeen (p. 72) to Vetti. — 10th Day. To Aardal on the 
Sognefjoid (pp. 73, 74; half-day). — Or from Turtegro we may go 
direct by Fortun (p.77) to Skjolden on the Sognefjordin 3hrs. (p.156). 
A Standard rule of Norwegian {ravel is that horses, guides, boats, food, etc. 
should always be ordered in ample time, on the day before if possible. 

a. From Fagernses to the Hotel Jotunheim, and up Lake 
Bygdin to Eidsbugaren. 

iVa Dav. Road to Fagerslrand, 56 Kil. : Skyds for 1 pers. 10.20, for 
2 pers. 15.30 kr.; carr. and pair for 2, 3, 4 pers. 27, 30, 36 kr. — Motor 
Boat (Com. 457a) on Lake Bygdin to Eidsbugaren in 374-4 hrs.. once, or 
in the height of summer twice daily, fare4kr., or to Nyboden (half-way) 
2 kr. — Then ascend the Skinegg (p. 57), and go on by Tyinholmen to 
Framnses, etc. (p. 57). 

Fagernces, see p. 46. — The road ascends the 0stre-Slidre val- 
ley at some distance from the left bank of the Dalelv. Nearly level 
at first, it then ascends rapidly through wood. To the left, below, 
lies the Salbo-Fjord, with several gaards high above it, and snow- 
mountains in the distance. On the right is the loftily situated 
church of Skrutvold, then that of Rogne. Below, to the left, is the 
Voldbo - Fjord, at the N. end of which is the church of Voldbo, 

Jotunheim. LAKE BYGDIN. Maps,pp.41 ,53. — 9. ft. 55 

whence a good road leads to the left, over the Slidreaas, to (26 Kil.) 
Fosheim or to (20 Kil.) Laken (see p. 49). 

"We cross the Vinde-Elv, and then skirt the Haggefjord. 

23 Kil. Hseggenass Hotel (R. 2, B. or S. li/ 2 , D. 2 kr., good). 
To the E. rises the Store Mellenfjeld, the W. slope of which is the 
J&iangenshei, a splendid point of view (ascent 3-3 1 /2 hrs. ; guide 
1 kr. 60 ».). 

The road now ascends steeply to Hagge and the chief church of 
0stre Slidre, a 'Stavekirke' (p. 28), mentioned as early as 1327, 
but largely rebuilt. To the left is gaard Northorp. Farther on, to 
the left, are the Dalsfjord and the Merstafjord, connected by a 
river with each other and with the Hedals fjord. 

11 Kil. Skammestein (good quarters). The road runs above the 
Hedalsfjord. Beyond Okshovd, where a road to the Hedal - Saeters 
diverges to the right, the main road bends to the left towards Lake 
0iangen. Fine view of the lake, with the Slettefjeld, Mugnatind, 
and Bitihorn (see below). "We pass the Beito-Saters, still ascend- 
ing. Trees disappear. The marshy plateau is enclosed by moun- 
tains: "W. the Mugnatind, N. the Bitihorn, on the abrupt E. 
slope of which the road crosses a pass. 

At the Hot. Jotunheim (R. 1 kr. , B. or S. 75 e. , very fair) we 
reach the E. bay of Lake Bygdin, divided into several arms, and its 
effluent, the Vinstra, which we cross by an iron bridge. 

22 Kil. (pay for 25) Fagerstiand (Turist-Hot. & Skyds-Stat.). 
The road ends here at the pier of the motor-boat. A footpath leads 
W. to the ( 3 /4 hr.) Bygdinsund, a strait between the bays and the 
main lake, and to the small Hot. Bygdishejm. 

Ascent of the "Bitihorn (5250ft.) and back, 4-5 hrs. About 1/4 hr. S. 
of Hot. Jotunheim we diverge to the right from the road, in the direction 
of the disused tourist-hut of Raufjordhejm, and ascend the E. slope, keep- 
ing well to the left of several swamps at the beginning. The 'Horn' soon 
becomes visible, serving as a guide. For an hour we walk across 'Rab\ 
or meagre underwood (juniper, dwarf birches, Arctic willows), and for 
another hour ascend the steep rock. Magnificent view of the imposing 
Alpine landscape to the W., and of the vast plateau to the E., relieved 
by several peaks and large lakes. 

From Fagerstrand to OJendetfiejm, see p. 66. 

Soon after starting, the motor-boat (p. 54) touches at Hot. Byg- 
dishejm and enters Lake Bygdin (3485 ft. ; area 17^2 sq. M. ; depth 
705 ft.), the largest lake in Jotunheim, about 25 Kil. in length 
from E. to "W. On the N. it is bounded by lofty mountains, on 
whose slopes cattle are pastured. The S. bank is lower and less 
picturesque. On the right we pass the mouth of the Breilaupa. 
About 4 Kil. farther is the 'Faelaeger' Hestvolden, whence we may 
ascend the Kalvaahegda (7159 ft.). 

We next pass , on the right , the deep Turfinsdal , with re- 
mains of old moraines and the tourists' hut of Nyboden at its en- 
trance. To the "W. towers the Turfinstind (7030 ft. ; ascent and 
back, 7 hrs.), a splendid point of view similar to the Kalvaahegda. 

56 R. 9. — Maps, pp.53, 58. SVARTDAL. Jotunheim. 

From Niboden to Lake Gjende (p. 60j, two routes. One, very grand, 
but fatiguing, leads N.W. through the Langedal, passing the Langedals- 
ticern (im ft), and crossing the LangedaU>,rw (6233 ft.) between the 
Sletmartpig (p. 59) on the left and the Svarldalspigge (see below) on the right, 
into the VesUAadal. Guide not always to he found at Nyhoden The other 
route, preferable and comparatively easy (4-5 hrs ; guide , not indispensable, 
4 kr 1 leads through the Turfinsdal and Svartdal. It ascends steeply at first, 
about 1000 ft., on the W. slope of the valley, and then gradually. After 
IV* hr it crosses the brook, and affords, to the le:t, a view of the Tur- 
iinshul a basin formed by the Turflnstinder, while before us rise the three 
Knutshulstinder, enclosing the Knutshul. The highest part of the route is 
reached at the S. end of a long lake (4787 ft ), whence, on the 'Band' (p. xxix), 
we see the mountains to the M. of Lake Gjende, particularly the pointed 
Semmeltind. We skirt the E. bank of the lake; to the right, about half- 
way, diverges the path to the (p. 66). Two other small lakes 
lie to the left. Beyond the second, for which a curious natural barrier 
has been formed by an old moraine of the fine Svartdalshra;, we cross 
the Soarldela, which descends to Lake Gjende, with the grand SvartdaUpig 
(7031- ft ) towering to the left. We soon reach a huge precipice descending 
to Lake Gjende, called Gjendebrynel, through which the Svartdcla has 
worn a deep gorge, the Svartdalsglup . The shortest way now descends W. 
(note the 'Varder' carefully), direct in s/ 4 hr. to the lake, where we shout 
for a boat to ferry us to Gjendebod (10 min. ; each pers. 10 ). — But it 
time permit, we ascend a steep stony ridge to the left to the "Svartdalsaaxle 
(58 : i6 ft.), which commands a superb survey of M. Jotunheim. Far helow 
liet Lake Gjende. We now descend on the W. slope by a rough path, 
below the Langedalsbrse, at first rapidly over loose stones, and then over 
soft grass. Lastly we follow the course of the glacier-stream into the 
Vesle-Aadal, whence we soon reach the Gjendebod (p. 60). 

Voyaging on Lake Bygdin, we next pass the Langedals-Elv , 
and then the Galdebergstinder (6804 ft.), from which falls the 
Oaldebergsfos. On the S. side rises the Dryllenes (4934 ft.). 
Rounding the sheer rocks of the Galdeherg, we observe to the right 
above us the Galdebergstind, and facing us the Langeskavl (or 
Rustegg~) with the Uranaastind (p. 59), an imposing scene. Next 
on the right opens a valley with a fall of the Heistakka, where 
the motor-boat calls when desired (p. 59). To the S.W. rise the 
Koldedalstinder (p. 59), and, farthest S., the Skinegg (p. 57). 
Looking back, we see the three peaks of the Sletmarkpig (p. 59). 
The lake owes its milky colour here to the Melkedela, a genuine 

Eidshugaren, see p. 57. 

b. From Skogstad or Nystuen to Lake Tyin and Eidsbugaren 
or Tyinholmen. 

Road from Skogstad or Nystuen to Framnms, on Lake Tyin, 11 and 
10 Kil. respectively (pay for 17 or 16). From Framnses Motob Boat 
(Com 456) on Lake Tyin to Tyinholmen in l>/2-2 hrs., once, or in the 
height of summer twice daily, fare 2 kr. (or boat with two rowers, for 
1 2 or 3 pers. 3.60, 4.40, 5.20 kr.). — Road from Tyinholmen to Eids- 
bugaren, */ t hr., or over the Skinegg 2V2-3 hrs. — We may then walk on 
to the Gjendebod the sam? evening (p. 59). 

The road to Lake Tyin, diverging from the Valders road be- 
tween Skogstad and Nystuen (p. 50), crosses near the Opdals-Sater 
(2943 ft.) a foaming fall of the Bjerdela, descending from the left, 

Jotunheim. LAKE T YIN. Maps, pp. 53 , 5-1. — 9.R. 57 

and ascends steadily on the slope of the Stelmesi (with the Rau- 
bergskampen on the right, p. 00) to the - — 

Hotel Framnces (R. IV2, I>. 2, B. or S. 1 kr., good), on Lake 
Tyin, 6 Kil. from the parting of the ways, with a superb distant 
view of the hold Uranaastind and other peaks. The ascent of the 
Storgalden, which affords an extensive panorama, takes 2l/ 2 -3 hrs. 
(there and back; rough path; guide 1 kr.). 

Lake Tyin (3536ft. ; area 13 1/2 sq. M.; length 14 Kil. ; depth 
325 ft.), like the other Jotunheim lakes, is a grand solitude. The 
banks are uninhabited, except in summer by 'Fakarle' an I their 
cattle (at Lorviken, Maalnas, Gjetereden, and Tvlndelioagen on the 
E. bank, and Breikvam on the W.). Masses of snow in the hollows, 
reaching down to the water's edge, enhance the impressiveness of 
the scene. As we voyage up the lake, the Melkedalstinder are con- 
spicuous to the right of the Uranaastind. To the left is the large 
W. bay whence the Aard»la issues ; farther on we see the Koldedal 
with the pointed Koldedalstind (p. 59). The Falketind and other 
p^aks also come in sight. The general view is highly picturesque. 
The terminus of the motor-boat is — 

Tyinholmen (Hot. Tyinholmen, bedl-l^'okr. -, host speaks Engl.), 
a good centre for several excursions. A broal road, passing three 
small lakes, crosses the isthmus between lakes Tyin and Bygdin to 
(4 Kil.) — 

Eidsbugaren (Hot. Eidsbugaren, bed li/ 4 . B. or S. IV4 K., very 
fair), at the W. end of Lake Bygdin (p. 55). 

The favourite excursion, either from Tyinholmen or Eids- 
bugaren, is the ascent of the nearer peak of the long *Skinegg 
(4902ft.; l 1 ^ hT.). From either place we follow the road mentioned 
above to a point where the peak comes in sight (see Udsigt on the 
map), and ascend thence. In descending to Eidsbugaren avoid 
going too much to the right, where a torrent would have to be 
crossed, but make for the mi Idle lake of the three lying on the 
road- side. 

View. To the S. we survey part of Lake Tyin and the whole Fillefjeld, 
with the Stuguntfse near Nystuen (p. 50) and the roundid Suletind (p. 51). 
Of more absorbing interest are the mountains to the W. and N. : the 
Breikvamsegg, the Gjeldedalstinder (7090 ft.) and Koldedalstinder (p. 163; 
Falketind, Sttflsnaastind), with their mantles of snow: farther distant the 
Horunger (Skagast0lstind and Styggedalstinder, p. 79). Next are the 
Fleskedalstinder, the Langeskavl, the Uranaastind (p. 58/, the Melkedals- 
tinder, the Sjugultind, and other peaks. To the N. tower- the mountains 
N.W. of Lake Gjende, and more prominently the Sletmarkhjj, Galde- 
bergstind, and Turflnstinder on Lake Bygdin. Of that lake itself the W. 
end only is visible, with the huts of Eidsbugaren. Comp. Panorama, p 58. 

Herds of reindeer aro pastured in summer on the fjeld N. of Tyin- 
holmin, and are sometimes seen near the road of an evening. Enquire 
of the landl ird. 

The ascent of the Langeskavl (6115 ft.), and back, takes half-a-day 
(guide necessary; 4, for each pers. more 1 kr.). From Eidsbugaren we 
ascend E., along the Melkedela (p. 71), and at the top of the hill, instead 
of turning to the right into the Melkedal, enter a side-valley to the left, 
and nviun* as far as possible to the right. The bare summit towers above 

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masses of snow. The view embraces the mountains seen to the W. of 
the Skinegg, to which we are now nearer, and also the whole of Lake 
Bygdin as far as the Eitihorn. 

The ascent of the Uranaastind (7038 ft), the highest E. summit of the 
Uranaase, takes 6-7 hrs., or a whole day there and back (comp. p. 75; guide 
necessary, 8, for each pers. more 1 kr.). We follow the Langeskavl route, 
which we leave to the W. in order to ascend the great Uranaasbras. We 
cross the glacier to the Brceskar, whence we look down into the Skoga- 
dal to the W. (p. 71). Lastly an ascent on the N. side of about 800 ft. 
more to the summit, which is" always free from ice. The extensive view 
vies with that from the Galdh0pig (p. 63). To the W. the Uranaastind 
descends sheer into the Uradal (p. 75); to the E. it sends forth two gla- 
ciers, the Uranaasbrse, just mentioned, and the Melkedalsbrce, the E. arm 
of which descends into the Melkedal (p. 71), while the N. arm, divided 
by the Melkedalspigge, descends partly into the Melkedal, and partly into 
(lie Skogadal (p. 71). 

The Koldedalstind or Falketind (6703 ft.), N.W. of Lnke Tyin, ascended 
in 1820 by Keilhau and Chr. Boeck, the first Jotunheim mountain ever 
climbed, is reached from Tyinholmen in 8-10 hrs. (guide 10, each pers. 
more 1 kr.). We ascend the valley of the Koldedela (p. 75) to the foot 
of the Tind, and climb to the top, most of the way over glaciers. — The 
dangerous descent to the Koldedal should be avoided; better return by 
the same route. 

"Excursion to the Store Melkedalsvand, see p. il. Through the Kolde- 
dal to the Fleskedals-Soetre and Vetti, see p. 74. 

c. From Tyinholmen or Eidsbugaren to Gjendeboden 
and Gjendeshejm. 

Bhidle Path from Eidsbugaren (p. 57) to the Gjendeboden, 5-6 hrs.; 
the path is bad, but is indicated by marks (guide, advisable, 2 kr. 40 0., 
horse 4 kr.). — Motor Boat from Gjendeboden to Gjendeshejm (Com. 457b), 
once or in the height of summer twice daily ; fare 2 3 /t kr. (or by rowing- 
boat, with one boatman for 1-4 pers. 3.20, 4, 5.20 kr., with two 6, 6.80, 8 kr.). 

Tyinholmen and Eidsbugaren, see p. 57. From Eidsbugaren 
we follow the N. bank of Lake Bygdin, cross (10 min) the 
rapid Mtlkedela (p. 71) by a wooden bridge, and in 1 hr. reach 
the Heistakka, which we cross by a bad wooden bridge a little 
above its mouth, while horses ford it lower down. This point may 
also be reached by the motor-boat, or by rowing-boat (with one 
rower, for 1, 2, 3 persons, 80 »., 1 kr., 1 kr. 20 er.). 

We ascend rapidly on the left bank of the Hedstakka, which 
descends from the heights in several fine cascades. Abofe the last 
the ground is marshy. In 1 hr. we reach the long Heistaktjern 
(ca. 4100 ft.), and then skirt the E. side of the lake for about 
1/4 hr. To the right towers the Oxdalshe (5552 ft). We pass a small 
lake and cross (V2 nr a brook. To the left rises the Orenneberg 
(4968 ft.), and at its foot lies a lake, through which flows the 
Haistakka. To the right is the huge Sletmarkpig (7068 ft.), whose 
great glacier descends N. into the Vesle Aadal. The route ascends 
more rapidly, passing to the W. of a small lake, to (40 min.) the 
passage between the Gjeithe (4790 ft.; W) and the Rundtom 
(4872 ft. ; E.), where we obtain a view to the N.E. of the Semmel- 
tind, with the large glacier on its slope, and the Besh» (p. 65). 

We descend the Vede Aadal, following the course of the 

60 R.9. — Map, p. 5$. LAKE GJENDE. Jotunhrim. 

stream, either wholly on the left bank or crossing it twice according 
to the state of the path. After a time Lake Gjende is fully re- 
vealed, -with the Memurutunge to the left, and then the Beshe 
and the Veslefjeld. To the right, over the Vesle Aadal, tower 
the Svartdalspigge. About 1 hr. from the head of the pass, after 
crossing to the left bank for the last time, the path forks. We de- 
scend to the right, direct to the lake, provided the guide has a boat 
ready. Otherwise we go to the left, round the E. flank of the 
Gjendetunge (see below), to a bridge over the brook emerging from 
the Store Aadal (p. 61), and descend its left bank. 

M juntain-climbers should combine the ascent of the Gjendetunge (see be- 
low), bounding the Vesle Aadal on the W., with this route (a digression of 
1V2-2 hrs.). About 20-25 min. after crossing the above-mentioned pass 
we turn to the left and ascend the steep and stony slope of the Tungepig, 
to the N., opposile the glacier of the Sletmarkpig. An hour's climb on 
the N.W. side of the Tungepig brings us to the nearer peak of the Gjende- 
tunge, falling precipitously to Lake Gjende. We may then descend to 
the Store Aadal (p. 61). 

Gjendeboden (a tourists' hut, kept by Rennaug Hoft; 20 beds; 
good fore) lies on Lake Gjende, at the mouth of the Store Aadal, 
which is backed by the snow-clad Skardalsegg, and at the foot of 
the precipices of the Memurutunge, and is a good centre for ex- 
cursions. Guides, Nils K. Stordensrusten and Halvor Hoft. 

*Lake Gjende (3212 ft. ; 478 ft. deep ; 18 Kil. long) is enclosed 
on both sides by abrupt mountains, of which the Beshe (p. 65), 
on the N., and the Knutshulstind (7681 ft.) and Svartdalspig 
(7031 ft. ; guide from Gjendeboden 3 kr.), on the S., are the highest. 
These peaks are not seen from the Gjendebod, but become visible 
as we ascend the Store Aadal. The colour of the water is green, 
especially when seen from a height. The lake is fed by several 
wild glacier-torrents. Fog ('Gjendeskaven') often prevails. 

From the Gjendebod over the Memurutunge to the Memurubod 4 hrs. 
(with guide, 3 kr.). We follow the N. bank of the lake for '/shr., and 
then a steep grassy slope to the lefr. By a small lake (4790 ft. ; 1 hr.) we 
pass two large 'Varder' and soo 1 reach the top of the hill The •Memu- 
rutunge, a hilly plateau about 5020 ft. in height, with snow-fields, small 
lakes, and interesting Alpine flora, forms a kind of mountain-peninsula, 
bounded on the W. by the Store Aadal, on the S. by Lake Gjende, and on 
the N. by the Meniuru-Elv. The View embraces, to the S., the Knuts- 
hulstind, the Svartdalspig, and between them the deep Svartdal; then the 
Langedal and the Sletmarkpig; to the W., from the Raudal, rise the 
pointed Melkedalstinder and Bauddalstinder, chief of which is the Skarv- 
dalstind. To the N.W. lies the Langevand with the Smtfrstabtinder, the 
Kirke, and the L'ladalstinder. To theN. the Hinaatjernhel, Memurutinder, 
and Tjukningssue. To the E., the Besher. — We now descend to theMemu- 
rudal, which we reach near the J0vre Memurubod-Saiter. Following the 
right side of the brook for another hour, we roach M^muruboden (p. 6t), 
wiiere we cross a brook c'ose to the houses. 

The view from the (2 hrs.) Gjendetunge (5095 ft.) is superior to that 
from the Memurutunge only in its fuller survey of the lake. We cross 
the bridge to ths W., "ascend the Store Aadal on the right bank for about 
V* hr., and then ascend steeply to the left. 

The ascent of the highest Knutshulstind (7681 ft.), from the Gjende- 
bod, through the Svartdal (p. 50), takes 8 hrs. (for experts only). 

Jttunheim. RAUDAL. Map, p. 58. — 9. R. 61 

From the Gjendebod through the Raudal to Skogadalsb0en, 
10-12 hrs. (guide 6 kr.). The route leads up the Store Aadal on the 
right bank to a 0/« hr.) waterfall formed by a brook descending from the 
Grisletjsern, and then ascends rapidly to the left. Farther on it crosses 
the brook and leads on the N. side of the Orisletjmm and other ] onds 
to the Raudalshoug {3 hrs. from the Gjendebod), where the Raudal begins. 
This grand , but at first monotonous valley , with its almost unbroken 
series of lakes, lies N. of and parallel with the Melkedal (p. 71). On 
reaching the 'Band', at the top, we enjoy superb '-Views in both direc- 
tions : to the right rise the Raudalstinder (7412 ft. ; first ascended by Carl 
Hall in 1890; 7-8 hrs.; not difficult, but guide necessary); to the left is 
the Melkedalstind with its sheer precipice; between these peeps the Fana- 
raak (p. 70) in the distance; looking back, we see the Raudalstind on 
the left, the Sjugulstind on the right, and between them the Slefmarkpig 
(p. 59) with a great glacier amphitheatre. It takes about i'/s hr. to cross 
the 'Band', from which a route leads W. round the Svartdalsegg to the 
Langvand and the Store Aadal (a round of 10-12 hrs. from the Gjende- 
bod). We next cross the Raudals-Elv by a snow-bridge and traverse toil- 
some 'Ur' and patches of snow on the S. side of the valley , skirting a 
long lake for IV2 hr. (patience very necessary). As we near the 'Raudals- 
mund, the precipice with which the Eaudal ends at the Store Utladal, 
the scenery again becomes very grand. We see the mountains of the Ut- 
ladal and Gravdal, including the curiously shaped Storebj0rn (p. 70), 
from which the Sjortningsbrm descends. To the E. we survey the whole 
of the Eaudal, flanked by the Kaudalstinder on the N. and the Melkedals- 
tind (p. 71) on the S. The red ('raud') ; gabbro' rock here has given 
the valley its name. 

We now descend on the S. side of the grand fall of the Raudals-Elv 
to the Store Utladal, about 272 hrs. above Skogadalsbtfen, see p. 75. 

The *Voyage down Lake Gjende (motor and rowing boats, see 
p. 59) is highly picturesque. Soon after starting we obtain a view, 
to the S., of the Svartdal (p. 56), at the entrance of which we 
observe the cattle-shed of Vageboden. To the N. rise the slopes of 
the Memurutunge (p. 60). About halfway down the lake, at the 
mouth of the Memurudal, is the tourists' hut of Memuruboden, kept 
by the guide Ole O. Sveine (R. 1, D. 2kr., B. or 8. 80 0., very fair), 
where the motor-boat calls (1 hr. ; l^kr.). In the background of 
the valley is the abrupt ridge of the Tjukningssve (7913 ft.). To- 
wards the N.E. the Beshe is conspicuous during the trip, and more 
to the E. the Veslefjeld descends abruptly to the lake. To the S. 
of the lake towers the Knutshulstind with its glacier. 

From Ihe Memurubod a most attractive and (with guide, about 5 kr.) 
fairly easy glacier-pass leads to Spiteestulen (8-9 hrs ; p. 63). We ascend 
the Memurudal, watered by the turbid and milky Mcmuru-Elv, to the 
W. Memurubrae , ascend this glacier to the pass adjoining the HejUtuguhe 
(p. 62), and descend the HejUtugubroB to the Visdal (p. 62). 

From Memuruboden a good footpad leads along the lake to GjENr>ES- 
hejm in 3 hrs. 

At the E. end of the lake, on the N. bank of its effluent the 
Sjoa, lies the club-hut of Ojendeshejm (see p. 65). 

d. From Gjendeboden to Rejahjem. 

Two Pays. 1st, in 8-10 hrs. to Spiteratul , path marked by Varder 
(guide 4 hr.); 2nd, to Rejshjem, either direct (5 hrs ) or over the Oaldhepig 
(see p. 63). 

We ascend the left bank of the Store-Aadal and pass through 

62 R.9.— Ma P ,p.58, 67. ULADAL. Jotunheim. 

the defile of Hmstulen, between the Memurutunge and the Gjende- 
tunge To the right, the Glaamsdalsfos. Splendid view of the Sem- 
meltind to the N. [see helow). In 1 hr. we reach the Vardesten, a 
large rock • V 2 hr. beyond it the bridle-path to the Memurutunge 
diverges to the right (p. 60). We next see, to the left of the 
Semmeltind, the Hellerfos (see below), and to the left, above the 
fall the imposing Uladalstinder (7608 ft,; easy ascent, splendid 
view). Walkers will find the passage of the Semmelaa, which 
descends from the Semmelhol glacier, unpleasant after rain. (The 
Semmelhol is also crossed by a route into the Visdal, no less un- 
pleasant, but much grander.) Our path ascends rapidly on the E. 
(right) side of the foaming Hellerfos, the discharge of the Heller- 
tjasm, and reaches the top of the hill in 1/2 hr. (2 hrs. from the 
Gjendebod). Behind us is a superb view of the Sletmarkpig and 
Svartdalspig. We traverse a weird wilderness , bounded by the 
Uladalstinder and strewn with glacier-boulders. We at first follow 
the path skirting the Hellertjcern (4563 ft.) to the N.W., and then 
turn to the right into the valley which leads N., and afterwards 
more to the E., to 'the Uladalsband. Where the steeper ascent 
begins (2^2 hrs. from the Gjendebod) riders must dismount. 

Fkom the Hellertjjekn to the Lejbdal and R0jshejm, 3-4 hrs. longer 
than our present route, but much less toilsome (guide not indispensable, 
to Ytterdals-Sa;ter 5 kr. 70 0.; horse to Rtfjshejm 8-10 kr ). From the 
HellertiEern we follow the main track, reach the Langevand or Langvatn 
(4630 ft), and skirt its X. bank (17* hr.). On the right rise the Uladals- 
tinder; to the 8., the Skardalsegg (7215 ft.). At the W end of the lake 
we ascend past the two Hegvageltjwme to the Hagvagel ( Vagge , a Lapp 
word, 'mountain-valley'; 5430 ft.), the highest point of the route; grand 
view of the Horunger to the S.W. The path then descends to Lejrvands 
loden on the Lejrvand (p. 76). 

A steep ascent of i/ohi- brings us to the first of the four S. Uladal 
Lakes (about 5180 ft.). This and the second lie to our left, the 
third to our right, and the fourth to our left. The route, here ex- 
tremely toilsome, keeps to the right below the slopes ol the 
Semmeltind (7480 ft. ; easily ascended from the N. side; 'Seinmel 
a female reindeer). After another hour it reaches the Uladalsband 
(5758 ft.), its highest point, where it joins the route across the 
Semmel Glacier. We now descend to the two N. Vladal Lakes 
(5166 ft.). To the right rises the Hejlstuguhe (p. 63). Follow- 
ing the E. bank of this lake over most trying 'Ur', we at length 
reach (2 hrs., or from the Gjendebod 6 hrs.) Uladalsmunden , the 
junction of the Uladal with the Visdal (red finger-post). Splendid 
view up and down the latter valley. To the left towers the Kirke. 
Route to the Lejrvand, see p. 76. 

The route down the Visdal (to the Spiterstul 11/2-2 hrs. more) 
follows the right (E.) bank of the Visa , at first traversing soft 
turf, a pleasant contrast to the 'Ur'. To the left towers the Styggehe 
(7282 ft.). After 1 hr. we reach the Hejlstuguaa, descending from 
the Hejlstugubra (bridge a little higher up). Shortly before reach- 

Jotunheim. VISDAL. Mnp.p.67. — ,9. R. 63 

ing the (1 hr.) Spiterstul , we observe to the left , through the 
Bukkehul , the Sveljenaasbrse and the Styggebrae (p. 68), two 
glaciers with magnificent ice-falls, especially the latter. 

Spiterstulen (3700 ft. J, the highest saeter in the Visdal, with 
the Skauthei (p. 67) on the E. , affords plain quarters in the house 
of the guide, Eilev H. Ofigsber (bed or B. 70 e., D. I1/2 tr.). 

With a guide (generally obtainable at Spiterstulen) we may ascend the 
aiittertind (p. 67), the Lejr/10 (78S4 ft.), the Hejlstuguhti (7914 ft.), and 
one of the Memurutinder (7966 ft.). 

Instead of going direct to Rejshejm , it is preferable to ascend the 
Galdh0pig (p. 63) from Spiterstulen (4'/2 bra. ; guide 6 kr. for 1 pere., 
each addit. pers. 2 kr.). The route, while on the rock, is good, and even 
on the glaciers offers few difficulties to Alpine climbers. It leads N. from 
the Sveljenaasbrm and over the three peaks of the Sveljenaasi. Splendid 
views of the Visdal Mts. behind us. — Those who wish to go first to the 
Juvvat But (p. 68) hardly need a guide (3 kr. ; 4 hrs.) : from the Visa 
bridge they ascend the slope N.W., following the Varder; at the top they 
cross the lowest tongue of the Styggebree, and then have an almost level 
walk to the hut. 

From Spiterstul to Rejshejm about 5 hrs. more (guide not in- 
dispensable). We soon reach the birch-zone (about 3600 ft.) and 
(!/ 2 hr.) a rock-barrier through which the Visa has forced a passage. 
In another i / 2 hr. we come to a grove of picturesque firs ('Firmer', 
whose zone extends up to about 3280 ft.), most of them bare on 
the N. side. Above us, to the left, is a tongue of the Styggebrae. 
We cross C/4 hr.) the Skauta-Elv, which forms a waterfall above. 
Curious bridge. To the S. we perceive the Uladalstinder and the 
Styggeha (p. 62). Farther on is a guide-post pointing E. to Glitter- 
hejm (p. 67), and W. to the route leading across the river and past 
the Nedre Sulhejms-Sater to the Juvvashytte (W. ; p. 68). The 
Rejshejm route remains on the right bank. 

We cross the Glitra. On the other side of the valley we see the 
Nedre Sulhejms- Setter. We cross the Grjota, the Smiugjela, and 
the Gokkra. The Visa is lost to view in its deep channel; we follow 
the margin of its ravine. A path ascending to the right for a few 
hundred paces leads to the finely situated Visdals-Scetre (2958 ft. ; 
quarters obtainable, best at the 0vreb0-Sceter). 

The Gokkraskard, a fine point of view, may be ascended hence : to 
the S. the Uladalstinder, to the S.W. the Galdhflpig, to the W. the Hest- 
brsepigge. — Still finer is the Lauvb.0 (6710 ft.), whence the Glittertind 
is also visible. 

From the Visdals-Ssetre we may also ascend the Qokkerdal, between 
the Lauvh0 on the ST. and the Gokkeraxel on the S., to the pass of FinihaU 
(3884 ft.). Following the Fimhals-Elv, and crossing the Smaadals-Elv in 
the Smaadal, we may turn to the right to the Smaadals-Sceter (3903 ft.), 
whence the huge Kvitingskjele (6975 ft.) to the N. may be ascended, and 
to the Smerli and Naaver Saten on Lake Tesse. Thence across the lake 
and past the Oxefos to Storvik (p. 85; I-I1/2 day). 

The Rejshejm route remains in the valley, skirting the Visa 
Ravine. The Lauva descends from the right. The saeter-path 
descends steeply, and in 1 1 / 2 hr. from the Visdal-SaBtre reaches 
the first houses, where we cross the curious bridge to the left. 

Rejshejm, see p. 67. 

64 R.9. — Map,p.S2. KAMPE-SvETER. Jotunheim. 

e. From Vinstra in the Gudbrandsdal to Gjendeshejm. 

Two Days. 1st. Now Road, with fast stations, to the Kampe-Sater, 
28 Kit sibont 5 hrs.' drive. — 2nd. Road to the Sikkilsduls Salter, 25 Kit.-, 
thonce'walk, and partly row, to Gjendeshcim. 

Vinstra, p. 83. — The road diverges to the left ('til Kvikne') 
from the Gudbrandsdal route, crosses the railway and the Long, 
and ascends past Furuheim fp. 84) and through wood. The way to 
the Fasfor Sanatorium (p. 84) diverges to the left. After 25 min. 
the large gaard of Lo lies to our right; the deep wooded gorge of 
the Vinstra opens on ot;r left. We ascend steeply above the ravine. 
In 25 min. more a path to the right leads to the Kongsli Sanatorium 
(p. 64). To the left the Gaalaa falls from the Fceforkampen, on 
the opposite slope. We pass several gaards. 

10 Kil. Vistad, near the church of Kvikne and the large gaard 
of Harilstad. After 20 min. the road enters a ravine to the right, 
crosses a brook, and ascends to the left for nearly an hour. At the 
top the drivers make a long halt at gaard Oraupe. To the right is 
the lofty Hedalsmuen. 

The road crosses the Ommundsaa and the Skaalyggja (saw-mill) 
and passes several gaards. The lake of Olstapptn becomes visible to 
the left, and we soon reach the new Hot. Bakkerud (R. , B., S. 80 ei. 
each, good). In V^r. more we come t0 — 

18 Kil. Kampe-SEeter (3050 ft. ; Inn, R. l-l»/4 kr., B. 80, D. 
or S. 1 kr. 20 0., very fair), a summer resort. 

Passing the sseter of Rovelien, we ascend to the top of the hill, 
where we have a last view of the Kampe-Sater. Then a hilly plateau. 
The Skalfjeld rises to the left. Jotunheim now comes into sight, 
with the Valders Mts. to the left and those of Lorn (p. 86) to the 
right. We desrend, and about 2 hrs. from the Kampe-Saeter cross 
the Murua. In 1 hr. more we reach the Aakrevand and skirt its N. 

18 Kil. Aakre-Sater (3130 ft. ; modest rfmts.) lies at the W. 
base of the Aakrekampen (4630 ft.), 5 min. from the road. —We 
now gradually ascend along the affluent of the Aakrevand to the 
(ll/ 2 hr.)- 

Sikkilsdals-Saeter (very fair, R., B., S. 70 «. each, D. l 1 ^ 1 -; 
guide to Gjendeshejm 2!/ 2 -3 kr., incl. baggage), where horses are 

From the sseter, in 10 min. we reach the first Sikkitedalsvand, 
where boats are in waiting to take us up the lake (1 pers. 1.40, 
2-4 pers. 2 kr. ; i/ 2 hr ■)■ To the ri & ht towers tne aDru P* Sikkilsdals- 
horn (6033 ft); to the left are the Gaapaapigger; the snow-clad 
Beshe (p. 170) is visible in the distance. We walk across the isthmus 
to the Store Sikkilsdalsvand (3307 ft.), and row to its head in 3 / 4 hr. 
The route now ascends for 20 min., and then slightly ascends 
and descends, partly over marsh and across brooks. Fine view, across 

Jotunheim. GJENDESHEJM. Map. p. 58. — 9. R. 65 

the Sjodal, of the Nautgarstind, Glittertind, and other Jotunheim 
Mts. To the right diverges a path to the Bes-Sseter (see helow). The 
Gjendesheim path skirts the slope to the left, crosses a broad stream, 
and descends to the Turist-Forening's bridge at Maurvangen, which 
crosses the foaming rapids of the green Sjoa, the discharge of Lake 
Gjende. A walk of t/2 nr - more on the left bank brings us to — 

Gjendeshejm (3248 ft. ; a good club-hut, kept by Kari Rusnas ,• 
two houses ; R. li/ 4 kr. , B. or S. 80 , D. 1 kr. 60 e.) , at the E. end 
of Lake Gjende (p. 61), one of the most frequented points in 
Jotunheim, and a centre for attractive excursions. Guide, Sievert 
Th. Beie. 

The ascent of the Besegg and back takes 7-8 hrs. (guide 3 kr.). 
A good path ascends N., on the E. slope of the Veslefjeld, to(l 1 /4hr.) 
the Bessavand (4528 ft.; 330 ft. deep), where a path indicated by 
'Varder' comes up on the right from Beshejm (see below). To the 
W. we sight the huge Beshe. Turning to the left we skirt the S. 
bank of the lake, and then ascend in IV2-2 hrs. more to the summit 
of the barren and stony Veslefjeld (5764 ft.). The view embraces 
the whole of the dark-green Lake Gjende, with the Koldedalstinder 
and Stelsnaastinder to the S.W., and the Besh» in front. — "We 
now follow, to the W., the narrowing crest of the Veslefjeld, which 
separates the Besvand from Lake Gjende, 1300 ft. below us, and 
which terminates in the *Besegg, a curious narrow ridge descending 
sheer to Lake Gjende. 

Travellers with steady heads may descend to the Eid between the 
two lakes, and thence to Memuruhoden (p. 61; with guide from Gjendes- 
hejm 4 kr. ; or over the Memurutunge to Gjendeboden 6 kr.). 

The ascent of the *Besh«r (7585 ft. •, 8-9 hrs., there and back ; 
guide 4 kr.) coincides with that of the Veslefjeld as far as the Bes- 
vand ; we then row across the lake, or, if the boat is not available, 
follow the slope on the N. bank, and then ascend by the Beshebrae. 
The view from the top embraces the whole of Jotunheim. Far below 
lie the Memurutunge, the Besvand, Lake Gjende, and the Rusvand. 
The slope towards the last is very steep. 

About 1 hr. N.E. of Gjendeshejm is the Bes-Sceter (Tourists' Inn 
Beshejm, good, R., B., S. each 80 0., D. 1 kr. 60 0.), above the 
0vre Sjodalsvand (3255 ft.), whence we may either row (2 kr.), or 
walk along the W. bank, to (l'/2 nr tn e Besstrands-Sceter, at the 
N. end of the lake. A road thence passes the Nedre Sjodalsvand 
(3242 ft.), traverses a spur of the Besstrands Rundha (4912 ft.), and 
crosses the Russa-Elv, to (IV2 nr the — 

Rusli-Sceter (3127 ft.; quarters), where the rough road from 

Sjoa ends (p. 84). 

Ascent of the Nautgarstind from the Rusli-S^eteu (3-4 hrs.). We 
ascend a cattle-track ('Koraak') to the Hind fly ; then turn to the left to the 
Semdre Tveraa, and round the Rune, Rmdhe (6233 ft.), traversing 'Ur'. 
Fine view of the Tjukningssue (see below). We now sight the snowless 
summit of the Nautgarstind (7615 ft.), to which we have still a steep 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 9lh Edit. 5 

66 R. 9. — Maps, pp. 5*, 67. RUSVAND. Jotunheim. 

ascent of fully 1000 ft. on the N.E. side. On the W. side the Tind ends 
in a vast 'Botn' or basin, 1600 ft. in depth. Magnificent view. 

From the Rusli - Sister to Memuruboden (p. 61), 9 hrs. , rather 
fatiguing. We first follow the left bank of the Russa-Elv, wade through 
the °Smidre and Nordre Tveraa, and reach the(2>/;>hrs.) Savdbod-Sater, where 
the path joins the Gjendeshejm and Glitterhejin route, coming from the 
left across the brook. In l /i hr. we reach the Rusvasbod, and then follow 
the N. bank of the Rusvand C4084 ft.). After 1/2 hr. more the Glitterhejin 
path diverges to the right. Our path leads to the (2 hrs.) W. end of the 
lake, and then ascends the Rusglop, between (he A 0loptind on the E. and 
TJukningssue (7916 ft.) on the W. ; we next descend past the Hesttjaern, 
lying to the right. After following the height to the S. a little farther, 
we descend abruptly to Memuruboden. 

From Gjendesheim to Gjendeboden fp. 60), interesting, but the diffi- 
culty of crossing the Lejrungs-Elv is a serious drawback. The route 
ascends the 0vre Lejrungsdal, between the Lejrungsbrce and Knutshvlstind, 
to the Svartdal (p. 56) , and then passes the Svartdalsaaxle. (Guide 
necessary, 6 kr.) 

From Gjendeshejm to Lake Btgdin (6-8 hrs., unattractive; guide 
51/2 kr.). Route indicated by Varder. Passing the Lejrungsvand (3222 ft.) 
we ascend the course of a brook to the S. to the Brurskarsknatle, avoiding 
the extensive marshes of the Lejrungs-Elv. Around the valley rise the 
Kalvaahegda (p. 55), Knutshulstind (p. 56), Tjernhulstind (7655 ft.), and 
Hegdebrottet (7250 ft.). Then across the marshy plateau of Valdersfly (4593 ft.), 
and past the Fiskeljernknaus (5022 ft.) to the W. Near the Rypetjern we 
cross the W. Rypa by a bridge, and then descend, E. of the Synshorn 
(4765 ft.), to the Vinstra bridge by Fagerstrand (p. 55). 

f. From Gjendeshejm to Glitterhejin. Glittertind. 

Tolerable path, indicated by Varder, 7-8 hrs. ; guide advisable, 5 kr. 

From Gjendeshejm to the Besvand, 1^4 hr., see p. 65. We here 
cross the Bessa, close "by its efflux from the lake. (When the water 
is high we may use the Turist-Forenings boat, if available. ) We 
then gradually descend to the valley of the Rusm, which we cross 
after 1 hr. by a bridge some way below its efflux from the Rusvand. 
Near the Saudbod-Sater on the opposite bank the path joins that 
coming from the Rusli-S*ter (see above). It then ascends on the 
left bank of the stream to Ruvasboden (private property), at the E. 
end of the Rusvand (4084 ft.). 

We follow the N. bank of the lake. After i/ 2 hr. we diverge to 
tlie right and ascend on the left bank of the Tjarnholsaa, the second of 
the larger streams descending from the N. (The Memuruboden route 
still follows the bank of the lake, see above.) At a suitable place, 
about 20 min. up the stream, we cross to the right bank, and 1 hr. 
later back to the left bank. The path becomes stony and more 
fatiguing. The little lake Tjarnhol remains on the left; from its 
N. end the path ascends steeply, partly over snow, in about 3/ 4 hr. 
to its highest point (2 3 / 4 hrs. from Rusvasboden). Grand view of 
the Glittertind group to the N.W. 

The descent from the pass to Glitterhejin takes l'^hr. At first 
gradually, over snow, stones, and grass, and then more abruptly, we 
descend on the left bank of the brook into the Veodal. We ascend 
this valley for about 25 min. to a bridge over the Veo-Elv, cross to 
the right bank, and in t/ 4 hr. reach — 

' * vena — — — — ^^^ 

G«ograjih~Anst:van Wagper ADebes .Leipzig 

# KngLlHes 

Jotunhtim. R0JSHEJM. 9.R. 67 

Glitterhejm (4782 ft. ; club-hut, 30 beds at IV4, I!, or S. 1 kr.; 
guide K. Storstenrusten). 

From Glitterhejm to the Sulhejms-S^ter in the Visdal (and thence Jf. 
to R0.jshejm or S. to the Spitersttil), 4-5 hrs. (guide desirable). We ascend 
on the left bank of the Veo-Elv. A little below the point where it issues 
from the Veobra we ascend rapidly to the right and cross the plateau of 
Skautfly; then descend on the right bank of the Skaula to the Sulhejms- 
Sxter in the Visdal. From this point we may ascend the valley in about 
l'/2 br. to the Spiterstul, or descend in about 4 hrs. to Rejthejm (see below); 
to the Juvvat Hut, see below. — From Glitterhejm across the Veo and 
Memuru glaciers to Memukuboden (p. 61), 8-9 hrs., or, including the ascent 
of the Memurutind, about 3 hrs. more. 

From Glitterhejm to Randsvserk, see p. 85. 

The Ascent of the Glittbetind from Glitterhejm takes 5-6 hrs. 
(guide necessary, 6 kr.). We mount the slope towards the W.; the 
Stejnbodvand lies below us on the left. Behind us, all the way, 
tower the Memurutinder and Nautgarstind (p. 65). Snow lies 
thicker as we near the top. Roped for the last 1 /2 nr -, we climb the 
vast mantle of frozen snow which covers the summit and forms 
superb fringes on the brink of the immense precipice on the N. side. 
(Beware of going too near!) On the summit of the *Grlittertind 
(8380 ft.) is a small refuge-hut (coffee, champagne, etc.). The view 
is similar to that from the Galdhepig, which is 23 ft. higher. Most 
conspicuous to the S. are the Memurutinder. 

The Descent to Spiterstulen takes 4-5 hrs. (guide advisable). We 
follow a tongue of snow running W., and then the Skaula, the stream 
issuing from it, which we cross. We turn N., round the Skauthe (6676), 
and descend to Spiterstulen (p. 63). — Vigorous walkers may descend from 
the top direct to the Sulhejtm-Swter (p. 63) in the Visdal in 3 hrs., and 
ascend the steep opposite slope in 2'/2 hrs. more to the Juvvat Hut (p. 67). 

g. From the Ottadal to R&jshejm. The 6aldh«pig. 

Hot. Fossheim in the Ottadal, see p. 86. The road to Rtfjshejm 
(15 Kil.) diverges from the main road beyond the Baevra bridge 
and ascends on the left bank of the stream, passing the inn of 
Andvord or Anvord. At one point, Staberg, where there is a mill, 
the ravine is very narrow, and huge rocks have fallen into it from 
above. On emerging from the gorge we are struck with a superb 
view of the snow and ice-clad Oaldeheer (7303 ft.), which conceal 
the Galdruepig, and the Juvbrat. To the left, on the opposite bank, 
are the gaards of Glimsdal and the falls of the Glaama (p. 68). 
Next come gaard Sulhejm, on the right, with a waterfall in the gorge, 
and gaard Oaupar. The road crosses the Baevra. 

Eejshejm (pron. roizame ; 1800 ft.; Inn, very fair, but often 
full), at the junction of the Baeverdal and the Visdal (p. 62), is 
a good centre for excursions and a favourite summer resort. By the 
upper bridge over the Baevra, 2 min. above the inn, are several 
'glacier cauldrons', the largest about 10 ft. wide. 

A pleasant walk of 1-2 hrs. : follow the Andvord road for 
12 min. , and cross the bridge to a rocky island formed by the two 


68 R.9.—Map,p.67. GALDH0PIG. Jotunheim. 

branches of the Bavra, and affording a fine view of and 
the Galdhfler; thence by a toot -bridge to the right bank; turn to 
the left, and follow the track through underwood to Ghmsdal \ k 
group of gaards, where the Glaama descends m four falls We 
may then ascend by the broad track on the left bank of the Glaama 
in 20 min. more to gaard Engum, at the top of the falls. 

The Ascent of the Gai/dh«tpig is made daily in the height of 
the season by numerous travellers , including many Norwegian 
ladies The night is usually spent in the Juvvashytte (,4-0 hrs.J, 
whence the summit is reached in 2i/ 2 -3 his. We follow the Baver- 
dal road fp. 69) for 40 min., and near a white church ascend the 
bridle-path to the left to (lVa^O the Raubergs-Stele, which may 
also be reached by a direct footpath in li/ a hr We next ascend 
S W to (1 hr.) the barren and stony Galdehei (5243 ft.), which the 
bridle-path avoids. Towards the E. the view is limited to the 
Glittertind. In li/a hr. more we reach the Juvvashytte (ca. WbU tt. ; 
27 beds at 60, B. or S. 80 e., D. i% kr -> S ood ' but often full J' 
owned by the guide Knud O. Vole. Near it is the small Juvvand, 
into which juts the perpendicular ice-wall of the Tverbrce. To the 
right rises in contrast the black rounded cliff of Kjedelen. Fine 
view of the Troldstejnsheer and the Glittertind, to the E., and oi 
the Memurutinder, Besher, etc., to the S.E. 

At the Juvvashytte begins the real ascent (guide b kr , each 
pers. more 2kr.; Knud Vole or his son). A fair path leads oyer 
stony debris to the snow-fields. When the snow is in suitable 
condition the guide brings sleighs or snow-shoes for the descent 
I11 front of us rise the summit of the Galdhepig and the rocky arete 
of the Sveljenaasi, with the Kejlhaustop and Sveljenaaspig, lookmg 
almost black as they tower above the snow of the StyggOryx 
Veltjuvbra. Crossing snow and a stony tract we reach the Varde 
on the Styggebr* in l-H/ a hr., and take 3/ 4 -l hr. more to «obb the 
glacier (rope essential; beware of crevasses). We next ascend a 
ridge of rock covered with loose stones, and lastly mount a toilsome 
snow-arete to the (i/a tr.) summit? with its welcome shelter-hut 
(coffee, champagne, etc.) . 

The **Galdh*pig (8402 ft.; pron. gallopig), the highest 
mountain in Norway, first ascended by S. Sulhejm in 185i, is the 
chief peak of the Ymesfjdd, a peculiar plateau with precipitous 
sides, enclosed by the valleys of the Lejra, Visa, and B<evra, and 
connected with the other Jotunheim Mts. by the Hegvagel (p. bZJ 
only. The view is unbounded. It extends N.E. to the Snehatta 
(p. 91) and the Rondane (p. 94), to the left of the Glittertind (p. 67) ; 
to the S E. S., and S.W. stretches the whole of Jotunheim ; to the 
S.W. the Smorstabtinder and the Horunger are conspicuous; to the 
W. is the Jostedalsbrce, to the N. of which are the heights on the 
Nordfjord. In this realm of rock, snow, and ice not a single human 
habitation is visible. 

Joiunheim. LEJRDAL. Map, p.67 —9.R. 69 

From the Juvvas Hut we may also ascend the Glittertind (p. 67; 
guide for 1 pers. 10, for each pers. more 4 kr.). 

From the Juvvas Hut to the Spiterstul, see p. 63. — Another path 
leads W. in 2>/2 hrs. to the Elve-S^tkk (see below). 

The Lomsegg (6762 ft.) may be ascended from Eojshejm, or from Hot. 
Fossheim (p. 88), in 21/2-3 hrs. (guide 2-4 kr.). Refuge-hut at the top. Im- 
posing view of the Glittertind and Galdhsrpig, and of the Smtfrstabbraepigge 
and Fanaraak to the S.W. ; line view of the valley also. 

The view from the Hestbrsepigge (7096 ft.) reveals the Jotunheim Mts. 
in longer array than that from the Lomsegg. Riding practicable part of 
the way. The latter part of the ascent over snow and ice is nearly level. 

From Rtfjshejm to Lake Gjende through the Visdal or the Leirdal! 
see pp. 63-60. 

h. From lUjshejm over the Sognefjeld to Turtegr*. 

1st Day. To Bwverttm, a walk of 6-6'/2 hrs. (or drive one-third of the 
way). — 2nd Day. To Turlegre, 7-8 hrs. (path well marked by 'Varder', 
but from Krosboden onwards a guide is desirable). Most of the brooks 
are bridged ; some of the fords are awkward after rain. Horse and guide 
from Rtfjshejm by Turtegr/zr to Fortun (p. 77) , 20 kr. ; from Bsevertun to 
Turtegrtf, 12 kr. 

Rejshejm, see p. 67. The road ascends on the right hank of 
the Boevra ('bajver', a beaver) to (4y 2 Kil.) Bceverdals Kirke, in a 
well-cultivated region. It then leads through a grand gorge, expand- 
ing into a pleasant basin with the gaards oiHorten. About 2 Kil. 
farther is the entrance to the Lejrdal. Just before the bridge on 
the main road up the Baeverdal, we enter the Lejrdal to the left, 
and then (2 Kil.) cross the Lejra, where we reach the gaard of — 

Elvesseter (2182 ft. ; R. 1 1/4, D. I1/2, B. or S. 1 kr., good ; English 

Feom Elvesseter to the Jcvvashytte, 3>/2-4 hrs., a tolerable path 
indicated by 'Varder'. We retrace our steps to the bridge on the Bseverdal 
road, keep to the right, and in 1/4 hr. diverge to the right by a path to 
the Mptings-Sceter. Then a steep ascent, lastly over a large snow-field, 
to the hut (p. 68). 

The road leads from Elvesseter about 6 Kil. further up the narrow 
wooded valley, above the left bank of the Lejra. To the left, on 
the slope of the Galdhapig, are the Store Juvbra and then the 
Store Grovbrce; straight on is the vast Loft (p. 77) with its glaciers. 
A bridge crossing to the Lejrdals-Sseter is passed on our left. 
After about li/ 2 hr. the road becomes a bridle-path, which ascends 
the slope of the valley more rapidly. In 20 min. we pass on the 
left the path to the Lejrvand (comp. p. 76). Our path now leaves 
the Lejrdal and ascends to the right to the Bceverkjcern - Hals 
(about 3600 ft. ; 'Hals', a pass). A fine *View of the flat upper 
basin of the Lejrdal, framed in snow-mountains and glaciers, is 
gradually disclosed. At the Bakkeberg-Sceter, 2 l /<z hrs. from the 
Elvesseter, we sight the pale-green Heidalsvand, lying below on 
the right, and the Blaahe, generally covered with snow. 

We now descend, passing on the right the Bcevertjarn, with 
its many promontories, into the Upper Bseverdal. At the end of 
the lake, between it and the Bcevertunvand (3048 ft.), we cross 

70 R. 9.- Map, p. 67. SOGNEFJELD. Jotunheim. 

the river by a bridge, 1 hr. from the Bakkeberg-Saeter and follow 
the N bank of the latter lake to (3/ 4 ,„,, or about 4i/ 4 hrs. from 

E1V B^ertui!s»ter (3050 ft. ; Bcevertun Hot kept by 8. Ophaug, 

1>. lt/s kr -' P lain but very fa " ; Bakkeher 9 s Hot ^ at the W - 6 
of the Baevertunvand. 

About i' 4 hr from Basvertun the path crosses the Dommabro 
or Dombrul where the Comma, shortly before joining the Baevra, 
flows underground. We then ascend for li/ 2 hr the monotonous 
valley to the Nupshaug, a curious rocky knoll in the middle ol the 
valley Adjacent is a fall of the Basvra; to the left are two other 
waterfalls Fine view behind us. Then follows a steeper ascent 
to the left to a higher region of the valley. Opposite us we survey 
the *Sm0rstabbra>, one of the grandest glaciers in Norway, over- 
topped by the Smerstabtinder. Of these peaks either the Saksa or 
the serrated Skeja (first ascended by Carl Hall in 1891) may be as- 
cended from the Basvertun-Saeter with a good guide (there mdbaci 
12-14 hrs ) Thchighest peak, the Storebjern ('Big Bear ; 751c! ft. ; 
first ascended by Carl Hall in 1885), to the S is more difficult. 
The Baevra issues from the Sniarstabbrae. In 2V 4 hrs. from the 
Bsvertun- Salter we reach the small tourists' inn otKnBboden 
(owned by the guide Nils T. Bakkeberg; R. 1 kr., B. 80, S. 90 »., 
very fair), amid grand mountain scenery. 

Beyond Krosboden our path turns to the right and ascends the 
Sognefjeld (or Delefjeld). This very ancient mountain route is well 
provided with 'Varder (landmarks, cairns, or 'stone men). In 
li/ 4 hr. we come to one of these, the 'Kammerherre' a «™oub mass 
of rock iust beyond which is the summit of the pass (about490U it.j. 
The view of the Sraerstabbraj and the Smerstabtinder increases in 
grandeur. We cross the boundaiy of Bergens-Stift. To the leu 
lies the Rauskjeld-Vand, the first of the large lakes which extend 
over the whole plateau. Next, to the left, is the extensive 
Preslesteinvand, with its numerous bays. In the distance, to ttte 
E next to the Smerstabtinder, rises the Kirke (p. lb), to tne 
S.E. the Uranaastind (p. 59). To the S. the glaciers descending 
from the Fanaraak (6693 ft.) almost reach the Prestesteinvand. 
We next descend to the Herrevand, crossing its effluent by tne 
wooden Herrevasbrui (4309 ft.). The Smerstabtinder now disappear 
from the view behind us. We round the W. buttress of the Fanaraak 
and descend to the Juvvand (4119 ft.). To the right, in the distance, 
lies the broad back of the Jostedalsbrae. In front rises the whole 
range of the Honlnger: the Riingstinder, Dyrhaugstinder, and 
Skagastelstinder. The best point of view is the *Oskarshoug (p. ȣ>), 
a little to the left of the path, li/ 2 tr. from the Herrevasbrui. We 
now descend by a good path to (V2 h*-) — 

Turlegre (p. 78), about 6 hrs. from Krosboden. 

Jotunheim. MELKEDAL. Map, p. 58. — 9. R. 71 

i. From Tyinholmen or Eidsbugaren through the Melkedal 
and over the Keiser to Turtegr*. 

2 Days. A grand but fatiguing route (marked by 'Varder': guide not 
indispensable for adepts). 1st Day: To Skogadalsbeen 10-li hrs (guide 
fa kr.). 2nd Day: To Turtegra 6>/2 hrs. (guide 4 kr.). - As the guides of 
Eidsbugaren, Vetti, etc., are little acquainted with the Horunger the 
traveller about to explore these mountains should dismiss his guide at 
the Helgedals-Saster. 

To the mouth of the Melkedela, and across that river, see p. 59. 
Quitting the lake, we gradually ascend the *Melkedal, with its 
rapid stream. After 3/ 4 hr. the valley divides. The branch to the 
left ascends to the Langeskavl and Uranaastind (p. 59); that to 
the right is still called the Melkedal. Steep ascent through the 
latter, passing several waterfalls. The valley has no level floor, 
but consists of a chaos of heights and hollows. The rocks are 
polished by glacier-friction or covered with loose boulders. Vege- 
tation ceases. About 20 min. above the bifurcation of the valley 
we ascend a steep snow-slope to the plateau of MelkehuUerne, with 
several ponds. 

In 20 min. more (about 1 1/2 hr. from Eidsbugaren) we reach the 
**Store Melkedalsvand (4347 ft.), in a strikingly grand situation, 
and worthy of a visit for its own sake from Tyinholmen or Eids- 
bugaren (best in the forenoon, 5-6 hrs. there and back). Even in 
July ice is seen floating in the lake ('aarsgammel Is', year-old ice, 
winter-ice ; 'natgammel Is', night-ice, fresh ice). To the W. rises 
the Langeskavl ; then the Uranaastind ; in front of the latter is the 
Redberg; next, the Melkedalsbra, descending to the N.W. end 
of the lake , and the Melkedalstinder, all mirrored in the dark- 
blue water. 

Another hour over 'Ur' and snow brings us to an ice-pond at 
the foot of the First Melleedalstind , whence we ascend a steep 
snow-slope in 20 min. to the Melkedalsband, the watershed('Vand- 
skjelet'). Farther on appears the Second Melkedalstind (7106 ft. ; 
ascended either from the Rauddal or the Melkedal), and to the N.W.' 
the Raudalstind (p. 61). The route skirts the three MelkedaU- 
tjerne, through which flows the Skogadela. The stream has to be 
forded between the second and third pond. Rough walking here. 
A view of the Horunger is now disclosed (p. 79). The striation 
of the rocks by glacier-action ('Skurings-Striber') is frequently 
seen. The torrent is again crossed by a snow -bridge (caution 
necessary), or we may wade through it knee-deep a little lower 
down . The Melkedal now ends in a barrier of rock ('B«lte', girdle), 
over which the river falls about 590 ft. To this point also descends 
from the left the W. arm of the Melkedalsbra?, by which the 
descent from the Uranaastind may be made (p. 59). 

We now enter the lower valley, the Skogadal, a broad basin. 
Above it tower the Skagastelstinder and the Styggedalstind. The 
Maradahlra descending from the Skagastelstinder is very striking. 

72 R. 9._ Map, p. 58. KEISEREN. Jotunheim. 

The Skogadal is at first uninteresting, but the vegetation improves, 
and we come to woods of fine birches (whence the name, 'forest 
valley'). A walk of 2 hrs. from the 'Baelte', without defined path, 
brings us to the tourist-hut of — 

Skogadalsbeen (p. 75), about 10 hrs. from Eidsbugaren. 

About i/ 2 h r - further the Gravdal route leads to the right (p. 76). 
We turn to the left and cross the Vila by a bridge (2789 ft.). Beyond 
it the path to the right leads to the (V2 nr Guridals-Saetre, but 
we follow the good sseter-track to the W., on the N. bank of the 
Gjertvas- Elv or Styggedals-Elv, which descends from the Gjert- 
vasbrse and the Keiser. On the S. bank is the deserted saeter of 
Ojertvasbeen (whence a path leads to the ^Vcrmelid-Sater, 1 hr. ; 
p. 75). The view behind us becomes grander and more open: to 
the left is the Smerstabbrae ; at the end of the Store Utladal is the 
Kirke ; more to the right are the Raudalstinder ; opposite is the 
Skogadalsnaasi ; farther to the right are the Melkedalstind , the 
Uranaastind , and, to the extreme right, the Falketind. After 
1 hr. the stream has a small fall. To the left, at the base of the 
E. Styggedalstind, now usually called Ojertvastind (7710 ft.), lies 
the great Ojertvasbrce, opposite which we pass V2" 3 /4 nr - later. 

A route about 1 hr. longer, and not difficult for good walkers, ascends 
past the N. side of the Gjertvatbrae to a low pass, and descends to the 
StyggedaUbra: and thence to the Helgedals-Sseter (see below). — Ascent of 
the Gjertvastind, see p. 79. 

The path, now good, next leads to the (20 min.) Ojertvand; to 
the left of the lake is ascends steeply, over 'Ur' and snow, to the 
'Skar', and then, between the Styggedalsnaasi on the left and the 
Ilvasnaasi on the right, to the pass of (3/ 4 hr.) Keiseren (4928 ft. ; 
Lapp 'Kaisa', mountain), on which lie the Ilvand and the snows of 
the Storfond. To the S.E., above the snow of the Styggedalstind, 
rises the Koldedalstind ; to the N. is the Fanaraak; to the "W. the 
great Jostedalsbr*, above the mountains on the Lysterfjord. 

The path, nearly at the same level, passes the pond of Skauta. 
The Horunger, especially those round the Styggedalsbotn, become 
conspicuous to the left. After 3 / 4 hr. we cross the Helgedals-Elv, 
flowing W., sometimes scarcely fordable, and in 1/4 hr.^more reach 
a bare rocky height overlooking the Styggedalsbotn (p. 79), a huge 
basin of snow and ice. After 3 / 4 hr. we see in the 'Botn' to the 
left the outflow of the Styggedals Glacier, and to the right the Stein- 
dals-Elv coming from the Fanaraak. In front of us, about 660 ft. 
below, lies the broad Helgedal, to which the path now rapidly 

In 20 min. we pass, on the left, the fine Skautefos, formed by 
the confluence of the Helgedals-Elv and the Styggedals-Elv. The 
path then crosses the Steindals-Elv, usually not difficult, and leads 
through the broad valley, past the Helgedals-Sater, to — 

Turtegre (p. 78), 6y 2 hrs. from Skogadalsbeen. 

Jotunheim. VETTI. Maps, pp. 79, 53. — 9. R. 73 

k. From Aardal on the Sognefjord to Vetti. Vettisfos. 

To Vetti 5V2-6 hrs.: l l li-i l /t hr. by steamer or rowing-boat; l'/< hr. 
by carr. ; the rest (3 3 l fe hrs.) on foot, the path being bad for riding. The 
Sognefjord steamers to Aardal are not timed very conveniently. This route 
is recommended as an approach to Jotunheim or to the Horunger, but the 
Vettisfos alone hardly repays. 

Aardal, see p. 154. "We walk up the Aardals-Elv, on the right 
hank of which we see gaard Hereid, to the (i/ 4 hr.) Aardalsvand, 
(16 ft.; 9Kil. long; 409 ft. deep), flanked with abrupt cliffs and 
deep ravines. A small steamer plies on the lake five times a week 
(1V4 hr. ; 20 0.); rowing-boats always to be had (li/ 2 hr. ; 1 pers. 
80 0., 2 pers. 1 kr. 32, 3 pers. 1 kr. 62 0.). To the right we see 
the Stegafjeld , with the precipice of Opstegene on its E. side ; 
beyond lies the Fosdal ; high above is the Eldegaard, with a water- 
fall. Farther on, high up to the right, is the Lest-Sater; then the 
Midnceshamer, with the Eldeholt. To the left rises the Bottnjuv- 
kamp, with its huge precipice; to the right are 'Plads' Gjeithus 
and the Raudnces. To the left lies the Nondal, with several gaards 
and the Nondalsfos. On rounding the Raudnaes we sight — 

Farnas, at the N.E. end of the lake, where we land. Bargain for 
horse or vehicle advisable. Guides Thomas A. Vetti (licensed) and 
Olaf E, Hjelle (to Vetti unnecessary). 

From B'arn^s to Fortun (8-10 hrs. ; with guide, 4 kr.). The bridle- 
path ascends N.W. through the Fardal or Langedal, past the Aare and 
Stokke sseters, to the Mwadn-Swter (3440 ft.), whence a path leads through 
the Lovardalsskard (4698 ft.) , a narrow pass at the base of the Austa- 
bottinder and the Soleitinder (p. 79) , into the Bcerdal (seeter and refuge- 
hut). Thence to gaard Fuglesteg (2493 ft.; 'bird-path') and an extremely 
steep descent to Fortun (p. 77). 

The road from Farnaes to Gjelle (7 Kil.) ascends the right (W.) 
bank of the TJtla. In 4 /4 hr. we see a fine cascade on the opposite 
side of the valley. Then, on the right, the mouth of the Aardela, 
the effluent of the Tyinsj0 (p. 57), and gaard Moen (poor quarters). 
About 5 Kil. from Farnaes the road crosses the Utla, and 3 Kil. be- 
yond the bridge it ends at Gjelle. To the right is the fine Gjellefos. 

From Gjelle a poor and in part stony path ascends the Vettisgjel, 
a ravine 4-5 Kil. long. We first descend to the left, cross the 
river, and reach gaard Skaaren, just beyond which we re-cross to 
the left bank. "We now thread our way through a chaos of stones 
above the wild Utla. In 20 min. we come to a bridge on the left 
crossing to the Afdalsfos, 530 ft. high; but the fall is also seen 
from our path on the left bank, 10 min. further. Scenery imposing. 
The ravine ends ( 3 /4-l hr.) at the Heljabakfos, a fall of the Utla. 
Then a steep ascent to the JJeljabakken, from which we have a view 
of the 'Plads' below, Gaard Vetti above, and three small waterfalls 
to the left. Lastly a climb of V2 _3 /4 hr. more to — 

Gaard Vetti (1030 ft.; plain quarters at Anfind Vetti' s, bed 80, 
B. 70 0., D. 1 kr., horses to be had for returning to Farnaes ; Anfind 
J. Vetti is a guide certificated by the Turist-Forening). 

74 R. 9. —Maps, pp. 63,79. FLESKEDALS-SyETER. Jotunheim. 

We ascend the valley for '/2 hr. more (guide unnecessary) to 
the *Vettisfos, or Vettismorkafos, a fall of the Morkedela, which 
here plunges headlong into the Utla ravine, forming a huge veil, 
850 ft. high. We have an admirable view of the fall from a height 
near it, but we may cross a small bridge to the other bank to see 
it quite close (waterproof desirable). — Those who have 3 hrs. more 
to spare may ascend for l^hr. the path to the Vettismorka-Saster, 
in order to enjoy the fine view from the platform above the fall. 

"Circuit op the Horunger (with guide; a horse must be obtained at, 
Farnses or Gjelle, and provisions from Aardal). 1st Day: From Gaard 
Vettiby the Vetlismorka-Sastev and the Fleskedals-Soeter (see below), in7-8hrs. 
to Skogadalsheen (p. 76). 2nd Day: Across Pass Keiseren (p. 72) to Turtegre 
(p. 78), and ascent n{ the Dyrhaugstind (p. 79). 3rd Day: By Fortun to 
Skjolden, see p. 77. 

1. From Vetti to Tyinholmen. 

9-10 hrs. A grand expedition (with guide; 1 pers. 6, each more 1 kr.). 

Gaard Vetti and the Vettisfos, see above. From Vetti we ascend 
the Vettisgalder, N.E., in zigzags, and in Y2 nr - reach a plateau 
with a view of the Utladal to the N., and the Maradalsfos on the 
left. In Y2 nr - more we reach the top of the hill, where there are 
a few dying or dead pines. A path descends to the left through 
scrub and across the MorkedMa to the above-named *Platform 
overlooking the Vettisfos. We then return to the left bank of the 
Moikededa, ascend its course. and(20min.) cross it to the — 

Vettismorka-Sceter (2188 ft.), I1/2 hr. from Vetti. To the W., 
at the head of the Stels-Maradal. rises the Riingstind with the 
Riingsbrae ; below is the Maradalsfos ; to the right, the Maradals- 
naasi. The view of the Horunger becomes grander. 

From the upper valley of the Morkedjjla, on the S. side, rises the 
Gjeldedalstind (7198 ft.; first ascended by Carl Hall in 1884), and on 
the N. the Sttflsnaastind (6790 ft.; first ascended by Mr. Slingsby in 
1875). Both may be ascended, with guide, without serious difficulty. 
Grand views. 

Our route leads through firs and birches, and ( l / 2 hr.) crosses 
the Fleskedals-Elv ; it then ascends through wood to an open space 
where we enjoy a "View of the Skagastalstinder (p. 79) to the left. 
We descend in i/ 2 nr - more ( 2 V2 nr S- from Vetti) to the Fleskedals- 
Saeter (3149 ft. ; humble quarters, when open). Splendid view of 
the Riingsbrae and other Horunger. 

The route to Tyinholmen re-crosses the Fleskedals-Elv and 
follows that stream. To the N. we first observe the Friken (see 
below), and afterwards the precipices of the Fleskenaastind (5853ft.) 
between the Fleskedal and the Uradal. In 3/ 4 -l hr. we re-cross 
the stream and gradually ascend to the defile of Smaaget (about 
4500 ft.), 2y 2 hrs. from the Fleskedals-Seeter. *View of the Horunger 
behind us. To the right of the rather monotonous route we first 
observe the Stelsnaastinder with a large glacier, then the Kolde- 
dalstind; to the left the Fleskenaastind. We then descend rapidly 

Jotunheim. UTLADAL. Map, p. 79. — 9. R. 75 

to the Upper Koldedalsvand or Uradalsmulen, and follow the red 
and white 'Varder' to the S., along the Koldedela, to the Lower 
Koldedalsvand. We cross the Uradals-Elv, 2 hrs. from Smaaget, 
skirt the E. bank of the lake, and follow the stream to the upper 
end of Lake Tyin, on whose N. bank we soon reach Tyinholmen 
(p. 57), 2'/2 h rs. from the bridge over the Uradals-Elv. 

m. From Vetti through the Utladal, Gravdal, and Lejrdal to 

1st Day. From Gaard Vetti to Skogadalsbeen (6-7 hrs.). Those who 
sleep here may ascend the Skogadalsnaasi in the afternoon. — 2nd Day. 
From Skogadalsbtfen to Lejrvandiboden (6-7 hrs.) or to Slethavn (8-9 hrs.) — 
3rd Day. To Rejshejm (8-9 or 6-7 hrs.). 

From Vetti (p. 73) to the Fleskedals-Sceter, 21/2 hrs., see p. 74. 
Our route ascends the green slope of the Friken (4630 ft. ; whose 
highest point remains to the right), following the 'Varder', descends 
a little, and then skirts the slope high above the Utladal, affording 
a *View of the Horunger, whose sharp peaks tower above a vast ex- 
panse of snow : first, to the left, the Skagastalstinder rising above 
the Midtmaradal, then the Styggedalstind, the E. buttress of the 
group, descendinginto the Maradal, with the extensive Maradalsbra;. 
To the S., in the prolongation of the Utladal, we see the Blejan 
and the Fresviksfjeld (p. 150); S.E. , the Stelsnaastind; E., the 
pointed pyramid of the Uranaastind; N., the Skogadal and Ut- 
ladal Mts. 

In 3/4 hr. more we see below us, to the left, on the other side 
of the valley, the Vormeli-Saeters (p. 72), and in front of us 
Skogadalsbeen and the Guridals-Sseters (p. 76). The path now 
descends rapidly through willow and birch scrub ('Vir') to (3/ 4 hr.) 
a small birch-grove. In 10 min. more the lonely Vradal opens on 
the right, with an immense mass of 'Ur', fallen from the S. slopes. 
At the E. end of the Uradal rises the Uranaastind (p. 59). We 
cross the Uradela by a small bridge, then follow a cattle-track 
('Koraak') through sparse birch-wood at the foot of the Urabjerg, 
cross the Melkedela or Skogadela, and (1/2 hr. ) reach — 

Skogadalsbeen (2914 ft.), consisting of a good club-hut and 
two saeters, inhabited from the end of June till the beginning of 
September, a good centre for excursions in the E. Horunger (p. 79). 
— Guides, Amund J. Odden and Gudbrand Rep. 

From Skogadalsbtfen we may scale the Uranaastind (p. 59): also the 
Skogadalsnaasi (6083 ft.; 3-4 hrs., there and back), by ascending the valley 
to the (1/2 hr.) Lusahoug (see below) and then climbing to the right. 

The ascent of the Gjertvastind (p. 79), and back, takes 8-10 hrs from 
Skogadalsbeen. The real ascent begins at Gjertvasbeen (2950 ft : p 79) 
?foce 1 r eads up the Gjertvatnaasi. In M'/ 2 hr. we reach the first plateau 
(Mjb ft.), and in 3 hrs. more the Gjerlvastop (5686 ft.). About 500 ft. higher 
we reach the base of the peak, then ascend a slope of snow, partly over 
rock, and lastly by a broad crest to the summit. 

We now leave the bridge above mentioned (p. 72; route to the 

76 R.9. — Map, p. 79. LEJRVAND. Jotunheim. 

pass of Keiseren) to the left and follow the E. hank of the Utla. 
Beyond the ahandoned Lusahoug- Setter, we ( 3 / 4 hr.) reach the con- 
fluence of the Store and Vetle Utla. The latter descends on the left 
from the Vetle ('little') Utladal, in which the Guridal Setters are 
visible and plunges in several falls over the rock-harrier of the 
Tunghoug. The Store Utla, along which the steep path ascends, 
has forced its way through the harrier and foams in its channel far 
below. On the left rises the Hillerhei (5257 ft.). Fine view behind us 
of the Styggedalstinder with the huge Gjertvasbrae. Grand scenery. 

We next reach a higher region of the Store Utladal, and (2 1 /2 nls - 
from Skogadalsbaen) cross to the right bank of the Utla by a bridge 
(3326 ft. ; the route through the Raudal to the Gjendebod follows 
the left bank of the Utla; see p. 61). The Muran- Setter, once 
situated here, has disappeared. Grand view of the Styggedalstinder 
to the W., the Kirke to the N.E., and the Raudalstind to the E. 
We keep to the right bank. On the S. side we observe the Skogadals- 
naasi and the second Melkedalstind; then a large waterfall descend- 
ing from the Raudalsmund (p. 61), adjoining which on the N. 
rise the Raudalstinder. Nearly opposite the Raudal is the 'stone 
camp' of Stor Halleren, used by reindeer-stalkers. Looking back, 
we have an impressive view of the Horunger. The valley now takes 
the name of Gravdal. We next have to wade (best near the Utla) 
through the Sand-Elv, descending on the left from the Sjortnings- 
bne, an offshoot of the great Smerstabbrs, above which towers the 
curiously shaped Storebjern (p. 70). The path ascends and the 
flora becomes Alpine. We reach a height of 4920 ft., and then, 
after a walk of 8-9 hrs., the — 

Lejrvandsboden on the Lejrvand (4930 ft.), where we find good 
quarters, guides, and horses at R. Elvesceter's Inn. The routes from 
the Gravdal, the Leirdal, the Visdal, and the Hogvagel (p. 62) 

converge here. 

From Lejrvandsboden we mav scale the curiously shaped Kirke (TOlOft.), 
which towers to the E., iu 4-5 "hrs. , the Stehotind in 4 hrs. , the Semmel- 
holslind (7165 ft.) in 6-7 hrs. , and the Storebjern (p. 70), rising from the 
Smerstabbree, in 6-7 hrs. ; the passage of the Smeritabbrcc to Krosboden is 
also interesting. All these excursions, difficult in part, require a guide. 

From the Lejkvand to Sfitekstclen in the Visdal, 51/2-672 hrs., very 
fatiguing. We skirt the N. side of the Lejrvand and cross the effluent of 
the four tarns of the Kirkeglup, between' the Kirke (right) and the Tyer- 
bottenhom (left), as near as possible to its influx into the Lejrvand. We 
keep to the S. of the first three tarns, then at the upper end of the third 
lake cross the brook to the N. side of the valley, above the fourth tarn. 
We next descend into the Upper Visdal, wading through brooks from 
the Uladalstinder, picking our way through holes and bogs, and following 
the S. side of the stream as closely as possible. Shortly before we join 
the route from Gjende a path becomes traceable, leading to the bridges 
over two glacier-streams, the Uladalsaa and the Hejlstuguaa. Thence to 
Spiterstulen about 2 hrs. more, see p. 62. 

Descending the Lejrdal, we skirt the vast Ymesfjeld (p. 68) 
on the right, but the curious-looking Skarstind (7891 ft.) is the 
only one of its peaks visible. To the left are the grand glacier 

Jotunheim. FORTUN. Map, p. 151. — 9.R. 77 

tongues of the Smarstabbrae and several of the Smerstabtinder. To 
the N; of the Storebrse rises the Storebrcetind (7307 ft.). In 2 hrs. 
from the Lejrvand we reach the saster of — 

Slethavn (kept by Amund Elvesater; good quarters). To the W. 
towers theSkagsnceb (6560 ft.; with guide, 8-9 hrs., there and back). 

To the left, farther on, is Loftet (7320 ft.), with its glaciers. 
In 2 hrs. we pass the prettily situated Ytterdals-Satre (3087 ft. ; 
plain quarters), near a high fall of the Duma. We cross the Lejra 
(p. 69) and descend to (4-5 hrs.) Rejshejm (p. 67). 

n. From Skjolden on the Sognefjord to Fortun and Turtegr*. 

Road to Fortun (6 Kil.). Good cart-track thence to Turtegre (10 Kil., 
2Va-3 hrs.)- Guide and horse from Fortun to Rjajshejm (p. 157 ; 2 days), 
by Turtegrjzr 20 kr. ; guide alone 10 kr. (not necessary for Turtegr0). — 
Good Guides for the Horiinger region : Ole J. Berge of Turtegr0 and Ole 
N. 0%ene of Fortun (both certificated and speak English), K. Furaas of 
Fortundal, Halvar Halvarsen and forger O. Eide of Skjolden, Knud Fortun 
of Fortun. 

Skjolden (p. 156) lies at the N.E. end of the Lysterfjord, at the 
mouth of the Markereidsdal on the N. and the Fortundal on the E. 
The steamboat-pier lies below gaard Eide [Thorgeir Sulhejni's Inn, 
good, 4 kr. per day), on an old moraine. 

The road to Fortun, from which that to Merkerejd (p. 156) di- 
verges at once to the left, across the bridge, follows the course of 
the Fortundals-Elv, past a large ice-house, and rounds the moraine 
of Eide. It then skirts the S. bank of the milky Eidsvand (10,ft. ; 
111 ft. deep; 1 sq. Kil. in area), beyond which we have a fine view 
into the Fortundal, with the huge precipice of the Jersingnaasi 
(3109 ft.) on the N. and the waterfalls mentioned below. We ascend 
the left bank of the stream. The fertile valley is enclosed by wooded 
slopes. To the N.E. rises the Fanaraak (p. 70), behind us lies the 
fjord. To the right the Lingsfos falls from a great height. The road 
skirts the overhanging rocks of the Smalaberg. On the right is the 
Kvaifos; then, high above us, Gaard Fuglesteg (p. 73). 

6 Kil. Fortun i Lyster (147 ft.), a group of substantial gaards 
with a new church (Skyds- station). About 12 min. beyond the 
church, lies Fortuns Hotel (R., B., S. l l /i each, D. 13/4 kr. ; good). 

Pleasant Walk up the Fortundal, with a view of the Jersingnaasi 
(see above) on the left, to the (10-12 min.) Ovabergs-Elv, which issues from 
the gorge of Skagagjel in a fine fall and descends to the Fortundals-Elv 
in two arms. Crossing both bridges, we ascend a path to the right, 
pass behind the cottages, and climb to a rock projecting over the fall 
(caution necessary). We may now return to the high-road and go on, a 
few paces further, to the bridge over the Fortundals-Elv, and (without 
crossing it) ascend a small rocky hill by the Bavshelfot (with salmon- 
fishing apparatus), where we obtain a view of the beautiful valley in both 
directions, of the Liabrse to the N., in the distance, and of the upper 
part of the Kveefos to the S. 

The road follows the left bank of the Fortuns-Elv, between the Tufsen 
on the left and the Sognefjeld on the right, to Sventhei (6-7 Kil. from 
Fortun). Here it ends and is continued by a path, which crosses to the 

'<» Route .9. TURTEGR0. Jotunhcim. 

right bank. The valley becomes wilder. To the left is Hie Hvaidalsbvw, to 
the right the Liabrce (6097 ft.). About 21/2 hrs. from Svensh0i we may 
either ascend to the left over the Kleppeskar or follow the great bentl of 
the river past the poor gaard of Bagli. Farther on, beyond the sseters of 
Act and Tvcerdal, we reach (V/2-8 hrs. from Fortun) the — 

Nflrstedals-Sseter (good quarters at T. BolmestacFs), near the mouth of 
the two side-valleys of Midtdalen and Vetledalen, and the starting point for 
several Mountain Passes (guides necessary). — 1. Ascend the Fortundal 
with a view of the Stenegbrce to the left, and at the foot of the Kross- 
bakkenose turn to the right to the Ilvand (4310 ft.), a lake in the bleakest 
environment, at the E. base of the huge Tundredalskivke (6503 ft ) and 
covered with ice even in summer. We follow the E. bank of the lake 
(rough walking), ascend about 800 ft. more, then descend (fine view) partly 
over glaciers, to the Tundredals Sceter (12-14 hrs. from Ntfrstedal)' where 
the night is spent. Next day we descend by Kvitingen to AamoL whence 
we drive down the Ottadal to Lindsheim and Skeaker (p. 86) — 2 Ascend 
the Fortundal, mount to the left at the Krosshakkenose to the Fortundalsbra 
and cross this, between the Tundredalskirke on the E. and the Tvseraadals- 
kirke on the W. (as described at p. 87), to the Sola-Sceter (9 hrs ) — 
6. Ascend the Fortundal, cross the stream by a new bridge to the left 
and ascend the Gravdal to the glacier. On the W. side of this descend 
the Grendal to the Fosse-Sceter, in the Mcrrkerejdsdal (see p. 156). 

A short-cut, beginning at Fortuns Hotel, and a cart-road 
winding up between the station and the church, ascend the steep 
Fortungalder, affording views of the Fortundal behind. The steep- 
est part of the ascent takes 3/ 4 hr. The road now ascends the fertile 
Bergsdal, passing the two gaards of Berge (1086 ft.), with a fine 
view of the falls of the Ovabergs-Elv. We cross the Elv by an iron 
bridge and ascend in a wide curve to the left, past the gaard of 
Sevde. In i/ 2 hr. we reach the second section of the valley. The 
hilly road affords a view of the foaming Optunsfos, by gaard Optun. 
Here begins another steep ascent of V 2 hr., passing the Eik-Scetre. 
At the top, on the right, a side-brook forms a waterfall, and the 
Ovabergs-Elv forms the Dohkafos, near the sater of Dokka. In 
front rises the nearer Dyrhaugstind. To the right, y 2 hr- beyond 
Dokka, is the Simogalfos, past which a path crosses the river to 
the Riings - Saeters (p. 79). The main route remains on the 
right bank and passes below the saeter of Gjessinge. On the other 
side of the valley the stream descending from the Skagastelsbotn 
forms several splendid falls (Turtegrefossene). In 2y 2 -3 hrs. from 
Fortun we reach — 

Turtegre (2789ft.; Turtegre Hot. # Skyds-Stat., kept by Ole 
Berge, very fair; Ivar 0iene's Hot., kept by P. Tanjurn; at both 
R., B., S. IV4-IV2! D - 2 kr.), the chief centre for excursions to 
the Horunger, the grandest mountain-group in Jotunheim, with 
their needle-like peaks and mighty glaciers, which attract a steadily 
Increasing number of climbers. Guides (p. 77) and horses always to 
be had. — About 10 min. beyond the inns the path forks: the 
left branch ascends rapidly to the Sognefjeld (p. 70), the right to 
Helgedal and Keiseren (p. 72). 

One of the finest points of view, and the most easily reached is the 
■Oskarshoug (3730 ft.), a few paces to the right of the path to the 
Sognefjeld, >/ 2 hr. above Turtegrgi. At the top is a Varde, commemor- 

Jotunheim. TURTEGR0. 9. Route. 79 

ating the visit in 1860 of King Oscar II., when Crown Prince. The view 
embraces the Fanaraak (p. 70); then the Helgedal, through which leads 
the route to the Keiseren Pass; farther to the right, more distant, the 
Styggedalstinder ; nearer, the three huge Skagast0lstinder; the Maradals- 
tind, rising behind the extensive Maradalsbrse ; to the right of the gla- 
cier, the Dyrhaugstinder; to the right of these, farther off, the Store 
Eiingstind, the Soleitind, and Austabottind. 

Still more extensive is the view from the 'Klypenaasi (3756 ft.), N.W. 
of Gjessinge (p. 78), ascended in 2-272 hrs (guide 2 kr.). Superb general 
survey of the Horunger range , from the Austabottind and Soleitind on 
the W. to the Styggedalstinder on the E. 

Most interesting is the excursion to the ""Skagastelsbotn, with the 
Skagastolsbrse (4430 ft.), behind which rise the Skagast0lstinder. To the 
hut on the Skagastjjlstind (see below), and back, 5-6 hrs. (guide 5 kr.). 
The route crosses the stream twice, passing near the Skagast0ls-Ssetre, 
which lie on the right, and then ascends the valley between the spurs of 
the Dyrhaugstinder and the Kolnaasi (5412 ft.). The glacier projects into 
the lake in the Botn. 

To the W. of the Dyrhaugstinder opens the Riingsbotn , a basin 
also containing a large glacier, enclosed by the Riingstind, Dyrhaugstind, 
and (W.) the Levnaasi or Nonhougm , prolonged to the S. by the Solei- 
tind and the Austabottinder. The excursion from Turtegrtf (and back) 
takes 6 hrs. (guide 2 kr.). At the mouth of the valley lie the Riings-Swtre. 

We may also visit the Styggedalsbotn (6 hrs., there and back; guide 
2 kr.), the easternmost in the Horunger, with the superb Slyggedalsbra;, 
bounded on the W. by the Kolnaasi, E. by the Simlenaasi, and S. by the 
Styggedalstinder. The route passes the Helgedals- Stater (p. 72). 

One of the finest easier ascents is that of the N. "Dyrhaugstind (6234 ft. ; 
about 4 hrs.; guide 10 kr.), the nearest of several peaks of the Dyrhaugs- 
fjeld. We ascend rapidly past the Skagast0l to the Dyrhaug, and climb 
its crest, partly over 'Ur\ to the summit. The 'View embraces, to the E., 
the Skagast0lstinder and to the right of them the wild Maradalstinder ; 
W. the Soleitind, Austabottind, and Eiingstinder ; due S. the other Dyrhaugs- 
tinder. Lower down, on the left, lies the Skagast/jlsbrse, on the right the 
Riingsbrse. Between the Skagast/als and Dyrhaugs-Tinder we see the snow- 
mountains on Lakes Bygdin and Tyin ; N. the Fanaraak and the Smarstab- 
tinder; W. the vast Jostedalsbras as far as the Lodalskaupe (p. 159). 

An Englishman Mr. W. C. Slingsby, and a Dane, Hr. 0. Hall, have been the 
chief conquerors of peaks of the Horunger once deemed invincible. Among 
the easier are the if. Skagastelstind (about 7220 ft. ; ascended by Keilhau 
and Boeck, 1820; guide 6 kr.), the passage of the Skagastelsbrce to the 
Skagastels Hut, which lies on the 'skar' or 'band' (ca. 5740 ft.) above the 
Skagast0lsbotn (3-4 hrs. from Turtegr/J) ; also the Fanaraak (p. 70; beyond 
the limits of the Horunger district ; guide 5 kr.). 

More trying are : the highest Dyrhaugstind (6897 ft. ; guide 15 kr.) ; 
the S. Dyrhaugstinder (ca. 6460 ft.) ; the Gjertvastind (7708 ft. ; guide 10 kr.) ; 
the SMsmaradalstind (6616 ft.); the N. Midtmaradalstinder (ca. 6330ft.; guide 
15 kr.) ; the middle Riingstind (6283 ft. ; guide 15 kr.) ; the E. Riingstind 
(ca. 6230 ft.); the Skagastelsneb (ca. 7215 ft.); the £. Maradalstind ; the pass- 
age of the Styggedalsbrce to the Ojertvasbrce. 

For experts only, with able guides, are the Store Riingstind (6910 ft.; 
there and back 9-10 hrs.; first ascended by C. Hall in 1890; guide 15 kr.); 
the Soleitind (6825 ft. ; 10 hrs.) ; the highest Maradalstinder (ca. 7100 ft. ; the 
Midtmaradalstind (6810 ft.; guide 20 kr.); the pass over the Riingsbrce and 
the Stelsmaradalsbrm to Vetti (p. 73); and the pass from the Midlmara- 
dalsbrce over the Midtmaradalstinder to the Slelsmaradalsbrce. 

Still more serious ascents, taking 12-16 hrs. : the Vesle Skagastelstind 
(7710 ft. ; Hall, 1885 ; 2 guides, 50 kr.) ; the Centraltind (7753 ft. ; Hall, 1885 ; 
1 guide 25, 2 guides 40 kr.); the Store Austabottind (7225 ft.; Hall, 1883; 
1 guide 25, 2 guides 40 kr.); the Mellemste Skagastelstind (7566 ft.; Hall, 
1884); the Store Styggedalstind (7805 ft.; Hall, 1883; 1 guide 25, 2 guides 
40 kr.) ; and the Store Skagastelstind (7723 ft.), once thought impossible, 

80 Route 10. — Ma P ,p. 3.9. E1DSVOLD. From Christiania 

like theMatterhorn, but conquered by Slingsby in 1876, an d ™" •f"^ 

several times every year (guide 35, 2 ^ guides 50 kr ; a hut wi th at w 

r,^^ i« the onlv sleeping place; thence to the summit 3, descent ^ /2 nis.j. 
rugs is the only s^eepngp^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ Q 

SkaaasM^ndskarov MidtmaradaUskar (5761 ft.), between the Skagasttfls- 
Wt DyrLugstinder, over the Midtmaradalsbr* to the K,<to«r«- 
<J«? and the Ulladal (p. 74), and down the latter to Vettt (p. 7d). 

10. From Christiania through the Gudbrandsdal to Stryn 

on the Nordfjord, Marok on the Geiranger Fjord, 

or Aandalsnaes on the Romsdals Fjord. 

The distance from Christiania to Visnces (Stryn), on the Norcl- 
fjord, or to Marok, on the Geiranger Fjord, is 464 Kil. ; to Aandals- 
nces, on the Romsdals Fjord, 457 Kil. Each of the three routes 
take's 3-4 days, and in each the last day's journey is the finest. 

a. Eailway from Christiania by Hamar to Otta in the 

297 Kil. Express (to Lillehammer, thence ordinary train) in &L his. 
(fares 23.10, 16.00, 10.30 kr.); ordinary train in 10 hrs. (14.00 or 8.70 kr.). 

Christiania, see p. 8. As we leave the station, we have a 
fine view of Christiania and the fjord to the left, and of the Ege- 
berg and the suburb of Oslo to the right. 4 Kil. Bryn (260 ft.); 
7 Kil. Alna, junction of a branch-line to Grefsen (p. 44) ; 11 Kil. 
Grorud (420 ft.) ; 18 Kil. Stremmen (485 ft.). The train crosses 
the Nit-Elv, the N.W. feeder of the 0ieren. 

21 Kil. Lillestrem (355 ft.; Rail. Rest.), junction for Koiigs- 
vinger and Stockholm (see p. 97). The railway from here to Eids- 
vold (1851) is the oldest in Norway. Scenery uninteresting; but 
at Frogner(A06 ft.) and Kleften (545 ft.) we get a glimpse of blue 
mountains to the W. Beyond Jesseim a gravelly region, scantily 
wooded. At Dal, with its pretty villas, the scenery improves. Two 
tunnels. , 

68 Kil. Eidsvold (413 ft, ; Rail. Rest. ; *Jernbane Hotel, at the 
station) lies on the right bank of the broad, clear Vormen, which 
descends from Lake Mjosen to the Glommen. Near the station is 
the Eidsvoldbad. By the church is a 'Bautasten' in memory ol 
Vergeland, the poet, discoverer of the mineral spring. In the old 
mansion of Eidsvoldsvairk (now owned by the state, and adorned with 
portraits of members of the diet), 5 Kil. S.W., the Norwegian con- 
stitution (p. lvii) was adopted in 1814. 

The train ascends the right bank of the Vormen. Beyond 
(75 Kil.) Minne, near the Minnesund, it crosses the river by an iron 
bridge (65 ft. high, 396 yds. long), and soon reaches Lake Mjesen, 
the E. bank of which it skirts. 

Lake Mjtfsen (397 ft.; area 138.7 sq. M. ; depth 1482 ft.; 
length 62 M.; greatest width 9»/ 2 M.), 'Norway's inland sea', ex- 

toOtta. HAMAR. Map, p. 39. — 10. Route. 81 

tends between the fertile districts of Qudbrandsdaltn and Hede- 
marken to the N. and E., and Thoten and 0vre Bomerike to the 
W. and S. In spite of its immense depth, its original connection 
with the sea is doubted, the depression being now attributed to dis- 
location of strata. With the exception of the Skreidfjeld (2673 ft.) 
on the W. bank, the hills are of moderate height. ' 

Several Steameks ply on the lake : From Eidsvold by Humar and (5 hrs ) 
Gjevik to Lillehammer (7V 2 hrs. ; Com. 440); also from Hamar to Gjevik 
(torn. 443) The banks with their fields, woods, and pastures, farm- 
houses and hamlets, are pretty but rather monotonous. The Hunner 0rret 
is an esteemed kind of trout peculiar to Lake Mj/asen. 

84 Kil. Morskogen (275 ft.). Fine view of the bay of Feiring, 
opposite. The train enters Hedemarkens Amt. 97 Kil. Espen 
(427 ft.), on the picturesque bay of Korsedeyaard ; 102 Kil. Tangen 
(538ft.), with its church. We ascend through woods, pass the 
small station of Stensrud and (114 Kil.) Stange (729 ft.), aud then 
descend through a fertile district. 119 Kil. Ottestad (610ft.), on 
the pretty Akersvik, which the train crosses by an embankment ; 
the road, to the right, crosses by a wooden bridge. 

126 Kil. Hamar (415 ft.; *Rail. Rest., D. iy 2 kr. ; Grand Hot. 
b- the station, very fair, R.2-6kr., B. 1 kr. 20»., D. iy 2 , S.iy 4 kr.; 
1 ctoria, Strand -Gade, near the station), a thriving town with 
0700 inhab. , seat of the district governor and of a bishop , lies 
between the Furncesfjord and the Akersvik, which is crossed by the 
bridge above mentioned. Hamar dates from 1152, when a bishopric 
was founded here by the papal nuncio Nicholas Breakspeare, an 
Englishman, afterwards Pope Adrian IV. It was destroyed by the 
Swedes in 1567. The station contains a small Railway Museum. 
A visit should be paid to the ruins of the Cathedral, dating from 
the 12th cent., i/ 2 hr. N.W., near the large farm-house of Stor- 
hammer. (We follow the Strand-Gade to the left on leaving the 

station, then the Storhammer-Gade, and pass below the railway 
outside the town.) The four round arches of the nave, resting on 

massive piers, are most picturesque. 

Between Hamar and Gjovik steamers (see p. 80) ply 2-3 times 

daily (in iy 2 -2y 4 hrs.; fares 1 kr. 20, 80 eX passing the fertile 

Helge ('holy isle'). 

Gjevik (422 ft. ; Hot. Victoria , Gjevik' s Hotel , both good), 

capital of Toten Fogderi, with 3430 inhab., at the mouth of the 

Hunselv, is the terminus of the Nordbane from Christiania (p. 44). 

To the N., 1 Kil. on the road to Vingnaes (and Lillehammer), is the 

church of Hunn. 

The road from G.J0vik to (37 Kil.) Odn*s (p. 45) leads by Stangsluen. — 

*rom Gj0vik to Lillehammer fp. 82) steamboat ouce daily in 2'/ 2 hrs ■ 

also a Skyds road (46 Kil.) on the W. bank, by Sveen and Gryte, to Vingnais 

and ferry thence to Lillehammer. ' 

From Hamah to Otta. — The train skirts the Furnasfiord 
a large bay of Lake Mjesen. View of the Helge to the left. 
Bakdekeu's Norway and Sweden. 9th Edit. fi 

82 Route 10. LILLEHAMMER. From Christiania 

133 Kil. Jesnes; 140 Kil. Brumunddalen, an industrial tillage; 
144 Kil. Veldre, near the N. end of the fjord, with a pretty view; 
153 Kil. Tande, above Ringsaker (the church contains an early- 
Flemish altar-piece) ; near it, on the peninsula of Stansholmen, are 
the remains of a castle of the 13th cent. We now descend through 
a tunnel to (156 Kil.) Moelven and skirt the long narrow N. arm of 
Lake Mjosen. 160 Kil. Ring; 168 Kil. Brettum; 175 Kil. Bergseng. 
Two tunnels. 

184 Kil. Lillehammer (588 ft. ; 191 ft. ahove the lake ; Ingberg's 
Hot., by the station and near the pier; *Victoria Hot., R. 2-5, 
B. 1^4, !>• 2 , s - l'/2 kr -; Grand Hot., good, R. 17 2 -4 kr. ; Orms- 
rutfs H.; Breiseth H.), a town with 3840 inhab., several saw-mills, 
a cotton-mill, etc., stretches for more than a mile along the road 
to the Gudbrandsdal and is divided into a N. and S. half by the 
brook Mesna. The place is of early origin, but only became a town 
in 1827. The railway-station and the church are at the S. end of 
the town. To the S. of the station, on the Maihang (1/* hl '0i is 
an open-air museum, with eleven old Norse cottages (adm. 50 0,); 
the Ljorestue dates from about 1450; Per Gynt's Stue, of about 
1600 j contains a collection of old weapons. — Near the Mesna 
bridge a finger-post indicates the way to (II/4 M the Helvedes- 
hM, 'hell cauldron', a ravine with the fine waterfalls of the Mesna. 
— A little way S. of the station is a bench on the roadside, over- 
looking the narrow lake. 

Opposite Lillehammer, on the W. bank (ferry from the pier), lies the 
gaard of Vingnws (p. 81). 

At Lillehammer begins the Gudbrandsdal, watered by the 
Lougen, or Laagen (p. xxix). The inhabitants (about 50,000) are 
spirited and prosperous, and still cling to old customs. The valley 
is fairly well cultivated. The arable land has been laboriously re- 
claimed by the removal of stones, often seen in heaps on the road- 
side. The syllables rud, rod, or ryd, with which Norse names often 
end, refer to the 'uprooting' and clearing process. Cattle and horse- 
breeding thrives. The scenery is pleasing, but on the whole sombre. 

The railway skirts the E. side of Lillehammer and crosses the 
Mesna. Both sides of the valley are wooded. On the hill to the right 
is the sanatorium of Balberg-Kampen. The Gausdal soon opens to 
the left. 

192 Kil. Faaberg; the church of that name is 2 Kil. distant on 
the right bank, to which a bridge crosses. 

The road to the bridge descends from the station in a tend, ascends 
on the opposite bank to the church of Faaberg, and leads up the Gausdal 
(fast stations). Passing Aulestad, the country-seat of the poet Bj0rnson, it 
goes on to (20 Kil.) Veisten, (11 Kil.) Mom, and (17 Kil.) Kvisberg. 

The line ascends the left bank of the Lougen. 197 Kil. Hunder, 
near Foasegaardtn (pension). The train crosses the river near the 
Hunnerfos (visible from the bridge, and also to the right further on), 
where Hunner-0rreter, or lake-trout, are caught, and then skirts 


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to Otto. VINSTRA. 9. Route. 83 

the steep Hoknafjeld (2407 ft.). — 203 Kil. 0ier; its church stands 
on the other bank, hal fway up the hill, among several gaards. To the 
right a fine view of the broad green river and the wooded mountains. 

214 Kil. Tretten [Hot. Losnaos, good) lies at the S. end of Lake 
Losna (598 ft.), an expansion of the Lougen, abounding in fish. 
The church of Tretten lies on the left bank, reached by a bridge. 
Up the valley are seen the snow-clad Rondane (p. 94), which look 
quite low in the distance. 

From Tretten a good road leads (a drive of 1 hr.) to Winge's Sanatorium 
(1870 ft.; open 10th June to 10th Sept.; R. 2y 2 -3, B. li/«, D. 2'/ ? , 8. V/i, 
board 3'/2 kr .). In 11/2-2 hrs. more we reach Haifjelds Sanatorium i Gausdal 
(2575 ft. ; R. 30-85, double R. 80-140, board 90 kr. per month ; open 10th June 
to 1st Sept.), 15 Kil. from Tretten (diligence twice daily, 4 kr.). Pleasant 
walks. The Skeidkamp (3693 ft. ; l-l'/a hr.) and Prcastekamp (4090 ft. ; 2 hrs.) 
are very fine points of view. 

We follow the W. bank of Lake Losna, skirting the Kiliknappen 
(3548 ft.) and other abrupt heights. 224 Kil. Losna. Nearing 
(232 Kil.) Alyre, we see the white church of Faavang on the opposite 
bank. An iron bridge crosses to the hamlet of Tromsnces (Tromsa 
Hot), on the left bank. Next, also on the opposite bank, we ob- 
serve, on a wooded height, the old church of Ringebu, mentioned in 
1270, but transformed into a cruciform church with a spire in the 
17th cent. We penetrate the Ranklev by a tunnel and cross the 
Lougen and the Vaale. — 243 Kil. Ringebu (Vaalebro Skyds-stat., 
by the rail, station; B0 Pension, Y4 nr -)t near gaard Skjceggestad. 

From Skjaeggestad a lonely path leads to (1 day) Solliden, and thenct- 
either to the pretty Atnevand, and by Foldal to Jerkin on the Dovrefjeld 
(p. 91); or down the valley of the Atne-Elv to Atna (p. 94). 

The bed of the stream widens. The train runs on embankments 
on the left bank, skirting the Kjennaas, and crossing the Frya. — 
252 Kil. Hundorp (Inn). Gaard Huntorpe is said to have been once 
the seat of Dale Oudbrand, the heathen opponent of St. Olaf. Gaard 
Hove was a heathen place of sacrifice. Near it are several barrows 


From the right bank near Hundorp a road ascends by Tofte HejlicVs 
Sanatorium (about 1970 ft.) to the Fagerhei Sanatorium (20 Kil. ; carr. in 
5»/2hrs.); another to Lauvaasen Sanatorium (about 2950 ft. ; 15 Kil.; carr. in 
4 hrs.). 

On the right is the church of Sendre Fron. The train skirts the 
left bank of the broad river, which soon becomes a torrent, and 
beyond (260 Kil.) Harpefoss (Inn) flows through a narrow gorge 
(view to the left). 

From the station a road leads over the 'Harpe-Bro' and through the 
Skordal to the (12 Kil. ; carr. in 3 hrs.) Golaa-Reifjeldt Sanatorium (about 
2950 ft.; R. 2-41/2, B. 1, D. 21/2, S. 1, pens. 6-9 kr.), on the Golaa-Vand. — 
The Vatewter Sanatorium is 1 hr. farther. 

The river widens further on. To the E. we see the Solbraa- 
kampen. Beyond the church of Setorp or Nordre Fron we reach — 

268 Kil. Vinstra (Hot. Vinstra, with Skyds-station, near the rail, 
station, D. lt/ 2 kr.), opposite the influx of the Vinstra into the 
Lougen. A road diverging to the left above the inn crosses the 


84 Route 10.- Map, p.*9. OTTA. From Christian™ 

Lougen to (1 Kil.) the ^umdeim flotei £ Sanatorium (R. IV-lA 
B°if D. 2, S. 1, board 3 kr.; baths; Engl, spoken). - From Vmstra 

to Jotunheim, see p. 64. *-„„„.;;«•«»»)«! 

The following sanatoria are also commended On the X^rianfM, 
*i Kil from Vinstra, the Kongsli Sanatorium (1640 ft. ; R. Vlrfl*; P™ s - 
qiw kr V%he /£%r Sanatorium (2886 ft.; R. from IV2, board 3 / 2 kr.), 
?h 4 rt tusest d^e'raf villas, on ^ ^/o»e„, 11 Kil. from Vinstra., 
also the Foefortampeni Sanatorium (doUBlt.), etc. 

The scenery -becomes wilder and grander. The valley turns N., 
and then W. By the road-side is a monument to Capt. Sinclair (see 

1)6 278 Kil. Kvam (873 ft. J, with a church. A poor district, with 
stunted pines and birches; cottages ('Stuer') roofed with turf. 
287 Kil. Sioa, opposite the mouth of the Sjoa. 
A ro»d ascends the pine-clad Sjoadal to (9 Kil.) HedaUnS Hot. & Sana- 
A road ascenas 1 me pi g() d ,g Ku -, d min gsbe (burned 

™ n R 1903X ne£ \t^^otkedalL Beltad, 3 Kil. farther is 
an interesting old eaard, the owner of which claims royal descent. The 
Zin bui din! date! from the Beginning of the 19th cent., the others from 
the 17th-18th - Fkom Elmsgsb0 to Gjendesheim, a day's journey (skyds 

Ert^^b^ ^rKt £$££& 

ravine of Ridderspranget, so named from t^ legend that the Jalders-R^daer 
sprang over it with his bride in his arms when chased by the ( ^ndDu 
R P idde g r'. Ihout 5 Kil. from Hovde we join the old route '£»£•»££, 
verk-Sseter and follow this to the S., crossing the Veo-Elv to 110 b-ii- l rum 
Hovdef the HiJ-Svter (Hot.), at the influx of the ««« ffl«^ wli ich de- 
scends from the Nautgardstind (p. 60 . From the "^ d ; S f l^tf ° ds 2 i ° 
the Rusli-Sceler (p. 65) and the W Kil.) Besstrand-Sxter (p 65 *?£{£ 
for 2 Tiers. 33/ 4 kr.). We then row (boat, if procurable, ab . 0U V, A!, whe 
he ivrlsjodalsvand, or walk on the W bank of the lake, to dV| hr.) tte 
Z&Lr.U in 1 "r. more reach Gjendeshejn, (comp p 66* Note tha 
in the opposite direction boats are always to be had at the Bes tester, 
a vehicle requires to be ordered from the Hind-Sseter. 

The train re-crosses the Lougen hy a long bridge, crosses the 
green Otta-Elv near its mouth, and reaches the terminus at — 

297 Kil. Otta (944ft. ; Grand Hot., R. 1-21/g, B. 1.80, D. 2 kr 
Blekaslad's or Olta Hotel, B. 1 i/ 4 -2, B 1, D. H/* Si kr., both 
good: BjerMeim Hot., R. 1-3, B. 1, D. i^'% S. l-ll/ 4 kr.; «M» 
Stat, kept by Loftsgaard; Engl. Ch. Serv in summer) situated 
between the Lougen and the Otta-Elv. A bridge crosses the Lougen 
to the Gudbrandsdal road, on which a little lower down, is the 
steep hill of Kringen. On 26th Aug., 1612, when Col Ramsay and 
Capt Sinclair with 900 Scottish auxiliaries, who had landed a few 
days before at the Klungena,s on the Romsdalsfjord, were trying 
to force their way through Norway to join the Swedes, then at war 
with the Norwegians, they were intercepted by an ambush of 300 
Norwegian peasants at this spot. The natives had felled trees and 
collected piles of stones on the hill above the road, which they 
hurled down on the invaders. Most of the Scots, including Capt. 

to Stryn. S0RUM\ Map, p. 86. — 10. Route. 85 

Sinclair, were thus crushed, and almost all the survivors were 
put to the sword. Col. Uamsay was taken prisoner. [See p. liv; 
also Thomas Mitchell's 'History of the Scottish Expedition to Nor- 
way in 1612' (London, T. Nelson & Sons), and Laing's 'Norway'.] 
A tablet on the rock to the left, with the inscription 'Erindring 
om Bendemes Tapperhed' recalls the 'peasants' bravery'. 
From Otta to the Myssu-Sceter and the Rondane, see p. 94. 

b. Koad from Otta by Grotlid to Stryn, on the Nordfjord, or to 
Marok, on the Geiranger Fjord. 

167 Kil. to either destinaiion. Sktds (pay for 213 or 216 Kil.): From 
Otta to Grotlid 126 (pay 154) Kil., for 1 pers. 26.18, for 2 pers. 39.27 kr. ; 
from Grotlid to Bjelle i Stryn 41 (pay 59) Kil., for 1 pers. 10.03, for 2 pers. 
15.05 kr.; from Grotlid to Marok 41 (pay 62) Kil., for 1 pers. 10.54, for 
2 pers. 15.81 kr. — Carr. and pair from Otta, for 2, 3, or 4 pers. to Bjelle 
95.85, 106.50, 127.80 kr. ; to Marok 97.20, 108.20, 129.60 kr. 

The journey from Otta to Hjelle or to Marok takes 2 ] /2-3 days. The 
best night-quarters are at Friisvold, Fossheim, Polfossen, and Grotlid, and on 
the Stryn route the Videsmter also ; but aa there are other good stations, 
the journey may easily be broken otherwise. As on all the other routes 
to the W. coast of Norway, the last day's journey (from Grotlid onwards) 
is the finest. 

The road ascends the monotonous Ottadal, on the left bank of 
the foaming river, partly through wood. 

17 Kil. Brovik. The road from Bjedstad i Hedal (p. 84) joins 
ours, coming over a bridge on the left. 

We pass the old gaards of Tolfstad, Bjernstad, and Snerle. The 
valley expands; the snow-capped Lomsegg (p. 69) becomes visible 
in the distance. Near Sarum our route is joined by the road from 
(21 Kil.) Laurgaard and Nordre Snerle (p. 88). 

12 Kil. S#rum (Serum Hot, R. 1% B. or S. I1/4, D. 2 kr., good), 
4/2 M. beyond which is the old church of Vaage, first mentioned in 
1270, and expanded, partly with the old materials, into a cruciform 
church in the 17th cent. The old ornamentation points to the early 
12th cent, as the date of the original building. 

The road follows the S. bank of a lake 36 Kil. long (on which 
a motor-boat plies), called Vaagevand (1135 ft.) in its E, , and Otta- 
vand in its W. half. About 12 Kil. from Serum is gaard Volden. 

Near Volden diverges, to the left, a rough road which leads past the 
Lemundsja to Randtvmrk, a large group of sseters (29 Kil.; p. 84; Tourists' 
Inn). A path leads thence W., on the Rinda, to the Fugl-Sceter (quarters). 
Farther N. it rounds the Fuglh0 (5164 ft.) to the plateau of the Rindtjerne 
and (2 tirs.) descends into the Veodal. It then ascends on the left bank 
of the Veo to Nylod, Bergcnusbod, and (4V2 hrs.) Glilterhejm (p. 67). 

Near gaard Storvik the road crosses the Tesse-Elv, which de- 
scends from the Tessevand (3008 ft. ; Nords;eter Pens.), and forms 
fine cascades. (The lowest may be visited in •^ hr. ; the highest, 
the Oxefos, in i^fa-l hrs.; comp. p. 63.) Opposite, on the N. 
bank of the lake , rises the Skardhe (5346 ft.). — Beyond the 
church of Oardmn we reach — 

21 Kil. Hot. Friisvold, or Fntsvold (R. l 1 ^ 1 /-^ B -, I>., or 8. 

80 Route 10. LOM. From Otta 

11/, kr good). Farther on, the Lomskleo hides the lake, which 
now takes the name of Ottavand. Facing us rises the huge Loms- 
eaa (v 69) at the foot of which the Bavra descends trom the 
snow-mountains of Jotunheim. Near the bridge over the stream, 
which has a fall here, is the — 

15K11. (pay for 17) Hot. Fosshexm (K. 1-3, D. l-13/ 4 ki., 
2 ood • beyond it. Hot. Foubery, good). The Rejshejm road diverges 
to the left (v 67). To the right, on an old moraine, is the church 
of' Lorn (1295 ft.), a 'Stavekirke' (p. 28), first spoken of in 270 
afterwards made cruciform, when the W. side was lengthened and 
the spire built. The apse is old and has the usual round tower. 
The interior, with nave and aisles, borne by 26 flat-hewn columns 
has been deprived of its original character by the new ceiling. A 
silk fia° with a hand holding a sickle is said to recall the first irri- 
gation of this district, where rain is scarce. By the Praestegaard 
is an old 'Stabbur' (store-house). 

We continue to follow the S. bank of the Ottavand On the 

right, beyond the lake, rises the Loms -Honing (5660 ft.). The 

country is fairly well peopled. Rye and barley are the chief crops. 

12 Kil. (pay 14) Aanstad (good Inn), near the church of Sfeeaker, 

or Shiaaker, which lies a little to the right of the road. 

Route to Melmen in the Romsdal, see p. 89-, guide, SvendP. Kv,t,n g e„. 
Beyond the Praestegaard the road crosses by an old bridge to the 
left bank. The deposits of sand here are left by old moraines. 
On the right is the influx of the Aur-Elv, coming from the Aursje, 
into the bluish-green Otta-Elv. On the left soon opens the Lun- 
derdal, with its large moraines, bounded on the S. by the glaciei- 
clad Hestbrspigge (p. 69), by the Holatinder in the background, 
and on the N. by the Grotaafteld (6382 ft.), the 2W,eid ( 6366^ ft), 
and the Svaalw (6136 ft.). Farther on we re-cross the Otta-Elv by 
an old Norse bridge. The distant snow -peak ahead of us is the 
Skndulaupen p.^^ ^ ^^_ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ f he 

road. To the left, a little farther, are the former station of Lmds- 
Uvm and the Nordbergs-Kirke. On the °*er side of the valley is 
the mouth of the Gjedvngsbcek, coming from the Sletflykamp (4484 it.). 
Facing us appears the Openaase (4264 ft.). 

At the Domma Bridge (9 Kil. from Ftokei), by which the road 
crosses to the left bank of the Otta-Elv, we look mo two Bide-val- 
leys: S. the Tundradal, headed by the snow-clad I undreclalskirke; 

W. the Brotedal. t 9 Kil frQm tbe 

I„ the Bkoteijal , a .road lead, by Amnoi ( ^^ 

Rommabro) Mork 2192 I %) and past the i /. n j £ ir ^ D n and 

the lower end of the Liavand A p w n lea i i and the S. side 

crossing the W^«^ » »« « b«rt« ^ 

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lo Grotlid. POLFOSSEN. 10. Route. 87 

tingen's), a starting-point fur .several grand Mountain Excursions (with 
guide). 1. Ascend by the brook issuing from the Sotkjcsm, and cross it into 
the Tvaeraaial. From this valley ascend the Steindal to the right and 
cross the elacier between the Tundredalskirke (6500 ft.) and the TvwraadaU- 
Krke (6828" ft.) to the Fortundalsbrw ; then a rough descent to the Ser- 
stedals-Sater (p. 78; 9 hrs. from the Sota-Sseter). — 2. As above to the 
Tvseraadal, then to the right across the Kollhrce to the Fjeldsli- Salter (see 
p. 156). — 3. From the Sota-Sseter cross the bridge, follow the N. bank 
of the stream, and skirt the Rekjeskaalvand (3066 ft.) to the (IV2 hr.) 
Musuiytt- Salter; next ascend the Svarfbyldal to the Hanspikje (45id ft.), 
and rapidly descend tie Sprangdal to the Faaberg- Salter (p. 158). 

To the left, below, the Otta-Elv forms the 0ibergsfos. The 
road ascends steeply through a chaos of fallen rocks ('Ur'), over- 
grown with pines, and above the ravine reaches the Hegerbotten- 
vund, from which the foaming river issues. The lake contains 
several islands. In the background rises the Opnaase; to the right, 
on the hill, lie the Hegerbotten-Saitre (3020 ft.). Passing two saw- 
mills, we come to the Frederiksvand and the long Polvand (1930 ft.). 
Near the end of the latter, on the opposite hank, opens the Rauddal, 
above which, on the N., towers the snow-clad Skridulaupen, with 
the Framrusthovd and Glitterhe. 

21 Kil. (pay for 32) Polfossen (*Polfos Hot., R. 1 1/ 2 -% B. or S. 1 1/2, 
D. 2 kr.; landlord speaks English), in wood, near the straggling 
Polfos, which we survey from a bridge. Trout-fishing. 

Crossing the bridge, we may go N.W. to the Boiten - Setter , on the 
Glitter -Elv, the effluent of the Glittervand; or S.W. to the (l 1 /* hr.) 
FramruH-Saster (2080 ft.), at the lower end of the Rauddal From this 
Citer a grand route, much used before the opening of the Videdal road 
fr, 1731 Iscends (W.) the Rauddal, skirting the long Rauddalsvand , crossing 
several brooks, and mounting past the RauddaUlrx to the Eamphamre 
(4063 ft ) Then a steep descent to the Sundal and the Sundals-Sceters, n-ni 
through the Hjelledal to Hjelle, on the Strynsvand (p. 172; 14-15 hrs.) - 
By crossing the Framrust-Elv , S. of the Framrust-SEeter, mounting the 
hill, and following it to theS.E., we reach (1 hr.) Mork (p. 86), the start- 
ing-point of the passes to the Sogne district. 

The road ascends past the falls of the Otta-Elv. The valley ex- 
pands and takes the name of Billing sdalen. We cross the Kvarnaa, 
which descends in a series of falls on the right from the Synstaal- 
kirke (4362 ft ). Thousands of fallen trees rot on the ground, as 
there was no way of utilizing them before the road, was made. We 
cross the Thordals-Elv, coming from the N., fed by many glaciers 
and snow-fields. On hills of debris, to the right, lie the sisters of 
Billingen; to the S., on the opposite side of the Otta, are the Aasen- 
Satre. We next pass the Vuluvand on the left , intowhi, eh the 
Vuludals-Elv falls, and on the right the Ny-Satre (2683 ft.). Ihe 
scenery becomes grander. The road is now nearly level A little 
to the left is the Skridulaupbrae , with the Ghtterhe and Skridu- 
laupen. In the distance, between these and the Kvitlenaava 
f6261ft) is the great white expanse of the Jostedalsbrce. We then 
Bass the small Eeimdalsvand and Grotlidsvand. On the latter lies 
the old 'Fjeldstue' (p. 90) of Grotlid or Grjotlien, which affords 
tolerable quarters when the hotel, 2 Kil. further, is full. . 

88 R. 10.— Mar, ?. $6. LAURGAARD. From Olta 

20 Kil. (pay for 27) Hot. Grotlid, see p. 17-4. The road divides 
here: S.W. to Hjelle i Stryn ; N.W. to Maro"k i Geiranger (see 
pp. 174, 173, and pp. 174-176). 

c. Road from Otta to Aandalsnses on the Romsdals-Fjord. 

1B0 Kil Motor Cap. from Otta to Aandalsnees in 10 hrs. (30 kr. each 
person). Sktds in 2>/2-3 days-, 1 pers. 21. bl, 2 pers. 41.80 kr ; carr. and 
Lit- for 2, 3, or 4 pers. 80, 90, 100 kr. - Superb scenery on the last part 
of the route. Finest parts for walking between Stuefloten and Ormejm 
and between Flatmark and Aandalsnass. Good night-quarters at Laurgaard, 
Bramdhougen, Toftemoen, Vomaas, BoUcel, Lesjevcerk, Melmen, Stuefloten, 
and Ormejm. 

We cross the Lougen arid ascend N. in the Gudbrandsdal, on 
the left bank of the river. Beyond the bridge over the Via, which 
near its influx into the Lougen, and close to the road, forms the fos ('thunder-fall'), we see the church of Sel to the left. The 
churchyard wall is built of slate, and many of the tombstones are 
of 'klabersten' or soap-stone (saponite). The conspicuous moun- 
tain to the N., heading the valley, is the Formokampen (4836 ft.). 
The valley bends to the N.W. We pass many deposits of de'bris 
('Skred'), the largest near Laurgaard, and cross the river. 

15 Kil. laurgaard (1040 ft. ; *Inn, D. 1 kr.), a drive of 1 1/2 hi- 

from Otta. 

The road on which Laurgaard lies leads W. , up the valley of the 
effluent of the Selsvcmd, and across a wooded height to Sprum (-51 K-il. i 
p. 85), but is not recommended. . .„.. 

A bridle-path, diverging to the right from the road, a little before it 
crosses the bridge in the Eosten Ravine, ascends steeply to (about 11 Kil.) 
the Hevringen Salter (about 3280 ft.; Hot. TJlsvoldsteter pens. 2'/ 2 kr.; 
Hot. Laurgaardseeter), whence the Formokampen (see above) is ascended. 

We return to the left bank of the Lougen. The road leads 
through a *Ravine formed by the river in forcing its passage, in a 
series of rapids and cataracts, through the rock-barrier of Rusten. 
The grandest point is at the Bridge which carries the road to the 
right bank, about 3/ 4 hr. from Laurgaard. We walk to the bridge, and 
order vehicles to follow. — Beyond the ravine we enter an Alpine 
valley, where cultivation is poor. A little beyond the bridge is the 
Hasten Hotel. On the right rises the Bustenfjeld, on the left the 
Kjelen, the mountain range between the Lesser Valley and Vaage. 
Large snow-fields are seen even in July. The bToad floor of the val- 
ley is covered with debris and sand, overgrown with stunted pines. 
12 Kil. Breendhougen (1375 ft. ; good Inn), Brennhaugen, or 
Brcennhaug (17 2 -l 3 /4 hr.'s drive from Laurgaard) belongs to the 
parish of Dovre. The Jetta (5433 ft.), to the W., affords a fine 
view of the Dovrefjeld, the Rondane, and Jotunheim. 

Crossing the Lougen, we pass the new savings-bank, the school, 
and then the church of Dovre (1555 ft.), on an ancient moraine. 
Most of the gaards are on the sunny side of the valley ('Solside'). 
A little beyond the Hot. Kirkestuen , on the hill to the right, lies 
the old king's-gaard of Tofte. 

to Aandalanas. M0LMEN. Map, p. 86. — 10. R. 89 

12Kil.Toftemoen(.JYu Tofte'slnn, good and moderate), l^hr.'s 
drive from Braendhougen, is an 'inhabited site' (Tuft) on a 'sandy 
plain' (Mo). The road ascends over huge masses of detritus to 
gaard Lid. Fine view of the deep ravine of the Lougen, with the 
Kj«den rising above it. The distant peak to the N.W. is the Store 
Hotting (5155 ft.). 

11 Kil. Domaas, or Dombaas (2110 ft.; *Hotel, R. IV2, B. H/4, 
D. 2, S. IV2 kr -)> l ies at tne divergence of the Trondhjem route 
(p. WO) from ours, 1% hr.'s drive from Toftemoen. An excursion 
of 4-5 hrs. may be taken to the Hardeg-Sazter on the S. bank of the 
Lougen, where we have a fine view of the Snehaetta (p. 91). 

The Romsdal road leads as far as Stuefloten through an un- 
interesting mountain-basin, with a scanty growth of pines, birches, 
and heather, but with thriving gaards on the slopes. Except at 
first, the ascent is gradual. Below (left) is the bed of the Lesje- 
vand, now drained. 

12 Kil. Holaaker (1720 ft.; Inn, good and moderate), l^/^.'s 
drive from Domaas. 

From Holaaker to the Aursje-Sytte and thence to LiUedal and Sandal, 
see p. 198; from the Aursj0-Hytte to the Eikisdalsvand, see p. 194. 

"We now pass Lesje-Kirke (1970 ft.), and in 1% hr. reach — 

15 Kil. Holsset, or Hoset (good Inn). 

A bridle-path ascends from Holsset by the Lora-Elv to the Storswter 
and Nysceter (about 5 hrs.), and crosses the mountains S. to Aanstad 
{Skeaker, p. fc'6), a long day's journey, which may be broken by spending 
a night at the pleasant Nysaeter (see p. 90). 

The drive from Holsaet to Lesjevaerk takes l J /2 hr. 

10 Kil. Lesjevaerk (2090 ft.; good quarters ; the timber-built 
station is of the mid-18th cent.), a deserted iron-mine, at the S.E. 
end of the Lesjetkogen-Vand (2050 ft.), which forms the watershed 
between the Skager-Rack and the Atlantic. To the former descends 
the Lougen, and to the latter the Rauma, issuing from the "W. end 
of the lake, near the church of Lesjeskogen, which gives the whole 
district its name. Close by (II/2 hr.'s drive from Lesjevaerk) is — 

12 Kil. Melmen (2005 ft. ; Inn, very fair), an angling and shoot- 
ing resort. The Storhei (6693 ft.), to the N., may be ascended, and 
back, in 6-8 hrs. The excursion to the Digervarde, to the S. (see 
below), takes a whole day. Ed. O. Madmen is a certificated guide. 

Feom M0lmen to Skeakeb (p. 86) ; two days of 8 hrs each, trying on 
foot, as broad torrents have to be forded ; horse 12, guide 12 kr. Provi- 
sions necessary. 

1st Day. The path ascends slowly through birch-wood in the Gren- 
dal to the (1 hr.) Grmsastve (sseters of Enstad and Melmen). We descend 
to the stream and cross several brooks and stony deposits. After 2 hrs. 
the path ascends to the left. Scenery bleak and wild. We reach (472 hrs. 
from Mulmen) the top of the first hill ('Toppen'). The Romsdal Mts. stand 
out to the N.W. •, N.E. are the Svarthtfi and Storhjzfi, and farther distant 
the Snehsetta snow-range; S.W., the Ltfftheri with its great glacier. A 
ride of 1 hr. to the S., over stony ground, brings us to the second 'Top', 
the Sigervarde (5833 ft.), which commands a view of the whole Jotun- 
heim chain, from the Glittertind (p. 67) and Galdh0pig (p. 68) to the 
Fanaraak (p. 70) and beyond them. 

90 R.11. — Map, p. 86. FOGSTUEN. 

We descend in about 2 hrs., partly over loose stones, to the Ny- 
sseter (one double bed; coffee, milk, and bread are the only fare). 

2nd Day. In 1 hr. we reach the Lorafjeld, then pass several tarns 
and the W. side of the larger Fillingsvand. The broad snow-clad moun- 
tain to the left is the Loms-HorAny (p. 86), the W. end of which we reach 
in 3-4 hrs. more. To the W. lies the Aursjei (3395 ft. ; not to be confounded 
with the lake mentioned at p. 193), with an imposing background. The 
path next skirts the W. slope of the Horung for 1 hr., in view of the 
mountain-range on the S. side of the Ottadal: the Lomsegg, the Hestbrse- 
pigge, and the Tundredalskirke, etc., with the valley far below. 

The descent to the church of Skeaker takes a full hour (ascent 2 hrs.). 
The vegetation rapidly becomes richer. The path descends to the Aura, 
the discharge of the Aursj0, which forms a fine waterfall. The first gaard 
on the valley-side is Bakke. Among the next is one on the left with a 
finely carved portal. By the church of Skeaker the greenish Olta is crossed 
by a long bridge (splendid view; see p. 86). 

Beyond Malmen, on the right, lies gaard Einabu. A 'bautasten', 
by the road-side, lefers to King Olaf, 'the Saint', who is said to 
have halted at this gaaTd on his flight in 1029 (p. xli). The road 
skirts the Rauma further on. The scenery becomes grander. In the 
distance are the mountains of the Romsdal. 

13 Kil. Stueflaaten (1% hr.), and the next stations (10 Kil., 
pay for 11 ; lV^jhr.) Ormejm, (11 Kil.; 17 4 hr.) Flatmark, (12 Kil.; 
l*/2 hr.} Horgheim, and (14 Kil.; l^hr.j Aandalsnas, see pp. 191- 
188. Beyond Flatmark the route will repay walking. 

11. From Domaas in the Gudbrandsdal over the 
Dovrefjeld to St»ren (Trondhjem). 

154 Kil. Road, once the chief mountain route between Christiania 
and Trondhjem, somewhat monotonous, and now off the great arteries 
of traffic. Two Days, a night being spent at Aune (p. 91). Or from Olta 
(p. 84) to Stgtren, 210 Kil., Skids in about three days: 1 pers. 36.89, 
2 pers. 55.36 kr. ; carr. and pair for 2, 3, or 4 pers. 125, 110, 160 kr. Or 
from Molde, in combination with the Romsdal route (p. 198), four days. On 
the last day, in the evening, by rail from Stefren to Trondhjem, see p. 96. 

Domaas, see p. 89. The Trondhjem road diverges N. from the 
Gudbrandsdal, and ascends steeply through moor, bog, and stunted 
pines, to the Dovrefjeld, which separates S. (Sendenfjeldshe) from 
N. Norway (Nordenfjeldske Norge). Grand view of the mountains 
behind us. In about 1 hr. we reach the plateau. The road crosses 
the Fogsaa, an affluent of the Glommen. To the left are great moun- 
tain expanses, where the Driva, which descends to Sundal, has its 

On the Fogstuhei (5824 ft. ; ascent and back 4 hrs. ; view of Jo- 
tunheim, Snehaettan, and Rondane) are seen three tasters on the 
right and others to the left. To the N. rise the Hundsje and Skreda 
Fjeld, and beyond them the Snehaetta (p. 91), with its vast glacier. 

10 Kil. (pay for 11 in this direction) Fogstuen (3222 ft.; Hei- 
fjelds-Sanatorium, R. 174-3, B. or S. 1, I>. 172-2 kr., good), in a 
grand solitude, was originally one of the four 'Fjeldstuer', or moun- 
tain-huts, founded by KingEystein for the use of travellers in 1120. 

KONGSVOLD. Map, p. SB.— 11. Tl. 91 

The road crosses the Fogsaa and passes several lakes, beyond 
which the stream is called the Folda. On the right are the Blaaheer. 
We pass the Vardesje (2986 ft.) ; to the right, farther on, are several 
saters. The road leaves the valley of the Folda. 

21 Kil. Jerkin or Hjerkin (3091 ft. ; Jerkin's Sanatorium, fre- 
quented in winter by snow-shoers, R. li/V-2, D. 2, B. or S. ly, kr ) 
where we join the Foldal road (p. 94). The (1 hr.) Jerkinshe, the 
highest point on the old road (4105 ft.), commands a view of the 
Kollen, Rondane, and Jotunheim. The Snehsetta is visible from 
a hill to the W. of Jerkinsher, crowned by a 'Varde'. 

The Ascent of the Sxeh/f.tta (and back, from Jerkin 12-14 hrs. ; guide 
5, horse 8 kr. ; provisions necessary) should onlyba made in settled weather. 
X'or 4'/2-Ohrs. we ride across a rocky and mossy tract, crossing several 
torrents, to the Johan Jerkins/iptte, known as Reinhejni (abjut 6070 ft • 12 
^n'r key at Jerkin )- Lastly 2-3 hrs. over snow and ice. The Snehatta 
(7D50 ft. ; p. xxxv) was first ascended by Esmark at the end of the 18th cent 
The extensive view lacks pictaresqueness. The chief object of interest is 
the peculiarly formed mica-slate of which the mountain is composed. 

The road soon reaches its highest point (3353 ft.), and then 
descends to the Svonaa, the course of which it follows. Striking 
view of the Svonaatinder and of the Snehaetta, which looks quite 
near. We cross the boundary between the Stifts of Hamar and 
Trondhjem, and gradually descend, past the little gaard of Gren- 
bakken (on the left), into the valley of the Driva, formed by the 
union of the Kaldvella and the Svonaa. 

10 Kil. (pay for 13, in opp. direction 14) Kongsvold (2982 ft.- 
Kongsvold Hejfjelds-Sanatorium , R. 11/4-3, B. or S. 1 , D. iy 4 - 
2kr., good, but often crowded) is another good starting-point for 
the Snehsetta, and for the ascent of the Knutshe (5600 ft. ; 3-4 hrs. ; 
similar view), to the N.E., which is botanically interesting. 

The road now enters a narrow ravine flanked with huge rocks, 
through which the Driva careers wildly. Fine Alpine flora. 

15 Kil. Drivstuen (2231 ft. ; good quarters). The valley expands ; 
vegetation becomes richer; first the pine, then the birch, and later 
barley and potatoes appear. Scenery grand. We pass the mouth of 
the Aamots-Elv on the left. The road follows the right bank of the 
Driva. About 9 Kil. from Drivstuen, a few paces off the road, is 
the gorge of Magalaupet ('gully'). The road, which has lately been 
much improved, descends to a fertile zone of the valley. 

12 Kil. (pay 17) Rise (Inn, R. 1 kr., B. or S. 80 »., good), near 
the mouth of the Vinstra, coming from the right. The Dovrefjeld 
ends at — 

10 Kil. Aune (1775 ft. ; good quarters, R. li/ 2 , B. or S. li/ 4 , 
D. 2kr.), also called Ny-Aune or Ny-0vne. The route to the Sundal 
(Christiansund, Molde ; R. 29) diverges here from that to Trondhjem. 
To the W., on the Sundal road, we see the church of Opdal, with 
its pointed spire. The snow-clad hill beyond is the many-peaked 
Horn (p. 199). To the S.E. is the Allmandbjerg (4430 ft.). 

The Trondhjem road quits the Drivadal, follows the Byna, and 

92 Route 11. BJERKAKER. 

crosses the low watershed to the Orkla, whose valley it follows. We 
get a last glimpse of the Snehaetta. 

14 Kil. Stuen, or Nystuen (1759 ft. ; good quarters). The road 
descends to the Orkla. We cross the Gisna, which here falls into 
the Orkla, forming a cascade. Then an ascent to — 

11 Kil. Austbjerg or Ulsbjerg (1372 ft. ; very good quarters). 
From Austbjerg to, 72 Kil., a good road, with fast stations, 

but poor quarters, forms an interesting route from the Orkladal to the 
Glommendal. It passes the church of Inset, runs high above the Orkla 
Ravine, and crosses the foaming Naven (Nceva) by a copper - foundry. 
11 Kit. Naeverdal. The river forms many rapids. 13 Kil. (pay 17, but not 
in reverse direction) Frengstad. We pass the church of Kvikne, with sub- 
stantial gaards (birthplace of B. Bj0rnson, the poet), and cross the brawling 
Jen-Elv. The road ascends high on the right bank of this stream to 
(14 Kil., pay 17) Stem i Kvikne. We cross the low watershed to the Tmnen, 
which flows through the Stubsizr (right) and enters the Glommen at Tansset. 
— 14 Kil. (pay for 17) Nytreen (good quarters at a large gaard). We cross 
the Tunnen to (10 Kil., pay 12) Fosbakken. On the right is the Tunfos, on 
the left the Magnilfos. Fine view of the 0sterdalen Mts. — 14 Kil. (pay 17) 
Bjernsmoen i Tenscet (p. 94). 

We ascend through wood, skirting the deep wooded *Ravine of 
the Orkla. Fine views, notahly of the snow-mountains to the S.W. 

12 Kil. Bjerkaker or Birkaaker (1401 ft. ; Inn) lies on the water- 
shed between the Orkla and the Gula. 

Fkom Bjerkaker to OrkedalsUren, 74 Kil., a road with fast stations. 
The road descends in two curves to the Orkla (781 ft.) and follows its 
right bank, past several gaards. About 3/ 4 hr.'s drive from Bjerkaker, to 
the left, lies Gaard Hoel, where a famous drinking-horn is still shown, 
presented by Christian V., out of which Charles XIV. John (Bernadotte), 
Oscar I., and Charles XV. drank when on their way to be crowned at 
Trondhjem. Observe the old birch-tree, 10 ft. in circumference. 15 Kil. 
Haarstad (722 ft.), with the church of Rennebu. We cross the Orkla. 
16 Kil. ^(tolerable quarters). 9 Kil. Kalstad i Meldalen (463 ft.), ,from which 
a road leads by Garberg and Foseide to Surendals0ren (p. 200). 9 Kil. 
Lakken {Hot. Orkla, very fair), with a large copper-mine owned by an 
English company, terminus of the Orkedals0ren and Thamshavn railway 
(p. 200). 

The road leads through the marshy Soknedal and follows the 
course of the Igla, then that of the Stavilla, which after its con- 
fluence with the Hauka takes the name of Sokna. 

12 Kil. Garli or Garlien (1145 ft. ; good station) lies on a height 
to the left. Crossing the Igla, the road enters a ravine, in which the 
Sokna has many falls and drives mills ('Kvsemhus'). Beyond the 
church of Soknedal (870 ft.) we reach — 

10 Kil. (pay for 11, in opp. direction 13) Prasthus (702 ft.; 
good quarters). The road follows the narrow, fir-clad valley of the 
Sokna, first on the right, then on the left bank. It passes near the 
church oiSteren (to the right, on the opposite bank), crosses a hill, 
and reaches the valley of the Gula. 

14 Kil. Steren, or Engen i Steren, railway-station (p. 96). 


12. From Christiania to Trondhjem by Railway. 

561 Kil. Railway (Nordbanerne, starting from the chief station, P1.F,4). 
Oue through-train daily; in the height of summer a second fast train three 
times a week, stopping at 14 only out of 75 stations, in 16'/'.' hrs.; fares 
51.90 kr. (incl. sleeping-berth), 30 kr. (and 372 kr. more if berth desired), 
19.10 kr. (56 lbs. of luggage free). The ordinary trains have 2nd and 3rd 
class only (24.60, 15.30 kr.). They stop for the night at (13 hrs.) Tentwl, 
arriving in Trondhjem next afternoon. In order to secure good rooms at 
Tjzfnsset it is advisable to write or telegraph beforehand. Hot meals are 
provided for express passengers at Hamar only (V/i kr. ; diners help them- 
selves), for travellers by ordinary train at Koppang and at Singsaas (same 
charge). At the other stations sandwiches (10 0.), beer (25 0. per V2 bottle), 
tea, etc. may be had. 

Views between Hamar and Rena to the right; thence to Trondhjem 
to the left. The last part of the journey, beyond Rerros, is the finest. 
Pleasant to go to Eicisvold by early train, take steamer to Hamar, and 
there join the express in the afternoon (comp. p. 80). 

From Christiania to (126 Kil.) Hamar, see pp. 80, 81. Hero 
we alight and go on by the narrow-gauge Reros Railway (engage 
berth). The train ascends through the lonely wooded regions of 
Hedemarken. 131 Kil. Hjellum; 135 Kil. Ilseng; 139 Kil. Hersand 
(571 ft.). Fine view of the Skreidfjeld (p. 81), S.W. of Lake 
Mjesen. 141 Kil. Aadalsbrug ; 144 Kil. Leiten (758 ft.). We pass 
the drilling-ground of Temingmoen. 

158 Kil. Elverum (617ft.; Rail. Rest.; Central Hot.; St.Olaf's 
Hot., V2 M. from the station, beyond the river, very fair), first station 
in the Glommen valley, which the train ascends to Reros. 

The peasantry of 0sterdalen, the thinly peopled region of the 
Glommen and its affluents, are among the richest in Norway, some 
of their forest-estates extending to many square miles. The value 
of their timber has risen greatly since the completion of the railway. 
The timber is felled in winter, and floated down the river in 
summer. Their gaards are comfortably and even luxuriously fitted 
up, but they still cling proudly to the name of peasant ('Gaard- 
bruger' ; sometimes parodied as 'Sofabender'). The characteristic 
form of the old houses has been copied in many of the railway- 

164 Kil. Grundset (643 ft.); 171 Kil. 0xna (666 ft.). Near 
(184 Kil.) Aasta (741 ft.) the train crosses the river of that name. 

190 Kil. Rena (738 ft. ; Rail. Rest.), prettily situated on the 
right bank of the Glommen, not far from the church of Aamot, near 
which are several inns. Near (204 Kil.) Stenviken (791 ft.) the train 
crosses the Glommen by a long bridge, and now follows the E. bank 
(views to the left). 214 Kil. Ophus (801 ft.). The Glommen 
broadens and forms a lake further on. 224 Kil. Rasten (840 ft.); 
237 Kil. Stai (863 ft.). Fine view of the valley, intersected by the 
river in many branches. 

247 Kil. Koppang (1158 ft.; Rail. Rest., D. li/ 2 kr., good; 
*Hansen, 2 min. to the left of the station ; Jernbane Hot., opposite 

94 Route 12. LILLE-ELVEDAL. From Christiania 

the station ; Koppang Hot.) lies on a height above the river. To the 
W., above the forests, rise high mountains, carpeted with yellow 
lichen (Rhizocarpon gcographicum). 

The train now runs through wood, high above the Glommen, and 
crosses two bridges. Fine views to the S. The valley contracts. 

272 Kil. Atna (1170 ft.; Fjeldvang's Hotel, good), on the left 
(E.) bank of the Glommen. A ferry (10 min. from the station) 
crosses to Atneosen (Skyds-stat. ; good quarters), near the mouth of 
the Alne-Elo. 

For an Excursion to the Rondane a competent guide is Ole Pedersen 
Mom of S<mdre Moen, near BrEenden, on the Atnesj0. — From Atneosen 
a road (with slow stations; horses, as well as dinner at bolligaarden, should 
he ordered by telephone from Atneosen) ascends the right bank of the 
Atne-Elv and crosses the Hira &h Kil.); a road leads to the left to the* 
Storfjeld- Salter Sanatorium (2884 ft. ; good; 18 Kil L from Atna) 26 Kil. (from 
Atnaj Solligaardm, near the church of Sollier, > (24o4 tt.); 23Kil. OT<» (good 
ouarters), at the E. end of the Atne-Sje (2330 ft.). Imposing view of the 
chief peaks of the Rondane' the Hegrond (6693 ft.), the Stygfjeld (6234 ft.), 
and the Rundvashegda (6890 ft.). These peaks are ascended from the 
Musvold- Salter (good quarters), which we reach by crossing the lake by 
boat-skyds (2-4 hrs.) and walking for ly* hr. more. The Rondeslot (7103 ft.), 
the highest of the Rondane Mts., is ascended (with guide) through the 
Langlupdal and over the Htfgrond (5-6 hrs.; steep and trying). — From the 
Musvold-Steter a path crosses the hills to the Bjmrnlml-Sceter (good quarters) 
and (6-7 hrs.) Mytsu-Saster, whence we can reach Otta in the Gudbrandsdal 
in 3-4 hrs. (see p. 84). 

285 Kil. Hanestad (1254 ft.; Hotel). On the opposite bank 
rises the imposing Grettingbratten (3743 ft.). The train skirts the 
river, with a view of high hills to the N., and again enters the 

304 Kil. Barkald (1487 ft.), where the Glommen forms the Bar- 
kaldfos. To the E. is (3 Kil.)" the wild gorge of Jutulhugget, whose 
lowest point lies about 130 ft. below the Glommen. Thegorge was 
formed, according to the legend, by the attempt of a giant to divert 
the Glommen into the Rendal. 

324 Kil. Lille-Elvedal(1660ft.; Rail. Rest- Steien Hot., R. 
1.20-4, B. 1, D. 1.50, S. 1.20 kr.; Dcehlie's Hot, commended), at 
the influx of the Folda into the Glommen, which is crossed here. 
The Road up the Foldal to Jerkin offers the shortest route from 
Christiania to the Sundal and Nordmtfre: 32 Kil. Ryhaugen, with a view 
of the Rondane; 18 Kil. Krokhaugen (good quarters), whence a route leads 
S. to theAtnevand and the Rdndane (see above); HKih Dalen; splendid v,ew 
of the Snehffitta; 17 Kil. Jerkin (p. 91). Thence by Kongsvold, Dnvstuen, 
Rise, and Aunc to the Sundal, see pp. 91, 92. 

The train skirts the base of the Tronfjeld (5456 ft.), a moun- 
tain of gabbro and serpentine, ascended from Lille-Elvedal (4 hrs. ; 
road nearly all the way). Striking view of it, as we look back. — 
337 Kil. Auma (1598 ft.). Dreary landscape. 

347 Kil. T«nsset (1620 ft. ; Rail. Rest.; Jembane Hot.; Schul- 
rud's Hot, R. 1 kr.) lies near the influx of the Tenna into the 
Glommen, chiefly on the opposite hank of the latter. It is the centre 
of the N. 0sterdal, formerly in the Stift of Trondhjem. A 'Stave- 

to Trondhjem. B0ROS. 12. Route. 95 

kirke', dating from. 1210, has disappeared ; the present church is 

From T/ansset to Kvikne and Austbjerg, see p. 02. 

To the S.W., on the right of the Tronfjeld, rise the JB<Jndone(p,94). 

358 Kil. Telneset (1634 ft.). The train ascends more rapidly. 
Pasturage succeeds arable land. 368 Kil. Tolgen (1782 ft.), in a 
bare region. To the right, the Hummel fj eld (5050 ft.). The vege- 
tation becomes quite Alpine. 

385 Kil. Os (1976 ft.); the village lies on a slope (Lid) on the 
opposite bank. The train crosses the Nera and, beyond an extensive 
moor, the Naa. It stops, and then backs on a side-line into Reros. 

399 Kil. R*ros or Reraas (2060 ft.; halt of 6-10 min. : *Rail. 
Rest.; Fahlstrem's Hot., near the station, good, R. 1, B. 1, D. li/ 2 k*. ; 
Mad. Larseris Hot.), a mining town with 1800 inhab., founded 
in 1646, after the discovery of the copper-mines. It lies on the 
Hitter-Elv, while the Glommen, descending from the Aursund-Sja, 
flows round the W. side. The timber houses, roofed with turf, and 
the large church of 1780 are curious. Vast expanses of turf, bordered 
with terraces of glacial detritus and large sand-hills , where the 
dwarf-birch alone thrives, have been converted into pastures by 
careful manuring. Corn does not ripen, and the forest is gone. Apart 
from the mines, cattle-breeding is the only industry. 

The mines yield about 600 tons of pure copper annually. The chief 
mines are Storvarts Grube, 2907 ft. above the sea-level, 9 Kil. N.E.. with 
8 per cent of copper; near it, Ny Solskins Grube; to the F.W., 14 Kil., 
Kongens Grube, yielding 4 per cent of copper ; Mug Grube , about 7 Kil. 
further. The mining is worked by electricity, generated at. the Kuraasfos, on 
the Aursund-Vand (see below). The smelting-works are the Reros Hytte, 
the Dragaas Hytte at Aalen, and the Lovisa Hylte at Lille-Elvedal. 

From Rtfros we may drive by skyds, by (17 Kil.) Jensvold to (18 Kil.) 
Skolgaarden on the Aursund-Vand, (2284 ft.; area" 17 sq. M. ; depth 118 ft.), 
near which is a camp of nomadic Lapps. — Another skyds-road leads S.E., 
by (16 Kil.) Scetern i Reros and (17 Kil.) Langen, to (5 Kil.) Senderviken on 
the Faemund-Sja (2175 ft. ; 79 sq. M. in area ; about 57 Kil. long ; 427ft. deep) 
on which a steamer plies (com. 508; restaur, on board; hotel at the S. 
end of the lake). Thence to Sweden, see p. 367. 

The train skirts sand-hills and passes the Storskarv on the right. 
406 Kil. Nypladsen (2057 ft.). Heaps of copper ore ('Kobbermalm') 
generally lie at the station. To the left, farther on, is the copper- 
coloured site of an old furnace. We cross the foaming Glommen. 
Beyond (412 Kil.) Jensvold (2093 ft.) are great expanses of de'bris. 
A stone to the left marks the highest point of the railway (2200 ft.), 
the watershed between the Glommen and the Oula, which descends 
N. to the Trondhjems-Fjord. AVe follow the Gula valley to Melhus. 

420 Kil. Tyvold (2180 ft.), connected by a mineral line with 
the Kongens Grube (see above). The train descends circuitously 
on the picturesque slopes of the Guladal. Near (432 Kil.) Reitan 
(1774 ft.) is the Killingdal Mine, the copper pyrites of which is 
brought to the railway by a wire-rope line. On the left are several 
old gaards. Below lies the church of Hov. 

96 Route 12. ST0REN. 

442 Kil. Eidet (1380 ft. ; Rail. Rest.); below it a copper-foundry. 
Picturesque scenery. The train skirts the rocks of Dreilierne (seven 
short tunnels) and crosses the ravine of the Dreia by a lofty bridge. 
In the cuttings we observe first clay -slate, and then granite and 
gneiss formations. 454 Kil. Holtaalen (988ft.), with a new church. 
The peasants here wear a red jacket, leathern breeches, and a 
'tophue' or peaked woollen cap. We descend the valley of the now 
tranquil Gula to (463 Kil. ) Langlete (774 ft.) and (472 Kil.) Reitsteen 
(673 ft.). 

480 Kil. Singsaas (578 ft. ; Rail. Rest.), with a bridge over the 
Gula. Large terraces of de'bris to the left mark the entrance of 
the Forradal. On the left a fine waterfall . 486 Kil. Bjergen (482 ft.), 
prettily situated. Three short tunnels. Kotseien, a stopping-place. 
499 Kil. Rognms (315 ft.), with a bridge over the Gula. Near 
Rogn<es and Sttfren was quarried the bluish Klfebersten of which 
Trondhjem cathedral is built. Nearing Storen , we see to the left 
the church mentioned on p. 92, at the influx of the Sokna into the 
Gula. "We cross the Gula. 

510 Kil. St»ren (210 ft. ; Rail. Rest. ; Steren Hot.$Skyds-Stat., 
at the station, It. 2, D. 2 kr. ; Hot. Norge) is pleasantly situated 
2 Kil. below the mouth of the Sokna, whose valley the Dovrefjeld 
road ascends (It. 11). Fine rocky valley, cultivated at places, and 
partly wooded. 

517 Kil. Hovind (174 ft.). We again cross'the river, which here 
forms the Qulefos on the left and dashes through its narrow bed. 
To the right is the church of Horrig. 524 Kil. Lundemo (108 ft.); 
530 Kil. Ler (79 ft.). The train ascends a little. 534 Kil. Kvaal 
(161 ft.). We descend; views to the left. 538 Kil. Seberg (102 ft.). 
541 Kil. Melhus (76 ft), with a new stone church (to the right). 
Many interesting river- terraces. We now leave the Gula, which 
flows N.W. into the Gulosen (p. 200), turn to the N.E., and cross 
the hill between the Gula and the Nid, which falls into the fjord 
at Trondhjem. At (546 Kil.) Nypan (230 ft.) we get a glimpse of 
the Orkedalsfjord , and of a distant mountain, snow -clad till 
August. 551 Kil. Heimdal (463 ft.), with several villas of Trond- 
hjemers. — We descend for the last time, passing many gaards. At 
the stopping-place Selsbak we reach the Nid-Elv, near the Lerfos 
(right; p. 205), and then follow its left bank. 

Lastly (conip. Map, p. 204) a short tunnel under the suburb 
of Hen, beyond which we reach the harbour and station of — 
561 Kil. (350 M.) Trondhjem (p. 200). 


13. From Christiania by Railway to Charlottenberg 

(and Stockholm). 

143 Kil. Express in 3«/4 lire, (fares 12.10, 8.55, 5.70 ki\). One through- 
train daily between Christiania and Stockholm without change in 12'/i>hrs. 
(37.90, 23.85 kr.; 1st class sleeping-berth 10 kr. extra; 2nd class berth (not 
obligatory; apply to station-master or to the tourist-of.'ices) 5 kr. 

From Christiania to (21 Kil.) Lillestrem, see p. 80. The Eids- 
vold line (p. 80) diverges here to the N. ; the Charlottenberg train 
runs S.E. , through less interesting scenery. Lillestrem lies on 
the N.W. bay, called Draget, of Lake Bieren (332 ft.), a long basin 
of the Glommen. 

On Lake 0ieren or 0veren a steamer plies from Fetsund (see below) 
or, when the water serves, from Lillestrem to Sandstangen (Carlsh0i Turist 
Hot.) at its S. end, in about 3'/ 2 hn. (fare f/2 or 1 kr.). 

29 Kil. Fetsund, where the train crosses the broad Olommen, 
just above its influx into Lake 0ieren, where huge rafts of timber 
are floated down every spring. The train follows the E. (left) 
bank of the river, which forms cataracts at places, all the way 
to Kongsvinger. — 37 Kil. Serumsanden, junction of a narrow- 
gauge railway to (57 Kil. ; 3^2 hrs.) Skullerud (steamboat to Tiste- 
dalen and Fredrikshald, p. 101). 42 Kil. Blakjer or Blaker; 58 Kil. 
Aarna>s (Rail. Rest.) ; at Nces, to the N., the Vormen (p. 61) falls 
into the Glommen. 67 Kil. Satersteen (443 ft.); 79 Kil. Ska-ma s 
(453 ft.), prettily situated; 87 Kil. Sander. 

100 Kil. Kongsvinger (483 ft. ; *Rail. Rest., with R. ; Kongsvinger 
Hot.; Victoria). The little town, with 1600 inhab., lies on the 
opposite bank' of the Glommen, l l / t M. from the station. The 
Fortress [Fastning ; 788 ft.), erected in 1683. was abandoned in 
accordance with the Convention of Karlstad (1905). Fine view. 

From Kongsvinger a branch-line ('Sol0rbane'; 50 Kil., in iVs-2 1 /*. hrs.) 
runs to Flisen, at the mouth of a tributary of the Glommen. 

The railway turns S.E. and quits the Glommen. The Vingerse 
(476 ft.) and the long lakes near Aabogen and elsewhere are basins 
of an old bed of the Glommen. 

1 12 Kil. Aabogen, 122 Kil. Eidsskog, 121 Kil Skotterud, 133 Kil. 
Magnor, all with large timber-yards, the last also with glass, iron, 
and other works. Beyond Magnor the train quits the district of 
Vinger, in which Kongsvinger lies, and crosses the Swedish frontier. 

143 Kil. (89 M.) Charlottenberg , the first station in Sweden, 
and thence to Stockholm, see R. 49. 

14. From Christiania to Gotenburg by Railway. 

357 Kil. Railway. From Christiania to Kornsje, in 4-5 hrs. ; thence to 
Gotenburg in 4-6 hrs. more (fares to Fredrikshald 11.65, 8.25, 5.50 kr. ; 
thence to Gotenburg 17.90, 11.10. 7.35 kr.). From Christiania to Gotenburg 
one through day-express in 8 hrs. (fares 23.90, 18.80, 12.50 kr.} also a 
night-express (going on to Helsingborg) in IIV2 hrs. (sleeping-berth extra). 
Few restaurants on the line. 

98 Route 14. FREDRIKSTAD. From Christiania 

The journey itself is uninteresting, but Sarpsborg, Fredrikshald, and 
TroUhaltan are well worth seeing, and one night may be spent on the way 
if necessary. Steamers run daily from Moss, Fredrikstad, and fredriks- 
hald to Gotenburg. In the reverse direction better leave the railway at 
Moss and take a local steamer up the beautiful fjord to Christiania. 

Christiania, see p. 8. (As far as Moss, comp. Map, p. 20.) 
The train rounds the suburb of Oslo and skirts the Elceberg (p. 18), 
affording us a fine -view of the city. From (4 Kil.) Bcekkelaget we 
survey the islands and villas of the Ormsund. The train skirts the 
Bunde fjord, and passes many country-houses. 8 Kil. Ljan (Pen- 
sion Hammer). The train ascends to (18 Kil.) Oppegaard (318 ft.). 
To the right is the peninsula of Neesodden. 24 Kil. Ski (420 ft. ; 
Rail. Rest.), junction of the 0stre line (p. 100). 

Near (32 Kil.) Aas is an agricultural school. 39 Kil. Vestby ; 
48 Kil. Saaner, station for Saan, a sea-bathing place. The train now 
descends to the fjord and skirts the Mossesund. 

60 Kil. Moss (Rail. Rest.; Arnesen's Hot., 10 min. from the rail, 
station, R. 2-2i/ 2 , B. or S. 1% kr. ; Moss's Hot. ; both good; British 
Consul, J. H. Vogt), a thriving town of 9000 inhab., with busy ship- 
building yards, lies on a bay of the Christiania Fjord. The station 
is on the S. side, 7 min. from the steamboat-pier. Opposite the church 
is an old churchyard, with tombstones of the 18th cent., now a pro- 
menade. On the Hjelle, to which a bridge crosses, are several 
villas, the Jeleens Sanatorium, and the orphanage of Orkered. 

From Christiania to Moss steamers several times daily, in 3-4 hrs. 
(Com. 168, 169, 171, etc.). The first part of their course lies between the 
Hjelltr and the mainland. 

From Moss to Horten (p. 8) on the opposite bank of the Fjord, 
steamer 4 times daily in % hr. (80 or 50 <?.). 

Next stations : Dilling, Rygge, Raade, Onse. The train crosses 
the Kjelbergs-Elv, and passes through a tunnel. 

94 Kil. Fredrikstad. — Hotels. Olsen's Hotel, some way from 
the station, R. iy 2 -4 kr., V. 2, S. lVz kr- ; Schulz's Hot., near the pier, 
R. 2-3Vz- D. 2, S. V/z kr. ; both good, with baths; Victoria. — fateamer 
to Christiania daily. — British Vice-Consul, C. J. O. TMt. 

Fredrikstad, a town with 15,250 inhab., on the Christiania Fjord, 
at the mouth of the. Glommen, owes its importance to its timber- 
trade. The busiest quarter is the Forstad, on the right bank of the 
river, with the railway-station, a large new church, a theatre, and 
the 'Forlystelsehus Valhalla', a popular resort. The old town on 
the left bank, founded by King Frederick II. in 1570, was once 
strongly fortified. A steam-ferry plies between these two quarters. 

About 7 Kil. E. of Fredrikstad, and 6 Kil. S. of Sandesund (p. 99), 
lies Torsekilen or Hundebunden, a sea-bathing place. — To the W. of 
Fredrikstad lies (10-11 Kil.) the island of Hatikfi (p. 7). 

Beyond Fredrikstad, on the left, are curiously worn rocks. 
Fine views of the broad river. The train crosses an arm of the Glom- 
men. The banks are covered with factories, timber-yards, and brick 
fields. 103 Kil. Greaker. Thriving gaards. The train quits the 

to Ootenburg. 


14. Route. 99 

Glommen. 106 Kil. Sandesund, station for the S. port of Sarps- 
borg, with the quay of the Predrikshald steamers. 

109 Kil. Sarpsborg (125 ft.; Hot. Kristiansen, PI. a, in the 
Torv, good; Victoria, PI. b, plain; carr. to Sarpsfos and back in 
1 hr., 1.20 kr.), a town of 9200 inhab., on the left bank of the 
Olommin, was founded in 1840 on the site of a town destroyed in 
1567. To the N. of the town the river forms the lake of Glengshelen, 

-A. FredTJkstad* 



l:2 5 0OO 

J 100 BOO 300 *OQ 5QO 

Geogr. Anst TWagner <k Debex J,eipmjj 

and to the S.E. the huge *Sarpsfos. More than one-third of all the 
timber exported from Norway is floated seaward on the Glommen 
(upwards of 5 million logs annually; comp. p. 21). 

We walk through the town, of which the principal street is 
the Marie-Gade, and (1/4 hr. from the station) reach the Suspension 
Bridge (PI. C, 2). The immense volume of water forces its way 
here through a rocky bed about 164 ft. only in breadth, through 
which it thunders in several falls, in all about 80 ft. in height. 
The falls (over £0,000 horse-power, in turbines of 1200-3000) are 
utilized for a number of saw-mills, celluloid, and other factories, 
most of them at Hafslund on the left bank. Here too is an electric 
power-station, serving factories all the way to Fredrikstad. Just 
beyond the bridge we descend 200 paces to the right, pass the red 

100 Route Id. FREDRIKSHALD. From Christiania 

turbine-house , and reach a platform of masonry directly over the 

fall, the best point of view. . 

From Sawsbokg to 6k, by the tfstre Bane, 81 K.I., nninterestog. 
The line crosses the Glommen by the suspense-bridge and then S k rts 
the Niven 8 Kil. lie; 20 Kil. Oautestad; 26 Kil. Rakkesiad; 36 Kil. JStds- 
^,Xt.) 41 Kil. Mysen; 46 Kil. AHA.. At (68X11.) to (394 ft.) are 
Sel mines' and the great (Kmmen £faefc-<c Works, which utilise four 
?aUs of the Glommen Iv KykkoUrud and JTmi-m, one of the largest works 
of the kind in Europe (60,000 horse-power, suppling even Christiania). 
The train then crosses the hroad Glommen 60 ; Kil • ****«V ^ {t ^ 
6S Kil Tomter; 75 Kil. Kraakstad (305 ft.); 81 Kil.-Sto (p. 98). 

The train crosses the Glommen by a lofty bridge , borne by 
the four piers of the suspension-bridge above mentioned, and over- 
looking the Sarpsfos to the right. 119 Kil. Skjeberg (128 ft.) m 
a marshy hollow; 131 Kil. Berg (230 ft.). Woods and patches 
of arable land ('Smaa-Lene') alternate with marsh and meadow. 
Farther on we reach the Jdefjord, and obtain a view of the Brate. 
On the fiord are large marble - polishing works, the marble for 
which comes from Fuske, near Bode (p. 220). Several tunne s. 
The train passes between the fjord on the right and a rocky 
height on the left, and crosses the Tistedals-Elv. 

137 Kil. Fredrikshald. - Rail. Rest. - Gkand Hotel (PI a ; C, 3), 
hv the station with baths and electric light, good R. 2-3, B. 1-1V2, D. £«J, 
S Ji/,-5 kr • Schulz's Hotel (PI. b; D, 3), Kirke-Gaden, with electric 
Hght B. Vfj/X I B. 80 0., D. (2 pV.) 2 S. i'A k'-, <l«"* b ™* ^ 
den -'ivebseW Hotel, Jernbane-Gaden, R. 1-2, B. 600. to 1, D. (2 p.m.) 

1Vr |,2lS» toSt^omstad (p. 103; Com. 110) once or twice W^ 
li/, or 1 kr.); to Hank* and Christiania, see p. 101; from T.stedalen to 
Skullerud see p. 101. — British Vice-Consul, J. W. Klem.s . 

The ascent P of the Fredrikssten (and back) takes IV* **■(«•»■ 3 kr.), 
or including the excursion to the Tistedal, 3 hrs. (carr. 7 kr.). 

' Fredrikshald, an ancient Norwegian frontier-town which was 
bravely defended against the Swedes in 1658-60, in 1716, and in 
1718 lies on both banks of the Tistedals-Elv, which here enters 
the Idefjord. On the S .E. rises the disused fortress of Fredrikssten. 
It now has 12,270 inhab. and is one of the centres of the timber 
traffic of E. Norway and the adjoining parts of Sweden, uver 
a million logs are collected here annually. 

A walk along the harbour (PI. C, 4) affords a fine view of the 
Fredrikssten and the wooded islet of Sane (p. 101). In the market- 
place (Torvet; PL D, 3) rises a simple monument to the pothers 
Kolbiernsen, who distinguished themselves at the siege of 1 at>. 
The old castle of sFkedbikssten (PI. E, 3, 4; 371 ft.), crowning 
a hill to the S.E. of the town, abandoned as a fortress since the 
treaty of Karlstad (1905), repays a visit. We ascend from the 
Peder Kolbjarnsens-Gade, either direct by a steep path to the left 
to the W. gate, or to the right, by the promenades to the S., to the 
E gate The best points of view are the Brand-Batten, to the lett 
of the entrance by the W. gate, and the Klokketaam the highest 
point, to which a path in steps ascends S.W. from the E. gate. — 

to Gotenburg. FREDRIKSHALD. 14. Route. 101 

Outside the E. gate, going E., past the memorial-stones of formeT 
commandants, we come to a road to the left, leading through a 
wooden gate into the Kommandant-Park (PI. F, 3 ; the road to the 
right leads to the Tistedal and also down to the town). An iron 
pyramid erected here in i860 recalls the death of Charles XI J. of 
Sweden on 11th Dec, 1718 (p. li). A stone ball with a cross, a 
little to the S., marks the spot where the heroic monarch was shot. 
The trench in which he stood at the time is also traceable. The 
inscription on the monument is by Tegner, to the effect that the 
hero, 'alike in fortune and misfortune, was the master of his fate, 
and, unable to flinch, could but fall at his post'. 

'His fall was destined to a barren strand, 

'A petty fortress, and a dubious hand ; 

'He left the name at which the world grew pale, 

'To point a moral or adorn a tale'. (Sam. Johnson.) 

Farther E. is the outwork of Gyldenleve (PI. F, 3); to the S. 
is the Roland Bastion (PI. E, 4). Pleasant promenades. 

Leaving the Park by the S.E. exit, we reach the Tistedal road a little 
below the bifurcation mentioned above, and descend in 5 min. to a broader 
road, leading to Id. We turn to the left, and after 5 min. diverge to the 
right. (A finger-post on the left shows the way to the Skonningfos.) After 
9 min. (not to the left across the Tistedals-Elv) we go straight on, ascend- 
ing on the left bank. After 20 min., by the houses of Tistedalen, we de- 
scend to the left and cross the bridge (while the main road goes on to the 
Tistedalen station). The brawling stream, in its narrow rocky bed, is 
much utilized industrially. By the highest houses, 7 min. beyond the 
bridge, we have a view of the Femsju (see below). We now pass by the 
church of Tistedalen and descend on the right to ( 3 /4 hr.) Kolbj0rnsen , s 
Park (PI. D, E 2) and Fredrikshald. 

Time permitting, we may ferry (10 0.) to the Sauga (PI. B, C, 4) and 
walk through a narrow valley to the other side of the islet (10 min.). Fine 
view of the fjord with Brat.0 and the Swedish coast. The grounds of Villa 
R#d (Radsberget; PI. B, 2; adm. free) may also be visited. 

From Feedbikshald to Cheistiania steamer daily, in 7>/2-ll hrs. (fare 
472 or 3 kr. ; Com. 172, 176). We steer through the Svinemnd into the 
broad Single Fjord, between the Hvaleer on the left and the Singeleer on 
the right, then past Ihe Kragere on the left into the picturesque bay of 
Fi-edrikstad (p. 98) ; next round the N. end of the Krager/zr, past the bea- 
con of Torgmiten, and round the S. cape of the mainland to Hanke, etc. 
(comp. p. 7). 

From Tistedalen (see above) a steamer plies thrice weekly to Skullerud 
(p. 97) in 9'/2brs., a pleasant trip. 

On leaving Fredrikshald, we have a view of the pretty Tistedal, 
with its waterfalls, factories, and villas. The train quits the valley 
by a short tunnel at (140 Kil.) Tistedalen (269 ft), and runs on an 
ancient moraine. 

Further on we have a fine view, to the left, of the Femsje 
(256 ft.), 6y 2 Kil. long, which is connected with the Aspern 
(340 ft.), the Aremarks-Sje, the 0demarks-Sj0, and the Brje-Sje 
(384 ft.) by canals for the timber-traffic. (Steamer to Skullerud, 
see above.) 

The fortress of Fredrikssten is visible to the W. for a short 
time. Several tunnels. Glimpse (right) of part of the fjord of Fred- 
rikshald. Beyond (150 Kil.) Aspedammen (564 ft.; the highest 

1UZ Route 14. ED. 

point on the line) we see the Brsje to the left. Large timber-yards 
are passed near ' (159 Kil.) Prcestebakke , beyond which we enter 
thick wood. 

167 Kil. Kornsj* (476 ft. ; Hotel) is the last Norwegian station. 
(Customs-examination, comp. p. xi.) 

The line crosses the Swedish frontier. Small articles of lug- 
gage are examined by custom-house officers in the train. 178 Kil. 
Mon (Rail. Rest), Swedish custom-house, except for luggage 
booked to Gothenburg. 186 Kil. Hdkedalen. ^ 

189 Kil. Ed (*Rail. Rest., D. II/2 kr. ,■ Turist-Hot. Karl XII., 
R. iy4-l 3 /4 kr -)> prettily situated above the lake Stora Lee (branch- 
line, l 3 /4 M.; steamer on the lake 3 times weekly to Toclcsfors at 
its N. end, in 6'/ 4 hrs.). By the station is a monument to Nils 
Ericson, the engineer (p. 284). A few paces farther on we have 
a fine view of the lake. 

Beyond Ed is a forest-region. At (207 Kil.) Backefors (Hotel) 
we cross the line from Uddevalla to Bengtsfors (p. 104). Beyond a 
tunnel we pass the Tiakersjo on the right. 217 Kil. Dalskog. 
Farther on, to the left, we sight Lake Venern in the distance. 
224 Kil. Rostock, a small chalybeate bath. 

233 Kil. Mellerud (Rail. Rest.), junction of the Gotenburg 
and Falun Railway (R. 56) and of a line to (3 Kil.) Sunnana on 
Lake Venern. — From Mellerud to — 

356 Kil. Gotenburg, see RR. 44, 56 

15. From Christiania to Gotenburg by Sea. 

325 Kil. Steamboats ('Oscar Dickson' and 'G6teborg\ both rather 
small; Com. 44, 40; Kom. 400) four times weekly in 16-19 hrs. (fare 

as we near Stromstad. Travellers in the reverse direction arrive after dark 
and so miss the beautiful approach to Christiania, Hurried travellers may 
get their baggage examined on board and land at once, but most pass- 
engers spend the night on hoard and attend the examination at 8 a.m. 
next dav. — The larger steamers 'Birger Jar]' and 'SSdra Svenge , plying 
between Christiania and Stockholm once weekly, may he taken as far as 
Gothenburg, but they steer direct through the open sea. 

Local steamers also ply between Gotenburg (Stenbro; PI. D, 2) and 
Marstrand several times daily (2 hrs.; fare 1.75 kr.), and once daily to 
Uddevalla (51/2 hrs.; 4 kr. ; Com. 397, 398). Passengers from Christiania 
may prefer to land at Stromstad and go on by rail to Gothenburg (* m g- 
stad station) in 5V2-6 hrs. ; the chief stations are Tanum (p. 103), Mwnkedal, 
Uddevalla, Ljungskile (with sea-baths), Stenungsund (opposite the sea-baths 
of Stenungsb), and Safve. 

The voyage through the Swedish island -belt ('skargard') is 
interesting, though the scenery can hardly be called picturesque. 
Thousands of islands, either barren or clothed with scanty vege- 
tation on their .E. side, intercept the waves of the Kattegat and 
Skager-Rack, and hence the sea is calm. The climate is healthy, 

LYSEKIL. is. Route. 103 

the sea-bathing places are much frequented, and the water is Salter 
and purer than in the long Norwegian fjords. The inhabitants are 
chiefly fishermen , sometimes wealthy, descending from the an- 
cient vikings, who have left memorials of their exploits in the 
Helleristningar' (see below) still to be seen in the parish of Ta- 
num near Grebbestad, at Brastad near Lysekil, and elsewhere. At 
many points there are remains of ancient castles, tombs, stone 
chambers ('valar'), and monuments ('bautastenar'), so that this re- 
gion (Bohuslan) is justly regarded as a cradle of northern sagas. 
The cod, herring, lobster, and oyster fisheries are important. 
Windmills crown almost every height. 

The *Chbistiania Fjobd down to Moss is described in R. 1. 
Below Moss the fjord widens, and the scenery becomes less in- 
teresting. At the mouth of the fjord we stand out to sea, to the 
r W ' j°Lt he Hvaleer ' leaTin g Fredrikstad (p. 98) and Fredrikshald 
(p. 100) considerably to the E., and steer direct to — 

Stromstad (Stads- Hot.; Hot. Hellberg; Hot. Victoria), the 
first Swedish station, a favourite watering-place (pop. 3000 ; mud 
and sea baths), at the efflux of the Strbmsa from the Strom'svatn. 
In the environs are many caverns and glacier cauldrons. Strom- 
stad is a great depot of oysters and lobsters. At Blomsholm, &U 2 M. 
N.W., is a 'stensattning' (standing stones ; comp. p. 271) in the 
form of a ship. — Local steamers to Fredrikshald (p. 101). 

Beyond Stromstad we steer, now sheltered by the island-belt, 
through the narrow Hafstensund, past the Nordkosters Dubbelfyr 
(lighthouse) on the right, and then S.E. through the Kosterfjord. 
Near Grebbestad, a fishing-village and bathing-resort, is the battle- 
field of Greby, with numerous 'bautastenar', legendary memorials 
of a defeat of Scottish invaders. Note specially a labyrinthine 'sten- 
sattning'. This parish, with the church of Tanum 6 Kil. inland, is 
rich in 'Helleristningar' or 'sgraffiti', figures of men and animals, 
ships and symbols, scratched on the rocks in prehistoric days. 

Fjellbacka, the next station, with 900 inhab., a large church, 
and a brisk trade in anchovies, lies at the foot of a cliff. In the rork 
is the Bammelklava or Djefvulsklava, a narrow cleft, near the top 
of which large stones are wedged in. To the W. are the Vaderoar 
and the Vdderbodsfyr. We now enter the Sotefjord, swept by the 
waves of the Skager-Rack. On the peninsula of Sotenas, to the left 
are the fishing-villages Smbgen, Grafverna, and Tangen. We next 
pass the Hallo Fyr and the Malmb, with quarries of brown-red 
granite. Steering S.E., we then call at — 

lysekil (Strand-Hot, and Turist-Hot., R. 1.75 to 3.25 kr.; 
Stads-Hot.; Hot. Lysekil), a favourite bathing-place (3800 inhab.)', 
with a trade in anchovies and a handsome Gothic church, finely 
situated on the long peninsula of Stangencis, which with the 
Bokenas forms the Gullmarsfjord, extending far inland. Good 
bathing ; pleasant villas. Extensive view from the Flaggberg. 

104 Route 15. MARSTRAND. 

The Gotenburg steamers follow the outer course ('ytre vagen'), 
still partly sheltered by islands, to the W. of the islands of Orust 
and Tibrn To the left lies Fiskebackskil, a bathing-resort with a 
biological station of the Stockholm Academy of Sciences Farther 
on are the fishing-villages of Gaso (right), Grundsund (left), and 
Oullholmen on the Hermano (right). We pass the Maseskar and the 
Karringb with their lighthouses, and sight the red houses and the 
church of MoMsund, on the island of Orust. The larger steamers 
now pass through the Kirkesund, the smaller through the shallow 
Albrektssund. Among the lighthouses and beacons we next observe 
the Hamnskars Fyr, on the left, on the dangerous Paternoster Skar, 
to the N. of Marstrand. 

Local steamers only (from Lysekil and Marstrand) ply to Udde- 
valla, at the head of the By fjord, the N.E. prolongation of the 

TJddevalla (Stora Hot, R. from I1/2 kr -> vei 7 S ood i Uddevalla 
Hot.; Hot. Royal), a town of 11,450 inhab., has a cotton-mill and 
a small museum of antiquities. Fine view from the Kcilgardsberg. 
The Kapellbackar (197 ft.), W. of Udevalla, are composed of in- 
numerable shells, proving a great elevation of the coast since the 
glacial period. A little S. is the pretty bathing-place of Gustafs- 
berg (steamer every ] / 2 hr. in 10 min.). ,„,.,,, 

Railwats from Uddevalla to Gotenburg (Tingstad station) and btromstad 
(p. 103); also by BdcJcefor, (p. 102) to Bengtsfors on ^ DalsUnds-Cana 
(p. 287), 89 Kil. in 41/2 hrs. ; a'so by Oxnered (p. 286; 23 Kil. , in 60 ; min .) 
to Vene'rsborg and Herrljunga (p. SE6). - -Local Steamers to lutebactaM, 
Lysekil (p. 103), and other small sea-bathing resorts. (Comp. Kom. dasj 

Marstrand (Twist- Hotel; Stads-Hotel), a little town with 1530 
inhab., on the E. side of a small island, is visited by about dUUU 
sea-bathers annually. Handsome church of St. Mary, of 14bU. 
Pleasant walks round the town. In the Societets-Park is the Alp- 
hyddan, a good restaurant (board from2y 2 kr). The town is com- 
manded by the disused fortress of Karlsten (view; fee), lo the IN. 
is the K06, with the bathing-place of Aruidsvik. 

Farther on we pass through the Sillesund and the Salofjord. To 
the left opens the Elvefjord, into which the N. arm of the Gota- 
Elf falls. We then pass (left) the large island of Bjorko, a sea- 
bathing resort. From the Kalfsund we enter the narrow Varholmem- 
Sund, and beyond Elfsborg, once a fortress, we reach the mouth ot 
the Gbta-Elf, which we ascend in i/ 2 nr - more t0 — 
Gotenburg (p. 278). 



« l Page 

Route " 

16. From Christiansand to Stavanger by Sea 107 

The Stavanger Fjord 110 

a. The Lysefjord 110 

b. The Sandsfjord, Hylsfjord, and Saudefjord ... Ill 

c. The Sandeidfjord 113 

17. From the Stavanger Fjord by the Suldalsvand to Orlde 

on the Hardanger Fjord 113 

18. From Stavanger to Bergen by Sea 115 

19. The Hardanger Fjord H 8 

a. Western Hardanger Fjord, to the Mauranger Fjord. 
Ascent of the Folgefond from Sundal 119 

b. Central Hardanger Fjord, E. to Eide 120 

c. The Serfjord. Excursions from Odde 12~ 

d. The Eidtjord. Excursions from Vik and L'lvik . 127 

20. Bergen • • • • 13 ° 

21. From Bergen by Vossevangen to Myrdal (Gulsvik, 
Christiania) ; to the Hardanger Fjord; to the Sogne- 

fjord • • 137 

From Trengereid or from Vossevangen to the Har- 
danger Fjord (Norheimsund, Eide, Ulvik) ... 141 

From Vossevangen or from Myrdal to the Sognefjord 

(Gudvangen, Aurland) 1J2 

'22. The Sognefjord 144 

a. W. Sognefjord, to Balholm and the Fjasrlands- , 

fjord. . . . l4 ^ 

From Balholm to Sande i Holmedal . . 14' 

From Fjserland by the Veitestrandsskar to Haflso and 

From Fjserland over the Jostedalsbree to J«rtster • • • 149 

b. From Balholm to Gudvangen. Aurlandsfjord and 
Nasrefjord 14 Jj> 

From Sogndal to Solvorn; to Fjserland ««J 

Upper Aurlandsfjord and Flaamsdal Road 10- 

From Aurland to T0njum In the Lserdal 15- 

c. From Balholm or from Gudvangen to Lserdalsaren IDS 
From Amble to Sogndal l J® 

d. Aardalsfjord and Lysterfjord 104 

From Solvorn to Hillestad J™ 

From Hillestad to Nordre Nses. Austerdalsbree .... loo 

From Marifjseren to Sogndal •■■•.•;. ^ ; " ' }i,R 

From Skjolden to the M0rkerejdsdal. Fjeldsh-Sseter . Kto 

From Marifjasren to the Jostedal 10 < 

From Faaberg over the Jostedalsbree to the Nordfjord . 1D8 

Baedekek's Norway and Sweden. 9th Edit. 



Route Page 

23. From Bergen to Aalesund and Molde by Sea . . . 159 

24. From the Sognefjord to the Nordfjord 161 

Dalsfjord. F0rdefjord 162, 163 

From Mo to Grflning and Suknesand 163 

From Klagegg to Aamot; over the Jostedalsbr<e to Olden 164 

25. The Nordfjord. Oldendal, Loendal, Strynsdal ... 165 

From Nordfjordeid to Vol den 166 

Skjserdal. Gjegnabrse 167 

From Loen over the Skaala to the Btfdal 170 

FromHjelle to the Sundal. TheErdal; over the Jostedals- 

brse to Faaberg in the Jostedal 172 

26. From the Nordfjord to Aalesund and Molde .... 173 

a. From the Strynsvand to Grotlid and Marok . . . 173 

From Skaare to the Djupvashytte 173 

From Grotlid to the Tafjord 174 

b. From Faleide or Visnaes by Grodaas to Hellesylt 

and Marok 176 

From Hellesylt to the Strynsvand 177 

Excursions from Marok 178 

c. From Hellesylt through the Norangdal and by the 

Jerundfjord to Aalesund 179 

Excursions from Fibelslad-Haugen and from 0ie . . 179,180 

From Bjerke to F0rde on the 0steijord 181 

d. From Marok and Hellesylt by Sjaholt to Aale- 
sund or Molde 182 

From Sylte over the Stegafjeld to the Romsdal .... 182 

From Aalesund to 0rstenvik and the Jurundfjord . . 185 

27. Molde and the Moldefjord 186 

a. Excursion to the Romsdal 187 

From Aandalsnces to the Eikisdalsvand 189 

From Stuefloten to the Eikisdalsvand and to the Nord- 

dalsfjord 191 

b. Excursion to the Eikisdal 191 

From Alfarnses to Aandalsnses in the Romsdal 192 

From Ejdsvaag to Ejdsuren on the Sundalsfjord . . . 192 

From 0veraas to the 0ksendal 193 

From Rejtan to Ormejm 194 

28. From Molde to Trondhjem. — a. Direct Sea Route . 194 

b. By Land to Battenfjordseren, and thence by Sea, 

by Christianssund 196 

c. By Land through the Sundal 197 

From Opd0l to the Inderdal 198 

From Sundals0ren through the Lilledal to the AursjU 

Hytte and Holaaker in the Gudbrandsdal 198 

d. By Land by Augvik and 0rkedal 199 

29. Trondhjem and its Fjord 200 

Railway to Storlien (Ostersund, Stockholm) .... 206 

Railway to Sunnan. Snaasenvand, Fiskumfos . . . 207 

16. From Christiansand to Stavanger by Sea. 

The distance from Christiansand to Stavanger is officially stated at 
32 Norwegian sea-miles (20B Kil. or 128 Engl. M.), but the course of the 
steamer, penetrating into many fjords, is considerably longer, rhe distances 
are here given in sea-miles (S.M., about 42/5 Engl. M.) from station to station. 
Steamboats, of different companies, ply daily m 17-20 hrs. (fares 13 or 
8kr.: to Bergen, 22 or 13 kr. 75 0.). When the sea is rough, we may 
land at Flekkefjord and go on to Stavanger by railway, for which the 
steamboat ticket is available. 

From the Large Steamers, which call at few stations, the coast 13 
imperfectly seen, but the Flekkefjord and some other points are striking. 
The vessel's course is at places protected by island! XBtovr), but is often 
in the open sea, particularly off Cape Lindesmcs, the coast of Listerland, 
and Jfederen The Local Steamers are much slower and call at many 
small stations, but they afford a good view of the interesting coast The 
fiords are continued inland by narrow and deep valleys ascending to the 
Meat table-lands of the Fjeld. The inhabitants of these valleys, the 
%tL$olk art mostly engaged in cattle-rearing Each valley orms a 
little world of its own, with peculiar character, dialect, and customs 
The IOjst/otk, or the coast-dwellers, are much engaged in the export ot 
mackerel and lobsters to England. 

Christiansand, see p. 2, — The first station of the mail-steamers 
is (21/2 hrs.) Mandal. On Byvingen, an outlying islet 7 Kil. to 
the S , the first land sighted as we approach Norway from the S., is 
a lighthouse, with electric light equal to 34 million candles, visible 
for many miles around, and one of the strongest in the -world. 

6 S.M. Mandal (Hot. Victoria, Andreseris Hot, both plain; 
British Vice- Consul, T. F. Anderson), the southernmost town in 
Norway, with 3700 inhab., consisting of Mandal, Malrrie , and 
Kleven (with the harbour), lies partly on rocky islands, at the mouth 
of the Mandals-Elv. Pleasant excursion up the valley of the Man- 
dals-Elv by (45 Kil.) Trygsland, to the (100 Kil.) Aaserals Turist- 
Hotel 4- Sanatorium (1150 ft.; R. 11/2-2, board 4 kr.; Engl, spoken), 
on the Logavand, which affords good trout-fishing. It may also be 
reached from Christiansand by Hornnes (p. 4). 

Beyond Mandal we pass the mouth of the Vndals-Elv and the 
conspicuous lighthouse on Cape Lindesnses (formerly Lindandisnas, 
Engl. Naze), 160 ft. in height. This cape, the S. extremity of the 
Norwegian mainland, has since 1650 been marked by a beacon- 
light (the earliest in Norway). It marks the boundary between 
Sendenfjeldske Norge and Vestenfjeldske Norge, which extends to 
the promontory of Stadtland (p. 160). In 2y 2 hrs. more we reach — 
6 S.M. Farsund (Harare's Hot.), a small seaport with 1800 inhab., 
burned down in 1901 , at the mouth of a fjord running inland 
in three long arms, into the eastmost of which falls the Lyngdals- 
Elv. — The steamboat now steers N., past the lighthouse of Lister, 
and then past the mouth of the Feddefjord. Steaming up the 
Flekkefjord, we next call at (2'/2 hrs — 

6 S.M. Flekkefjord (Mays Hot., 5 min. from the pier, It. I72-A 
B. or S. 1-ll/a, D. 2 kr., very fair; Wahl's Hot., well spoken of; 
British Vice-Consul, J. P. M. Eyde), a prettily situated little town 

108 Route 10. EKERSUND. From Vhristiansand 

of '2000 inhab., with a good harbour and pleasant public grounds. 
The handsome Rail. Station (Rest.) is on the E. side of the town, 
7 min. from the quay. To the S.E. lies (10 Kil.) Fedde, on the fjord 
of that name, to which the Kvinesdal descends from the N.E. 

From Flekkefjord to Stavanger, 150 Kil., railway in 574-672 hrs. 
ffares 7 50 4 65 kr. ; comp. p. 107). The train ascends N. in the Siredal to 
(he Lundevand (area 10.5 sq.M.; depth 1020 ft.), crosses the effluent of the 
Siredalsvcmd (area 7 sq. M. ; depth 558 ft.) at (14 Kil.) Birnes, and reaches 
ihe 1ST. end of the farmer lake at (24 Kil.) Moi (Rfmts.), an industrial place. 
It then mounts rapidly, through many tunnels and past several small lakes. 
Tievond (38 Kil.) Heskestad (543 ft.) it descends. 58 Kil. Hdleland; 74 Kil. 
Ekersund (Kail. Kest., see helow), out of which the tram hacks, crossing 
ami re-crossing the Ekersunds-Elv. We next traverse the plain on the 
coast passing through moor and woods, and with a view of the sea, several 
lakes' and Darren rocks. The chief stations are: 112 Kil. Narbe (Kest.); 
120 Kil Time, with woollen factory ; 135 Kil. Sandnes, a thriving place with 
2600 inhab. and several factories, at the S. end of the Stavanger Fjord, which 
the train now skirts (see Map, p. 110). 150 Kil. Stavanger, see below. 

Leaving the Flekkefjord the steamer passes the mouth of the 
Sira, which falls into the sea in a cascade. For a short way the 
coast-cliffs are overgrown with grass and underwood. 

Rcegefjord (not always called at) is the station for Sogndal. In 
0V2 hrs. ft" om Flekkefjord we reach — 

8 S. M. Ekersund. — Salvesen's Hotel, 6-7 min. from the pier 
and 4 min. from the station ; Grand Hotel, in the market, not far from 
the station, Engl, spoken. — British Vice-Consul, O. M. Puntervold. 

Ekersund or Egersund, a town with 3200 inhab. and a laTge fay- 
ence-factory, lies in a rocky region, at the S. end of Jaderen, the 
flat coast-district extending to Stavanger, which affords good Ashing. 
Fine survey of the environs from a rocky hill with a pole on the top, 
reached in 25 min. by following a lane opposite the railway-station, 
and ascending to the right past the cemetery and a farm-house. 

The Steamboat next passes the Ekere, a large island with a 
lofty iron lighthouse. The coast here is unprotected by islands, and 
the sea is often rough. A flat and dreary region, enlivened by a few 
churches and the lighthouses of Obrestad and Feiesten. To the N. 
of the latter, 12 Kil. from Stavanger by road, is the church of Sole, 
by which are the ruins of the old church, said to date from the 
12th cent., fitted up as a dwelling by Hr. Bennetter, a Norwegian 
artist. We steer past the Flatholm Fyr and the mouth of the Hafs- 
fjord. Here in 872 Harald Haarfager (p. 116) gained a decisive naval 
victory, which made him sovereign of the whole country, and re- 
leased him from a vow, taken ten years before, not to cut his hair 
until he should he king of all Norway. To the left rises the light- 
house on the Hvitingse. The vessel turns E., passes the Tungenas, a 
promontory with a lighthouse, and (6hrs. from Ekersund) reaches — 
15 S.M. Stavanger. — *Hot. Victoria (PI. a; C, 2), by the steam- 
boat-pier, between the Nertre and 0vre Holme-Gade, with baths, cafe etc., 
B.. 3-5, B. 1 , D. 3-4 kr.-, Grand Hotel (PI. b; C, 1, 2), Valbjerg-Gade, 
corner of Nedre IHolme-Gade, R.. 2-3, B. IV2 kr. ; Hot. Noedstjernen, 
Skager 29, B. iV 2 -2Vs, B. or S. Vfr, D. 2 kr. ; Feu Eeg Laksen's H., Nord- 

In Stavanger. STAVANGER. 1(1. Route. 109 

btfgarle 4, R. 1.30, I). l'/-i kr., very fair. — Jlaarr's Cafe, Tivoli, with even- 
ing mucic. 

Shops. Goldsmith: G. Bellsirem <t Co., 0vre Holme-Gade 22. Furrier: 
01. Jensen, Kirke-Gade 44. Fishing-tackle: F. M. Valentinsen, Kirke-Gade 10; 
Wood-carving, embroidery, etc. : Stavanger Husflids/orening , Kirke-Gade 20. 
Post & Telegraph, jwvre Holme-Gade (PI. 0, 2). — Banks: Stavunger 
Privatbank, near ihe Grand Hotel; Handels & Industri-Bank, Kirke-Gade 3.0. 
Tourists' Agknts: Beyer, Valbjerg-Gade, opp. Grand Hotel; Bennett, J0vre 
Holme-Gade 16. — Bbitish Vice Consul, T. Waage. 

Sea Baths, at Strjamstenen (PL F, 2), to the E. — Warm and Vapour 
Baths, in Jorenholmen. 

Stavanger, capital of an 'Ami', with 35,000 inhab., one of the 
oldest towns in Norway, is prettily situated on a branch of tlie 
Bukkenfjord, or Stavanger Fjord, and is the commercial centre of 
the Ryfylke, the district enclosing the fjord. It dates from the 8th 
or 9th cent., hut has suffered from many tires, and is now modern- 
ized. Alex. L. Kjelland, the poet (1849-1906), a native of the 
town, was long its burgomaster. Fish-canning and shipping are the 
great industries of the place. 

The large steamers (PI. B, 1) land at the mouth of the harbour 
of Vaagen, on the N.W. side of the peninsula of Holmen; the fjord 
steamers at Ryfylke-Bryggen (PI. C, 1), on the N.E. side of Holmen. 
The main street of the Holmen quarter is the Kirke-Gade, which 
leads past the Valbergtaarn (PI. C, '2; view from the top), in 6 min. 
to the cathedral, opposite the town-hall, and the Brnndvagt{P\. C, 'J; 
where the key of the church is procured). 

The *Cathedeal (PI. O, 3), the finest church in Norway after 
the cathedral of Trondhjem, originally a Romanesque basilica, was 
founded by Bishop Reinald, an English prelate, at the end of the 
11th cent, and dedicated to St. Swiihin [Suetonius, Bishop of Win- 
chester, d. 862). After a fire in 1272 it was rebuilt in the Gothic 
style. After the Reformation it wa3 neglected, but since 1866 it 
it has been well restored. The nave is separated from the aisles by 
massive pillars, five on each side, which evidently belong to the 
original building. The choir, which adjoins the nave without in- 
tervening transept, has a square E. end, with a large and effective 
window. Its ricli Gothic style points to the period after the fire of 
1272. The choir is flanked with four low towers, two at the E. end, 
and two smaller at the W. end. The aisles and the choir have 
beautiful portals. Pulpit of 1658 and Gothic font in the interior. 
On the S. side of the church is the Kongsgaard (PI. C, 3), with 
its old chapel (Munkekirke; restored), once the residence of the 
bishop, who was transferred to Christiansand in 1685, and now the 
Latinskole. To the E. of the Kongsgaard, by the Bredevand, is a 
small Park (PI. C, 3), a favourite promenade, skirted by the ftongs- 
Oade. — To the S. of the little lake are the Railway Station (PI. 0,4), 
the Theatre, and the Museum (PI. C, 4). The latter, a conspicuous 
building on a height, contains antiquities, natural history specimens, 
etc. (adm. free on Sun. 11.30 to 1.30 and 5-6, and Thurs. 12-1 ; at 
other times, fee). Adjacent are a Hospital, a gymnastic hall, and 

110 Route 1G. LYSEFJORD. From Christiansand 

other new buildings. — The red St. Petrikirhe (PI. D, 2) was built 
in 1863-65. — The Peders-Gade, nearly 1/2 M - lon g, leads t0 tlle 
docks by the Spilderhaug (PI. F, 2). 

On the hill, N.W. of the town, is the Bjergsied, a public park, 
with several fine points of view and a cafe. It may be reached on 
foot in 20-25 min. by the Lokkevei (PI. B, A, 3, 2, 1), or by boat 
from the quay (in 10 min.; 20 0. each pers.). 

The finest view of the town, fjord, and surrounding hills is ob- 
tained from the * Vaalandshaug orVaalandspiben (328ft.), with water- 
works and tower (rfmts.). From the museum we follow the Peder 
Klows-Uade (PI. C, 4), then the Hornklows-Gade to the left, in 
10 min. turn to the left where the road forks beyond the last houses, 
and in 10 min. more reach the tower. — The view from a tower on 
the Udlanhaug or Vllenhaug (460 ft.; rfmts.), 1/2 nr - farther, is more 
extensive but less picturesque. The inscription on the tower refers 
to Harald Haarfager's victory in 872 (p. 108). 

Excursion to Sole, on the coast, 12 Kit. S.W. (p. 108). Return T>y Malde, 
N. of Sole. 

The Stavanger Fjord. 

The Bukkenfjord or Stavanger Fjord, a broad basin studded with many 
islands, has arms indenting the land in every direction, some with smiling 
shores, others flanked with high hills. The lower slopes are generally 
cultivated, while snow-fjelds appear in the background. The only inhabited 
places are the islands and the alluvial deposits at the foot of the cliffs. 
The scenery is little inferior to that of the Hardanger Fjord. 

a. The Lysefjord. 

Steamboat ('Oskar II.' and 'Eira' ; Com. 264) thrice weekly from Sta- 
vanger to Hegsfjord, Fossand (2 hrs.), at the entrance to the fiord, and Lyse- 
bimden, at its E. end (there and back 10-14 hrs.). Fares on Wed. and Sun. 
2 kr. there and back. 

Hegsfjord or Hele (tolerable quarters), to which we may also 
drive from rail. stat. Sandnes (24KiL, in 3-4 hrs.), lies on the Hele- 
fjord, nearly opposite the mouth of the Lysefjord, on which lies 
Fossand, near the church of Gjese. A large moraine here led Es- 
mark, the Norwegian scholar, about 1825, to the conjecture that the 
country was once covered with glaciers. 

The *Lysefjord, the grandest fjord on the S.W. coast, x /- 2 -1 Kil. 
broad, 37 Kil. long, and 1480 ft. deep, is enclosed by precipitous 
rocky slopes rising to a height of 3300 ft., and almost uninhabited. 
Near the entrance, opposite Heleslid, is the island of Holmen. At 
Eidene or Eiane are large granite-quarries. Farther on we note 
curious rock-formations, such as Prakestolen, or 'The Pulpit' (marked 
by the Stavanger Gymnastic Club with four colossal F's) and the 
Festrene, a low spur with four peaks. Beyond the promontory of 
Mulen, on the N. bank, lies gaard Sangesand, with a large plantation 
of cherry-trees (1170, it is said). The singular peak of Kaase Heia 
is known as 'Kjierringen (the woman). Kallelid, on the S. bank, 
also has quarries. To the N. is uaard Kalleslen, with another large 

s^-i f s s >• ■ l feu 

iiil'l ^®> 1 *A* £ * 2V* jA't ^J>Sk 

rs 4 X s> •3 S : ,£■• "*^ ..' i l s» -•■ "- « • « 

i CK v* * "i I / . VH J ' k% *** 

to Stavanger. HJ0SENFJORD. 16. Route. Ill 

cherry-orchard. To the S. lie Flerlid and other gaa;ds. At the head 
of the fjord (Qifehxa. by steamer from Fossand), among huge rocks, 
lies the station of Lysebunden (two beds at gaard Nerebe). On the 
Kjerag, towering above the head of the fjord on the S., a curious 
phenomenon is sometimes observed (last on 10th Nov., 1897, after 
many years' interval). After a crash like thunder, rays or jets of 
steam issue from the rocks, probably from a cavern near the summit. 
From Lysebunden passes lead N.W. to Aardal (see below; one day); 
E. to Granheim in the Sii'tersdal (see p. 4); S. to Fitjeland (30 Kil.) or to 
Aadneram, both in the Siredal (p. 108); and S.W. over the Okelro-Fjeld and 
through the Blaastel-Dal, passing Ekeskog, with the beautiful Maanefos, to 
the Frafjord (40 Kil. ; see below). 

The Frafjord, the S.E. end of the Helefjord, to which a steamer 
runs four times weekly, is also worth visiting. 

b. The Sandsfjord, Hylsfjord, and Saudefjord. 

Steamboats ot the Stavanger Steamship Co. (Com. 267) 8times weekly, 
from the Ryfylke-Brygge direct to Sand in 4-5'/2 hrs. (3 kr. 60 #.), to Saude 
in b^l'i-l^ji hrs.; also indirectly by changing steamers at Jsels0. 

On leaving Stavanger we get a glimpse of the open sea to the 
left, but it is soon shut out by islands. On the left lies the Vadse. 
On the right rise the mountains of the mainland, with snowy peaks 
in the distance. In an hour we pass Strand and Tou, at which local 
steamers call. Between these places o-pen&Bjetrheimskjceften, a gorge 
through which the Bjerheimsvand empties itself into the fjord. 

From Tou a good road leads past the BjUrheimsvand to the Tysdalsvand, 
on which we row to gaard Nedre Tysdal (quarters) at the E. end; walk 
thence over the hill to Tveit i Aardal, near Bergeland, and descend by the 
Store Aa to Aardal (see below ; about 27 Kil.). From Bergeland the Hjaa- 
f osier may be visited. 

Most of the steamers steer N. to the Talge, with its marble quar- 
ries, and past the Fogne (right) to Juteberg or Judeberget on the 
Finde ; then across an open part of the Bukkenfjord, where we get 
a glimpse of the Atlantic (left), to the Stjcernerei; thence through 
a narrow strait between that island and the Bjerge, and across the 
Ncerstrandsfjord to Narstrand, a summeT- resort; next across the 
mouth of the Sandeidfjord and past the Folde to Jaelsa- (p. 112). 

The steamers touching at Tou steer N. between the Fogn«r and 
the mainland into the Fisterfjord, and thence into the Aardalsfjord 
to Aardalsosen or Aardal, near the mouth of the -Store Aa, which 
descends from the 0vre Tysdalsvand and smaller lakes. (Thence to 
Tveit, near Bergeland, 8 Kil., see above.) Observe the extensive 
moraines of ancient glaciers. — Steaming down the fjord again, and 
up the Fisterfjord to the N., we pass between the mainland and the 
Rande to Hjelmeland, a pleasant village amidst orchards, so named 
from a 'helmet'-shaped hill near the church. 

We next enter the *Bjesenfjord, with wild, grand rocks, and 
call at Tytlandsvik or Tetiandsvik on a bay of its S. bank, and at 
Valde on its N. bank. 

112 R. 1C. — Map, p.110. SAUDE. 

From the head of the Hjtfsenfjord a rough path crosses the mountains 
in two days to Viken in the Saetersdal (p. 4). 

Returning to the mouth of the fjord, we next pass Knutsvik and 
enter the mountain-girt Erfjord, where we call at Haalandsosen. 
Again returning, we then steer for J:els0. 

Jselse or Jelse (Larsen's Hotel), which the direct steamers from 
Stavanger reach in 272-4, and the indirect in 5-10 hrs., is a large 
village, with a church and a good harbour. Most of the steamers 
touch here and exchange passengers for different destinations. 

We next steam up the Sandsfjord, which gradually narrows and 
is enclosed by lofty rocks. Several waterfalls. The fjord then ex- 
pands. In l'/2"2 hrs. from Jaelsa we reach — 

Sand (Kaarhus Hot., with view, K. 1V2-2, D. 2, B. or S. iy 2 kr., 
very fair), a village and church at the mouth of the Logen, which 
forms the pretty Sandsfos 5 min. above. To the Suldalsvand, and 
thence to the Breifond Hotel and Odde, see p. 113. 

The Sandsfjord now divides into two branches. 

To the right is the *Hylsfjord, on which a steamer plies once 
a week only; at the grand head of it lies the station of Hylen 
(quarters). Fine waterfalls descend from the cliffs. 

From Hylen to Vaage on the Suldalsvand, 172-2 hrs. : good bridle- 
path, ascending the wild Hylsdal, and crossing the "Hyhskar, where we 
have a striking view of the lake "below (comp. p. 113). 

To the left is the Saude fjord, the head of which the steamer 
reaches in l 1 ^"^ hrs. from Sand. 

Saude or Sevde (Solberg's Hot.) and Saudesjeen (Rabies Hot.), 
pleasantly situated here, are favourite resorts from Stavanger. Walks 
S.W. to the pretty Svandal; N.B. to (2 hrs.) Birkelandsdalen, with 
its zinc-mines ; E., along the fjord, to (35 min.) Jndre Saude, with 
the church and the Sendenaa-Fos, and thence to (10 min.) the 
bridge across the stream issuing from the Aabedal, which here 
forms the Hellandsfoa. 

Fkom Sadde through the Slettedal to Seljestad, 17s day (road 
to Aartun being made). Guide and provisions necessary. — To the ( 3 /4 hr.) 
bridge at the Bellandsfot , see above. About 35 min. farther is gaard 
itstreim. To the right rises the snow-clad Skavle Nut (5170 ft.). The 
ascent now begins. Below, to the right, flows the Stor-Elv. Fine views, 
us we look back on the Saudefjord. Halfway up we reach gaard Fivel- 
land. At the top, 272 hrs. from Saude, is a grand rocky landscape. As 
we descend, we have ever finer views of the Store Zid-Vand, with the 
Suldalsfos, and of the basin of Aartun, a green oasis, with houses, fields, 
stream, lake, and waterfall, in a dreary dark-grey chaos of rocks. 

At Aartun, 472 hrs. from Saude, we find tolerable quarters, but poor 
fi.ud. — The route now leads N. into the Slettedal, through a monotonous 
landscape, passing many sseters and waterfalls. After 5 hrs. from Aartun, 
halfway to Seljestad, the path begins to ascend, and soon commands fine 
views of the snow-draped Kirke-Nut and the Slettedal behind us. Farther 
on appears the Folgefond (p. 120), a little to the left. We cross a wide 
tract of moorland and gradually descend to the Raldal road, which we 
reach (10 hrs. from Aartun) near Seljestad (p. 115J. 

OSEN. Map, p. 110. — 17. R. 11 

o. The Sandeidfjord. 

Steamek (Com. 263) to Sandeid thrice weekly, in 7-8'/2 hrs. (2.70 kr.). 

Once weekly the steamers follow the route above described to 
Narstrand, and twice weekly the indirect route by Tou, Aardal, 
and Hjelmeland, to Jalse (p. 112). 

From JfElse, or Naerstrand, they steer into the Sandtidfjord, 
which presents no special attraction. Two lateral fjords diverging 
from it, the Yrkefjord to the W., the Vindefjord to the E., form 
a complete cross, recalling the Lake of Lucerne. Some steamers 
call at stations on these fjords. Vikedal, at the mouth of the Vinde- 
fjord, has a number of handsome gaards. 

At the head of the fjord lies Sandeid (Fru Weidell's Inn), 
whence a road leads N. to J01en (8 Kil. ; p. 117). 

17. From Sand (Stavanger) by the Suldalsvand to 
Odde on the Hardanger Fjord. 

2-3 Days, according as the steamer on the Suldalsvand suits. 1st Day. 
Road (skydsj to Osen, 2-2'/2 hrs. Steamek (Com. '490) on the Suldalsvand 
(once or twice dailj) to A'aes in 2 L /4 hrs. (2 kr.). Road (skyds) to Horre 
(Breifond Hotel), about3hrs. — 2ndDay. RoAD(skyds) to Odde, abont7 hrs. 

Sand, see p. 112. — The Logen, whose valley the road ascends, 
has several falls (Sandsfos, p. 112). Both the river and the Suldals- 
vand, out of which it flows, abound in salmon and have been 
leased for a long term by English anglers, whose handsome dwell- 
ings are noticed at various spots. The first part of the road is so 
picturesque and also so hilly, that travellers had better walk on for 
about an hour, leaving vehicles to follow. To the left is the Skotifos. 
The road crosses the river 10 Kil. from Sand, and remains tolerably 
level to the Suldalsvand. It then crosses a tributary, with a saw- 
mill, and passes Vatshus. Fine view in front. The church of Sul- 
dalen and gaard Melius lie to the left. After a drive of 2-2*/2 hrs. 
from Sand we reach — 

19 Kil. Osen or Suldalsosen (Hot. Suldal, R. 1 i /i-2, B. or S. l 1 ^- 
I1/2, D. IV2 kr -i Hot - Suldalsportcn, R., B., S., each l'/2, D - 2 kr.; 
both good, Engl, spoken), beautifully situated on the right bank of 
the Logen, at its efflux from the Suldalsvand. Opposite rises the 
curious rocky pyramid of Straabekollen. 

The *Suldalsvand or Suledalsvand (steamer, see above), the S. 
part of which is enclosed by high mountains, is 28 Kil. long, but 
at first is not broader than a river. To the right lies gaard Vik, 
to the left Vegge. To the left is Kolbeinsthveit, where the road ends ; 
to the right Helgences. We thread the rocky defile of "Suldalsporten, 
where the imposing cliff to the left rises to 330 ft. The lake sud- 
denly expands. In a bay to the right are gaards Kvildal and 0iestad ; 
then, on the left, Vorvik and — 

Vaage (good quarters; steamboat-station), with the Hyhskar ris- 
ing abovs it (p. 112). We here survey the central of the five reaches 

114 R.17. — Map,p.ll9. BREIFOND HOTEL. From Sand 

of the lake. To the left, farther on, lies Laleid, on the hill. In 
front we have a good view of the curious rounded and polished 
promontory of Boshaug and of the mountains to the N. To the E. 
rise the snow-clad Kalle-Fjeld and the long Kvenne Heia. — The 
steamer's terminus is N*s, hut three days a week it goes on to 
(4 Kil.) Roaldkvam (p. 6). 

Nses or Ncss/laten (*Hot. Brallandsdalen, three houses, R. lt/o- 
2 i / 2 , B. or S. ly 2 , Engl, spoken), which affords a fine view of the 
lake and snow-clad mountains, lies at the mouth of the Bratlands- 
Elv, at the beginning of the road to Reddal. Vehicles meet the 

The road ascends the beautiful *Bratlandsdal , passing at first 
through a grand gorge, with overhanging rocks. It is preferable to 
walk as far as the top of the hill, where vehicles halt. Farther on 
the valley is less interesting. At gaard Thomas, about 5'^ Kil. 
from Nffis, we cross the Bratlands-Elv, and farther on we pass the 
gaards of Bratland. To the left is the lofty Flcesefos. Beyond gaard 
0rebakke we cross the border between the Stavanger Aint and 
Sflndre Bergenhus Amt. We pass Hcegerland, on the slope of the 
Kaalaas, and thread a narrow ravine, with a series of rapids. We 
re-cross the river by the Hcegerlands-Bro. The erosive action of the 
water has left distinct traces all the way up the slopes. The road 
now reaches the narrow Ljonevand, passes gaard Ljone, and crosses 
the bridge of that name. Charming scenery. Beyond the Hundefos, 
formed by the Bratlands-Elv, towers the Ljonehals, a huge cliff 
worn smooth by the river. 

At Botten or Botnen the road re-crosses the river, here issuing 
from the lUldalsvand (1224 ft.), and skirts the W. bank of the 
lake, which is enclosed by fine mountains. Beyond the Haare-Bro, 
spanning a brook coming from the left, the roads to Telemarken and 
the Hardanger fork. (The former skirts the lake, at the N. end of 
which appears Reldal, p. 38.) On the Hardanger road (10 min. 
farther ; 3 hrs.' drive from Naes) is the - — 

24 Kil. *Breifond Hotel (R. 2-3, B. I1/2, D- 21/2, S. l 3 / 4 kr.; 
often crowded ; Engl, spoken), on the site of the former skyds-station 
of Horre or Haare. Fine view of the lake and the Haukelifjeld. 
The Haarefos, to which we ascend at the back of the hotel, may he 
visited in y 4 hr. 

The Hardanger Road ascends the Horrebrakkene in windings, 
which walkers avoid by short-cuts (marshy in wet weather). On the 
right are the slopes of the Horreheia, on the left the Elgersheia, Be- 
hind us, S.E. of the Beldalsvand, towers the Bred fond with its great 
snow-mantle. At the top of the hill (3393 ft.), 8 Kil'., or 13/ 4 hr.'s 
drive, from the Breifond Hotel, the road, tolerably level for some 
way, crosses a dreary solitude with "several ponds. We soon obtain 
a view of the snowy Folgefond (p. 120), and then de-cend the 

to Odde. SELJESTAD. Map,p.l 19.— 17. R. 115 

Gorssvingane in many windings, where the **Vif.\v becomes ever 
grander. Far below lies the narrow Oorsbotn , flanked "by steep 
hills, with the sombre Gorsvand, at the end of which is a waterfall. 
Beyond stretches the broad valley of Odde, overtopped on the left 
by the flat snow-fields of the Folgefond. The whole scene is one 
of the most impressive and characteristic in Norway. The old bridle- 
path and the stream, called the Hedsten-Elv lower down, aTe seen 
at places by the side of the Gorssvingane. At the lower end of the 
(Jorsvand (2798 ft.) is a kind of rock-gateway, where the view is 
unimpeded. Birches and pines mark the beginning of the tree-zone. 
We descend in zigzags, past the Svaagen and Hedstensnuten, to — 

17 Kil. (from Breifond Hot, pay 24; 22 from Raldal, pay 28] 
Seljestad (2028 ft. ; Seljestad's Hot., R. 17 2 -2, 15. 1, D. 2'/ 4 , S. 1 7 2 kr. ; 
Folgefond Hot., a little above the road; both very fair). 

The road to Odde will even repay walkers (472-5 hrs. ; drive 
of 272 hrs.). It follows the hill and then crosses the stream twice. 
A rock to the left of the road, 3 Kil. from Seljestad, and a little 
beyond the 20th kil. stone 'fra Odde', affords a view of the Hesle- 
klevfos. The road descends in a curve. On the right is the small 
Hot. Udsigten (R. 17 2 , B. or S. 17 2 , D. 27 4 kr.; Engl, spoken). 
Just above it a path leads to the left to a point marked by an iron 
vane, affording a superb view of the wooded gorge of *Seljestadjuvet, 
through which the road winds down. Lower down we cross the 
stream. Continuous views of the picturesque valley. After 5 min. 
a narrow road descends to the left through wood to gaard Jesendal 
and Fjaere (p. 117). A little beyond the v.ext bridge a steep road 
ascends to the right to gaard Shard; farther on, to the left, a road 
leads across the river to the gaards on the heights. In another 74 hr. 
the road passes the *Espelandsfos, on the left, and the *Lotefos, on 
the right. On the hill to the right is an inn (p. 125). To Odde a 
drive of 2 hrs., or a walk of 3-37<> hrs. more. 

23 Kil. (pay for 26) Odde (p.~124). 

18. From Stavanger to Bergen by Sea. 

25 Norw. Sea-miles (100 Engl. M.), but the course taken by the steamers 
is much longer. Distances are given below in sea-miles from station to 
station. — Mail Steameks (Christiania-Bergen; Com. 218) leave Stavanger 
(and Bergen) every evening, 10-11 hrs., calling" at Kopervik and Haugemmd. 
Local Steamers, also starting every evening, take an hour more, touch- 
ing at Ferrresvik, Kopervik, Haugesund, Mosterhavn, and Lervik. There are 
also slower steamers, large anil small (Com. 224, 278), starting daily. 

The whole voyage is in smooth water, protected by islands, except 
for the short distances between Stavanger and Kopervik, and between 
Haugesund and Langevaag. As the fine scenery of the Hardanger Fjord 
(It. 19) only begins at the iler/zf, we lose little by going thus far by night. 

Stavanger, see p. 108. The vessel steers N.W. ; on the left are 
the Duse-Fyr and Tungenres-Fgr on the liandeberg ; to the right the 
Hundvaage, Mostere, Klostere with the old Ulstenkloater, and the 

110 If). IIATJGESTINR. From Star.anger 

Rntntse. Before entering tlie open Bukkenfjord we see on the left 
the tall lighthouse on the Hvitingse, and N.W. the lighthouse of 
I'alnas (Skudesnas). On the left is the small seaport (pop. 1200) 
SIcwlemiKxhavn, with its lighthouse, at the S. end of the Karme, 
a large island. We enter the Karmsund. The first station of the 
smaller steamers is Ferresvik, on the Bukkene. 

6 S.M. Kopervik, or Kobbervik (Ellingsens Hot.; Awss Hot.), 
with 1000 inhab., on the Karme, is a great centre of the herring- 
fishery. The island is flat, and partly cultivated, but largely marshy. 
It contains many barrows, or ancient burial-places, especially at 
the N. end, which have yielded valuable relics. The climate, cool 
in summer, mild and humid in winter, is healthy. — About 
16 Kil. W. of the Karme is the lonely little island of Utsire, with 
a chapel and a lighthouse, near which herrings abound. 

On the left, 7 Kil. beyond Kopervik, is the old church of 
Augvaldsnas, by which, and leaning towards it, is a 'bautasten', 
20 ft. high, known as 'Jomf'ru Marias SynaaV (the Virgin Mary's 
Needle). Tradition says that when this pillar falls against the church 
the world will end. — Farther N., on the other side of the Karm- 
sund, are five similar stones, the ' Five Foolish Virgins'. At the end 
of the Karmsund, on the right, lies — 

2 S.M. Haugesund ( Grand Hot.; Jonassen's Hot. ; British Vice- 
Consul, B. A. Stolt-Nilsen; pop. 7900), or Karmsund. On the 
Haraldshaug, a mound to the N., the supposed tombstone of Harald 
Haarfager (d. 933) is pointed out. Here rises the Haralds-Stette, an 
obelisk of red granite, 56 ft. high, on a square pedestal, around 
which are ranged about 20 stones, 9 ft. high, representing the ancient 
Norse tribes. It was erected in 1872, on the thousandth anniversary 
of Harald's famous victory (p. 108). — A road leads from Haugesund 
E. to (48 Kil.) 0Un (p. 117). 

The larger steamers go direct to Bergen (sometimes touching at 
Lervik only), passing either between the Bemmele and the Storde, 
or between the Storda and the Tysnase. — To the N. of Haugesund 
is an unprotected part of the coast, called Sletten, which the steamers 
pass in an hour. Near the N. end of it is Lyngholrnen, the first 
station in Bergens-Stift. On a rock to the W. is the Ryvardens- 
Fyr. We enter the Bemmelfjord, one of the narrow entrances to the 
Hardanger (p. 118); on the Bemmele, to the left, which contains 
gold-mines of little value, rises the Siggen ( 1542 ft.). This region 
is called the Send- Horland; the natives are Seringer. Grand 
mountains in the background, with the Folgel'ond (p. 120). Some 
of the steamers touch at Tjernagel, on the mainland, others at 
Langevaag, on the Bemmele, opposite. 

S.M. Mosterhavn, on the Mostere, has a little church said to 
have been built by Olaf Tryggvason (995-1000). 

2 S.M. Lervik (DuhVs Hot.; change boats for 0\e\i and Fjare 
see p. J 17), lies at the S. end of the Storde, with its sulphur- 


En£l. Miles. 

to Bergen. GOD0SUND. 18. Route. 117 

mines, one of the^ largest islands at the entrance to the Hardanger. 
The wooded Halsene, to the E., contains remains of a Benedictine 
monastery, founded about 1164, and several barrows. 

Tn the S. of Lervik opens the Aalfjord, with the villages of Rake urns. 
and Ytkevik. To the E. is the Skoneviksfjord, on which a steamer plies. 

On the fflenfjord, a S. arm of the Skoneviksfjord, lies 01en (Inn, good ; 
skyds-stat.), 8 Kil. from Sandeid (p. 113), and visited 6 times weekly hv 
steamers. Several call at Etne ( Hot. Etne), at the E. end of the Etne- Pollen. 
whence a mountain-path leads direct to Seljestad (p. 115), a verv fati^uin" 
walk of 11-12 hrs. (about 50 Kil.). 

To the E. of the Skoneviksfjord is the Aakrefjord (steamer once a 
week only; Com. 285), with the stations Aakre and (at the head of the fjord) 
Fjaere (tolerable quarters). From Fjfere a narrow road, practicable for 
nue-horse vehicles, crosses the mountains, amidst imposing scenery, tn 
Rullestad (quarters ; near it are several glacier 'cauldrons'), Viutertun, and 
(18 Kil.) Gaard Jesendal on the road to Odde (p. 115; from Fjtere to the 
Lotefos a drive of 4 hrs.). Comp. Map, p. 119. 

Beyond Lervik the direct steamer follows the Bemmelfjord and 
then the Klosterfjord, named after the monastery on the Halsen#. 

2 S.M. Sunde, on the E. side of the Husnres fjord, on the pen- 
insula of Husrues. 

Here, a small island opposite Heh'ilc , where passengers for 
the Hardanger sometimes change boats (9 ! / 2 hrs. from Stavanger, 
4% hrs. from Bergen). 

The scenery now becomes more attractive ; the mountains are 
higher and less monotonous ; on every side is a profusion of rocks, 
islands, headlands, and wooded hills, enlivened with smiling 
hamlets nestling in sheltered creeks. 

3 S.M. Ter«, a little island with several gaards on the N. side 
of the Hususesfjord. Beautiful scenery ; to the W. the large island 
of Tysn<es»; to the E. appears the huge snow-mantle of the Folge- 
fond (p. 1"20), of which we have an admirable distant view. To 
the E., opposite Tere, is the peninsula of Stongances, composed of 
greenish slate with veins of auriferous quartz. 

The district of Nord-Horland begins here. The steamer threads 
the Loksund, a narrow strait between the mainland and the Tysncese. 
an island attractive to artists and anglers. The next station, Ein- 
ingeviken, lies on the Tysnaesa, at the N. end of the strait. Steering 
between wooded islands, we next call at Godtfsrmd (Gullaksens 
Hot., good, pens. 372-4 kr., with sea-baths), on a small island, N. 
of the Tysnaes», pleasant for some stay. The station of Vaage, near 
the Tysnceskirke, also lies on the Tysnssa. 

The Bjernefjord and the Korsfjord are next traversed. To the 
W. we have a glimpse of the open sea, from which the Newcastle 
steamers enter the Skjaergaard. On the left our course as far as 
Bergen is bounded by the island of Store Sartore. To the S. of the 
little island of Trcele, in the Korsfjord, we have a last view of the 
Folgefond (W.). To the right is the Lyse fjord, with the charming 
Lyse (day's excursion from Bergen, by Nestun, p. 138), and the 
ruined Lysekloster, dating from U46, on its E. bank. On the right 


are the peninsula of Korsnas and the Fanefjor.d. TLc L»v»taken 
near Bergen (p. 137) now comes into sight to the N Beyond the 
Bialkere (left) we call at Bukken, on an island close to the mainland 
( rUt) and then pass the BJere (left). We steer through the Vatle- 
str0m,\ strait with a strong current, N. of BJOT0; on the right lies 
Hakonshellen. Numerous lighthouses. To the left lies the Lille 
Snrtore with the station of Bratholmen. Our course turns N.W. 
into the Byfjord, with the hilly Aske (p. 137) on the left. The 
promontory of Kvarven, on the mainland, to the right, with large 
petroleum-stores, is the N. spur of the Lyderhorn (p. 132). 
17 S.M. (from Haugsund; 11 from Ter») Bergen, see p. 130. 

19. The Hardanger Fjord. 

From Slavanger to Odde on the Hardanger Fjord the overland route 
already described (R. 17) is the most interesting. Or we may go direct by 
Steamboat (twice weekly, Sun. and Tkurs.-, Com. 281) m 22 hrs. (fare 
IS SO kr 1 Passengers by the Thurs. steamer change at Here (p. li<) into 
the steamer from Bergen to Odde. Once a week the Bergensk-Norden- 
fieldske Turistskib is available. 

From Bergen to the Hardanger Fjord: Steamboats (Com 280) to Eide 
daily in 9Vs-15 hrs. (8.60 kr.); to Odde in 12V2-19V* hrs. (10V* kr.). Good 

f00d F™m°/^i» by P ^«^ *«» Xorheimsund, see p. 141; by Vossevangen 
to Eide or to Ulvik, see H. 20. ,„,,,. n ^ .„„ u n 

From Telemarken by Haitkeh and Raldal to Odde, see B. 0. 

The *Hardanger Fjord is the best-known of the Norwegian 
fjords, and the beauty of its scenery has been famed from the earliest 
times. Wergeland calls it l det underdejlige , the 'wondrous-beauti- 
ful'. It presents a most characteristic example of Norwegian scenery : 
the broad fjord, the bold rocky banks, and the strip of fertile land 
fringing the water. Near it aie also some of the finest waterfalls 
in Norway, easily accessible. In point of grandeur, however, the 
Hardanger is perhaps surpassed by some of the N. fjords, such as the 
Fj£erlandsfjord(p.l47), Nordfjord (p. 165 ', and J0rundfjord(p. 181). 
The inhabitants (Haramger or Hdringer) and their characteristics 
are interesting. The bridal crowns and gold and silver trinkets 
(such as the Selje, or Sylgja, a kind of brooch or buckle) are curious, 
and the embroidery, coverlets (Slumretctpper), and carpets (Tapper) 
made in this district are much esteemed. The costumes are seen 
to advantage only on Sundays, before or after church. The women 
wear the 'Skaut', a kind of white linen cap, folded and starched, 
and sometimes a red bodice, embroidered with beads. The peculiar 
Hardanger violin (Felt) has steel strings combined with gut to in- 
crease the resonance. 

Our description follows the course of the Hardanger-Sand- 
horland Steamers (Com. 280), which, however, call at different 
stations on different trips. The distances are in Norwegian Sea- 
miles (p. 107). 


_r * 

9»J, * sgurapis ^ | 

SUNDAL. 79. Route. 


a. The Western Hardanger Fjord, to the Mauranger Fjord. 

Steamer (Com.* 280) from Bergen to Sundal thrice weekly in 6-9 hrs. 
(6.10 ki\). The other steamers do not call at Sundal, hut keep nearer the 
N. bank of the fjord. 

At the entrance to the Kvindhcrreds-Fjord , which forms the 
avenue to the Inner Hardanger, on the N. and S. sides respectively, 
He the islands of Tcre (10 S.M. from Bergen) and Here (11 S.M. 
from Bergen; p. 117). The steamboat -station on Here is named 
Heresund (change of boats, see p. 117). 

From Here we steer into the Stor-Sund, a strait between the 
islands of Skorpen and Snilsthvcit on one side and the mainland on 
the other. On this strait are the stations Uskedal, overtopped by 
the Englefj eld and the Kjeldhaug; Demelsviken or Dimmelsviken, 
between the dark Solfjeld on the S. and the Skinnebergs-Nut on 
the E., adjoined by the Malmanger-Nut; and — 

2V2 S.M. (from Terfl) Rosendal (Skaale's Hot.), near the tower- 
less church of Kvindherred , with the park and chateau (built in 
1678) of the barons Hoff-Rosenkrone. The chateau contains a statue 
of the Countess Bariatinska by Thorvaldsen, and a few paintings. — 
To the E. towers the conspicuous Melderskin (5192 ft. ; ascended 
in 6 hrs.) : a fair path through the Melsdal to the Midtsater and the 
Myrdalsvand; thence rather steep. Grand view of the Folgefond 
and of the fjord down to the open sea. 

Some steamers now cross to the stations Gjermundshavn and 
Mundheim on the N. bank (see Map, p. 117), or to Skjelnas (quar- 
ters at the Landhandler's) in the large Varaldse. Thence to Bakke, 
Jondal, etc., see p. 120. — Between the Varaldse and the main- 
land to the E. the fjord is called Sildefjord. The steamer touches 
at the church of JEnts (Skyds-stat.), at the mouth of the dmesdal, 
over which a jagged ridge with the snow-fields and glaciers of the 
Folgefond (p. 120) rises as a background. 

At JEnes opens the * Mauranger Fjord, on which a steamboat 
plies eastwards three times, and westwards twice a week; on other 
days it is reached by boat-skyds from Skjelnaes (about 18 Kil. from 
Sundal, 3-372 hrs.' row). To the right of the entrance to this fjord, 
with its high rocky banks, is the Furebergsfos, a broad foaming 
waterfall. The steamboat-station is — 

3 S.M. Sundal {Hot. Sundal, plain, but good, R., B., or S. i% 
D. 2 kr.), near gaard Bondhus, the starting-point for a visit to the 
Folgefond and its glacier, the Bondhusbr*. Samson Olsen Sundal 
is a certificated guide. 

A visit to the *Bondhusbrse, and back, takes 372 hrs. on foot. 
A narrow cart-track (stolkjaerre 3, for 2 pers. 4 kr.) ascends the 
Sundal, enclosed by high mountains, on the left bank of the torrent, 
and through 'Dr' at the end, to the ( 3 / 4 hr.) small Bondhusvand 
(624 ft.). Splendid view of the lake, with it prominent rocky islets, 
and of theBondhusbrse, rising over the green moraine on the S. bank. 

120 R. VJ. — Map, p. 119. FOLGEFOND. Hurdanger 

Several cascades fall from the heights, right and left. A boat lies 
ready to take us to (20 min.) the other end (rowed by the guide 
brought from Sundal, 1.60 kr.). We then ascend'a path, marshy at 
places, pass a sseter (occupied only after mid-July), and cross the 
moraine (1050 ft. ; splendid view of the glacier and of the" foaming 
Brufos on the left) to the (20-25 min.) glacier. 

The Passage op the Folgefond is a fine and not very difficult 
expedition (to Odde 10l/ 2 -ll hrs. ; guide necessary; 8, for 2 pers. 
10, for 4 pers. 12 kr. ; horse to the top of the pass, 12 kr. ; provisions 
necessary; the ascent is in shade in the early morning; comp. also 
p. 1*26). About 1/2 nr - fr° m Sundal a bridle-path diverges to the 
left from the road to the Bondhusbrae , descends and crosses the 
glacier-brook by a bridge, and leads through meadows to the foot 
of the opposite height. We ascend in windings , past a tablet 
recording the construction of the path by the German 'Nordlands- 
Verein' in 1890. In about 21/2 hrs. from Sundal we reach the Gars- 
hammer-Sater (about 2300 ft.; beer). Farther on we cross the out- 
flow of a small lake and pass over some marshy ground. We then 
ascend by a tolerable path to the right, between boulders. In about 
l'/o nr - the red-roofed hut of Breidablik comes in sight. We next 
descend a little, observing to the left an ice-bound lake, whose 
broad outflow we cross by stepping-stones ; then re-ascend, over a 
large snow -field, to (l/ 2 hr.) the Breidablik Hut (about 4430 ft ; 
beer, etc.), on the Bottenhorgen. Extensive survey of the huge 
*Folgefond ('fond' or 'fonn', a field of snow), which covers a plateau 
about 36 Kil. long and 6-15 Kil. broad. Travellers with horses 
find sledges at the hut, but this 'summer sleighing' is but poor sport, 
and not much quicker than walking. The crossing of the great 
snow-mantle takes about B 1 /^ hrs. ; at the top (5414 ft.) we obtain 
a view of the Hardanger Vidda, with the curiously shaped Haar- 
teigen. The Tyssestrenge (p. 126) are also visible. A bridle-path 
on the other side leads past the Tokheimsnuter and down the Tok- 
heimsdal to Tokheim in 2 hrs.; Odde is ! /2 nr - farther (see p. 124). 

From Gjerde, on the 0ttre Pollen, the E. arm of the Mauranger Fjord 
(boat from Sundal in 1/4 hr., 50 0.), a bridle-path ascends the Folgefond, 
passing the hut in the Vrebotn and the Hundier (5362 ft.), crossing the 
snow, and descending to Tokheim (see above; guide, Gotskalk A. Gjerde; 
charges, see above). As from Sundal , travellers may ride to the glacier 
and cross the snow in sleighs. 

b. The Central Hardanger Fjord, East to Eide. 

Steamer from Sundal to Eide twice a week in 4-4>/2 hrs. (fare 3.70 kr.). 
The other steamers do not call at Sundal. From Bergen to Eide daily, in 
9-14 hrs. (8.60 kr.). 

On leaving the Mauranger Fjord the steamer steers N. Fine 
view behind us of the peaks, snow-fields, and glaciers above the 
JEnesdal (p. 119). To the right Aarsand; then Aarvik, with a large 
waterfall. We next cross the Misfjord to Vikingnses (p. 121). — 
Other steamers, after Mundheim or Skjelnses (p. 119), touch at — 

Fjord. NORHEIMSUND. ap,p.ll9. — 19: R. 121 

5 S.M. (from Tere) Bakke (Bakke Hot., good), pleasantly situated 
on the Strandebarmslugt. a bay of the Hisfjord. View of the Folge- 
fond to the S.E., the snow-clad Tveite Kviting(A120 ft.) N.W., and 
the Tervik-Nut (3520 ft.) N.E. At the head of the bay, 3 Kil. N., 
is the church of Strandebarm ; farther on, uear the hamlet of Fosse, 
on the E. bank, is a waterfall, 490 ft. high (130 ft. in one sheer 
leap), but poor in dry weather. 

From Straudebarm a path leads by gaards Haukaas and Solbjerg aud 
the TorahtUa Scetev to (4-5 hrs.) Wetland in the Steinsdal , and down the 
valley to Norheimsund in 1 hr. more (see below). 

We nest round the peninsula of Vikingnces, the S. spur of the 
wooded Ljonces-Aas, where several 'chalets', with or without board, 
are let to summer visitors (chiefly English; Engl. Ch.Serv. in July& 
Aug.). View of the Myrdalsfos to the right. 

'l l l% S.M. Jondal (Utne's Inn) , on the E. bank , noted for its 
'Hardanger boats'. The fjord contracts. 

Fbom Jondal a road ascends the Korsdal by ( 3 /4 hr.) Birkeland to (3 hrs.) 
(Jaard Flatebe (1100 ft.), grandly situated; then S. to the Jondalsbrce, near 
the Dravlevand and Jeklevand. — From FlatebU to the Serfjord (8-10 hrs. ; 
guide necessary). The bridle-path leads N.E. to Sjuscet, ascends steeply 
and takes a wide bend to the N., turns E., skirts the Thorsnut (5164 ft.), 
and leads S. to the Saxaklep (highest point, 4530 ft.); then a steep descent 
to the Reisceter (1080 ft.), and thence to Bleie (Naac, p. 123). 

Beyond Jondal we pass several waterfalls, leaving Jonarmzs on 
the right, and enter the Ytre Samlen-Fjord, touching at Skuteviken 
once a week. Beautiful scenery. The steamer rounds the Axences 
on the W. side, passes the church of Viker, and enters the Nor- 
heimsund, on which lies — 

3 S.M. Norheimsund or Sandven (Sandveris Hot. , very fair, 
K. 172-2, B. or S. 17 2 . D. 2 kr.; Iversen's Hot.; Engl. Oh. Serv. 
in the season), charmingly situated, and suitable for some stay. 
Admirable view of the Folgefond, with a series of intervening 
mountains. — The new road to Trengereid (p. 141) ascends the 
Steinsdal to the W. ; after 72 hr. we cross a bridge on the right to 
the 0fsthus (0verste Hus) Fos, a waterfall 100 ft. high, with a path 
passing behind it (25©.), visible from Sandven. We may also walk 
S.E. on the bank of the fjord to (2 hrs.) Vik«r and Axenss (see 
above). The road to the N., crossing the mouth of the Steindals-Elv, 
winds over the hill to 0stense (see below). — The Torenut (about 
3426 ft.), to the N., is easily ascended by the Sjau-Sater in 5 hrs. 

Beyond Norheimsund the margin of the Folgefond continues 
in sight, to the S. We next touch at — 

0stens* or 0istesje [Olsen's Hot., small but pleasant), prettily 
situated on the bay of that name. 

A road crosses the hill to the E. of J0fstens0 to (l'/a lr.) Skaare, on the 
narrow and picturesque '' Fiksensund, which runs 11 Kil. inland from 
Stenst0 (p. 12^). At the head of the Fiksensund, reached by rowing-boat 
from Skaare in l>/ 2 hr., lies gaard Botnen (Flatebet Hot., good), whence a 
steep path leads in 2-3 hrs. to the Hamlegre Hotel (p. 138), at the S. end 
of the Hamlegrevand. — Fbom Botnen to Bolkbn, a full day's walk. A 
tolerable bridle-path, very steep at places, ascends the Flatebagjel to the 

HitutKEKs' Norway and Sweden. 9th Edit. .8 

122 R.19.~Map,p.H9. RIDE. JJardangtr 

(5 Kil ) Lel-edal sitter, whence we may ascend the Flatele/jeld or Lett- 
dahnuten (3455 ft.; fine view, 2-3 hrs there and back). From the seter 
the Dath ascends to the watershed (19(0 ft.), then descends a little to (b Kil.) 
Modnaberg (two 'steter- hotels'), at the H.E. end of the Hamlegrevand 
(fishing), and skirts the river issuing from the Thorfinvand to (b Kil.) 
gaard Skjeldal (1083 ft.). Lastly a good road leads to (5 Kil.) Grimestad, 
at the W. end of the Vangsvand, and thence hy Liland to Bolken (p. lo3). 

Twice a week the steamer next steers N. of the Kvamse , and 
past the mouth of the Fiksensund, touching on one voyage atStenste, 
to Aalvik, on the Indre Samlen-Fjord. Fine view of the Samlehovd(S. ; 
see below). Near the station is the picturesque Melaanfos. We now 
steam direct to Eide (see below). — Other steamers steer across 
the fjord from 0stens» to Herand, on the S. side of the bold Samle- 
hood or Samlekolle (2058 ft.), round that hill, and, past (14 Kil.) 
Vinces and Hesthammer (previously touching at Utne once a week, 
see below), to the somewhat monotonous — 

Oravenfjord or Qranvin- Fjord. At its mouth, to the right, rises 
the abrupt Oxen (4102 ft.; ascended from the S.E. ; fine view, 
especially of the Serfjord to the S., and the high mountains to the 
E.) — At its N. end, where the channel contracts, lies — 

5 S.M. Eide (* Mceland's Hot., a large house »/ 4 M. from the 
pier, R. 2-2 1 /', B. or S. IV2. D - 1 l U kr - i Jaunsens Hot., 3 inin. 
farther, R. 1-1 V2. B - or S. IV4, V- 2 kr., unassuming; Engl. Oh. 
Serv. in July and Aug.), a busy place, being the station for Vosse- 
vangen, and pleasant for some stay. Interesting walk up the Vosse- 
vangen road to the superb Gravensvand (l/ 2 hr- > t0 tne Oravens- 
Kirke, 4 Kil.; p. 141). 

From Eide to Vossevangen or L'lvik, p. 141. 

c. The S-erfjord. 

Steamer (Com. 280) from Eide to Odde daily in 3-4 hrs. (fare 2.90 kr.); 
from Bergen to Odde daily in I4-I6V2 hrs. (10.50 kr.); from Vik 1 Eidfjoid 
(Com. 282) to Odde daily (3.60 kr.). 

Ouitting the Gravenfjord (see above), the steamboat crosses 
the broad Vtnefjord, the central reach of the Hardanger Fjord, with 
the Oxen rising astern, to — 

2 S.M. Utile (Vine's Hotel, good), beautifully situated on the 
S. bank, with a large church. At the back lies a shady valley. The 
Hanekamb (3593 ft. ; 2y 2 hrs. ; descent to Grimo, see p. 123, 1 1/2 hi.) 
affords a fine survey of the Utne, Eid, and Sot Fjords. — Steamer 
to the Eidfjord, see p. 127. 

The Odde steamer passes gaard Tronces, with the headland of 
Kirkenas opposite, to the E., and enters the — 

**S«rfjord ('south fjord'), running S. for 40 Kil., and narrow- 
ing from 2 Kil. to a few hundred yards, which separates the ice and 
snow-clad Folgefond from the great central mountain-plateau. At 
the mouths of the torrents their alluvial deposits have formed fertile 
patches of land, where cherries and apples thrive luxuriantly, 
especially in the centre anil N. -parts Pf tDe f i) old r where it is never 

LOFTHUS. Map,p.1ia.— I9.n. 123 

frozen over. The banks are relatively well peopled. The charm of 
the fjord lies in the contrast between the smiling hamlets below 
and the wild fjeld above. — The first station is usually — 

Grimo (Pugerud's Inn, good), on a fertile site on the W. bank. 
Pretty walks (to the hill of Haugsnas, 20 min. S.; to Utne, 7 Kil. 
N. by road). 

Opposite Grimo opens the charming Kinservik (reached by 
rowing-boat), with the Husdal and the Thvtitafos and Nyastelsfos. 
A lofty road, with fine views, leads from Kinservik church, skirting 
the headland of Krosnaes, to Lofthus (a walk of 2*/ 2 hrs.). 

3 S.M. (from Eide; 5 from Ulvik) Lofthus {Hot. UUensvang, 
pens. 4 kr., good, Engl, spoken; Engl. Oh. Serv. in the season), in 
an orchard-like region on the E. bank, enclosed by a wide girdle of 
rocks, with a waterfall and view of the Folgefond, is one of the 
finest points on the Hardanger. A little S. is Oppedal, a landing- 
place where the steamers call once a week instead of at Lofthus. 
The parish-church of UUensvang, on the S. side of the Aapo-ELv, 
which falls into the fjord here, dates from the Gothic period ; fine 
W. portal ; Gothic choir-window, with the head of a bishop at the 
top, and a weeping and a laughing faceright andlei't. The Brurasiol, 
a rocky height above the church, affords an admirable survey of the 
Hartjord , N. to the Oxen (p. 122), and S.W. to the Folgefond. A 
visit to Bjemebykset ('bear's leap'), a fall of the Aapo-Elv, takes 
272-3 hrs. from the inn (there and back). Farther off is the Skrik- 
jofos, higher but of less volume. 

On the opposite bank of the ijord are the large gaards of 
Jaastad, Vilure, and Aga, which last still contains an old hall 
lighted from above. Above Aga rises the Solnut (4833 ft.); beyond 
it, the Thorsnut (5165 ft.). The glaciers of the Folgefond peer down 
the valleys at intervals. — Next station — 

B«rven or Berven, in sight of the glaciers opposite. The project- 
ing peak of the Bervenut (1 hr.) is a tine point of view. 

On the W. bank is the Vikebugt, with the station of — 

Naae and the gaards of Bleie. Above fertile fields and gardens 
protrude the glaciers of the Folgefond, from which waterfalls de- 
scend. — From Bleie over the mountains to Jondal, see p. 121. 

Next on the E. bank are gaards Sandste and Sexe; Hovland, 
with a spinning-mill ; Kvalences, a promontory and gaard. 

Espen, a station on the E. bank ; with several gaards charmingly 
situated on the hill. 

Then, on the W. bank, Kvitnaa, at the entrance to the imposing 
Raunsdal, with the glaciers of the Folgefond in the background. 
Interesting excursion to the Raunsdalsvand and back (6-7 hrs.; bad 
path). Farther on is Digrences, with waterfalls. Between Kvitnaa 
and Digrense3, on the hill, is gaard Aase. Beyond Digrenas is gaard 
Apald; then Aaen , with the waterfall of that name, also called 


124: R.I!). — Map, p. 119. ODDE. Ilardanger 

On the E. bank, beyond Espen, comes Fresvik, with its fine 
large amphitheatre of wood, its meadows and corn-fields. Opposite 
Digrenaes are the gaards of Skjalvik, in a girdle of hills, and Stana, 
with Isberg at a dizzy height above it. Between the Tyssedalsnut 
and the Thveitnut opens the Tyssedal (electric power station- 
p. 126). Close to the fjord is a fall of the Tyssaa, admirably framed 
in pine-forest. A group of rocks farther on is called Biskopen, 
Prasten og Klokkeren. 

On the W. bank lie the gaards of Eitrheim, with the peninsula 
of Eitnces, and Tokheim, with its waterfall and the Tokheimsnut, 
whence a path crosses the Folgefond to the Mauranger Fjord (p. 120). 
Pleasant walk from Odde to Tokheim ('/2 hr.) by the road on the 
bank ; thence by a path on the hill-side, through orchards, and up 
to the crest of the peninsula, with an unimpeded view N. and IS. 
(in all, there and back, 3 hrs.). 

4 S.M. Odde. — "Hardanger Hotel, on the fjord, 2 min. from the 
pier, with a large hall, pretty dining-room (paintings by Nils Bergslien), 
oaths, and two dependances , Engl, spoken, R. l>/2-3, B. or S. i»/s, D. 
(1.30 p.m.) 21/2, pens. 6 kr. ; Grand Hot., at the pier, with baths, Engl, 
spoken, E. 1-2, B. or S. IV2, D. (1.30 p.m.) 2 kr., good; Jordal's Hot., to 
the W., at the S. end of the -fjord, R. 1-1V2, B. or S. ii/2, D. 2 kr., plain, 
but good. — On the hill, by the Sandvenvand (see below), with view, 
25 min. from the pier (stolkjeerre lkr.): Hot. Odda, R. l'/2-2, B. or S. 
l'/2, D. 2!/ 2 , pens. 6kr., with cafe', good. 

Post Office, above the dependance of the Hardanger Hotel. — Tei.e- 
iieai'H Office, W. of Hardanger Hotel. — Antiquities and Norw. wares 
sold by G. HelUtrem (from Stavanger) and M. Hammer (from Bergen). — 
Engl. Ch. Serv. in summer at the Parish Church and the Hardanger Hotel. 

Carriages : to the Lotefos and Espelandsfos and back, Stolkjserre for 
i pers. 572, for 2 pers. 8; carr. for 2, 3, or 4 pers. 12, 15, or 17 kr. ; to 
Keljestad (p. 115) and back, kjserre 8 or IIV2, carr. 20, 22, or 25 kr. ; to Uses 
on the Suldalsvand (p. 114), kjaerre 13 or 19, carr. 35, 45, or 50 kr.; to 
Dalen on the Bandaksvand (p. 35), kjserre 30.09 or 45, carr. 85, 100, 110 kr. 
— Guides. Od Odsen, Lars Olsen Bustetun, Asbjern Lars Olsen, Nils Aarlhun, 
and Magnus Isberg (speak English). 

Odde or Odda, at the S. end of the Serfjord, the terminus of the 
great routes from Telemarken and the Stavanger Fjord (RR. 5, 17), 
commanded on the W. by the Boklenut and on the E. by the Raas- 
naas, is one of the most frequented places in the Hardanger district. 
Jt is very picturesquely situated, but its charm is marred by the 
factories which have lately sprung up. Of these there are several 
above the village, S.E., on the right bank of the Aabo-Elv (carbide 
of calcium, zyanamide, etc.). They are supplied with electric power 
from the Tyssedal (p. 126), by means of a cable 7 Kil. long, and 
are connected with the quay by tramway. 

The slope which the Telemarken road ascends, skirting the 
seething falls of the Aabo-Elv, is an old glacier-moraine (p. xxxii). 
To the left, opposite, lie the factories. Fine survey of Odde and 
the Serfjord behind us. On the height, by the Hot. Odda, the 
*Sandrennind, the feeder of the Aabo-Elv, is revealed to view. An 
iron bridge, the, crosses the river, '/ 2 kr, from Odde, 

Fjord. ODDF,. Map, p. riih- 19. R. 125 

Excursions. — 1. To the Buarbr^; (and back, 4 1 / 2 -5 hrs. ; guide 
unnecessary). Boat to Jordal incl. 3 hrs. of waiting, 1 kr. each 
person. A road diverging to the right, a little short of the Vastunbro, 
and leading round the N. end of the Sandvenvand , on the slope 
of the Eidesnut, to (i/4 hr.) the mouth of the Jordal and the 
liauilet of that name , is under construction. To the S. towers the 
Jordalmut. The route into the Jordal passes between the houses 
and ascends through orchards. Higher up also the valley is remark- 
able for its rich vegetation (birches, elms, barley, etc.). The abrupt 
rocks enclosing the valley are clothed with underwood. The 
bluish-green glacier of the Folgefond forms the background. In 
'/4 hr. from Jordal we cross to the left bank of the Jordals-Blv. 
In 50 min. more the stony path passes gaard Buar (1050 ft.), on the 
opposite bank. To the left, high up, is a waterfall. The path, 
nearly level for about 10 min. more, then ascends to a refreshment- 
hut. Lastly a rough ascent over the moraine to (6-8 min.) a point 
opposite the ice-fall of the Buarbrae. The glacier is divided by the 
Vrbotten rock into two arms , which afterwards unite and form a 
'medial' moraine. The Buarbraa has been receding for several years 
and is inferior to the Bondhusbrae (p. 119), while both are surpassed 
by the great glaciers of the Nordfjord (pp. 169, 171). 

Good mountain-walkers may ascend on the right side of the Buarbrse 
to the Folgefond, skirt the Eidesnut and the Ruklenut, and descend 
past the Tokheimsnut to Tokheim and Odde (p. 124), an interesting but 
fatiguing expedition of 8-10 hrs. (guide 4-8 kr.). 

2. To the Lotbfos (and back, 7-8 hrs.' walk, 4-5 hrs.' drive). 
We follow the Telemarken road to the Vastunbro (p. 124) and the 
E. bank of the Sandvenvand, partly under high rocks and over 
'Ur' or rocky de'bris, enjoying a superb view of the Jordal, with the 
Buarbrae and Folgefond in the background. Farther on, to the left, 
is the fine Kjendalsfos ; opposite is the Strandsfos, descending from 
the Svartenut. At the head of the lake, 7 Kil. from Odde, lies gaard 
Sandven. (Walkers may row from the Vastunbro to this point and 
may order a boat for the return-journey.) The road next passes 
Hildal (328 ft.), where the Vcefos or Hildalsfos descends on the 
right, and (4 Kil.) Qrensdul (reached by a bridge), the starting-point 
for the ascent of the Saue-Nut (about 3940 ft. ; splendid view of the 
Folgefond). The valley contracts to a picturesque ravine ('Djuv'), 
through which dashes the Grensdals-Elv. To the left is a tablet 
to the memory of a German naval officer who met his death here 
in 1897 by falling from his bicycle into the torrent. After about 
15 Kil. from Odde we reach, on the left, the *Lotefos and the 
Skarsfos, the waters of which unite below, and opposite them the 
veil-like *Espelandsfos, one of the most beautiful waterfalls in 
Norway. The best point of view is on the hill to the left, just 
above the road {Inn, R. II/2, B. IV2 kr -! small, but very fair). 

We may now drive up the superb ravine to Scljestad (p. 115), 
hrs. more, a full day from Odde and back, 

126 R.19. — Map,p.ll9. ODDE. Hardanger 


to the Buarbuje (better than in the reverse direction; 10 hrs.; 
guide 8 kr.). To Tokheim, seep. 124. A good bridle-path winds 
up the Tokheimsdal in l 1 ^-^ hrs. to a refuge-hut (3773 ft.) and in 
20 miii. more to the brink of the Folgefond. We then ascend over 
the snow, passing several rocks marked by Varder , to the top of 
the hill (5414 ft.), where the view, especially of the Hardanger 
Vidda (p. 33), is very extensive. We diverge to the S. from the 
way to Sundal(p. 119), which is indicated by bundles of faggots, 
and in 1 hr. reach the margin of the snow near the Eidesnut, where 
we have a splendid survey of the whole Buarbrie. Then a somewhat 
toilsome descent over grassy slopes to(l 1 /'2 cr trie refreshment-hut 
at the foot of the glacier, and back to Oddeinl 1 ^ hr. more (see p. 1251. 
The Route o»er the Folgefond to Sandal on the Mauranger Fjord (10- 
11 hrs.: guide 12-16 kr.) is interesting; hut as there are few steamers on 
the fjord, the route is preferable in the reverse direction (p. 120). 

4. To the Skj2EGGedalsfos, 9-10 hrs., there and back (half 
on foot). Motor-boat on the fjord to Tyssedal (p. 124; 40min.; 
1 kr. there and back; ask hours at, hotel, or of the boatman). Above 
the landing-place is an Electric Power Station, with huge turbines, 
driven by water conducted from the Ringedalsvand by a great tunnel 
(over 100,000 HP.). A good bridle-track, stony at places, ascends 
the left hank of the Tyssaa, through wood, affording beautiful 
views of the fjord and the Folgefond behind us. We pass several 
small falls and sweep round a wild gorge, in which the Tyssaa dis- 
appears. We descend to the stream again, and (IV2 hr. fr° m Tysse- 
dal). near a waterfall, cross to the right bank. In ] /2 hr. more we 
reach gaard Skjseggedal(pron. sheggadal; good inn, Engl, spoken ; 
order meal for return, D. 2!/2tr.). On the left the Mogelifos de- 
scends from the Mogelinut, and on the right is the Vasendenfos, 
the discharge of the Ringedalsvand (about 1300 ft.). We pass the 
Vetlevand ('small lake') and in 20 min. more the picturesque and 
exquisitely clear Ringedalsvand (1430 ft. ; motor-boat in 40 min.. to 
the fall, and back, 2 kr.), with the huge Einsatfjeld on the S. The 
lake is 6 Kil. long; the voyage to its head takes 8/4 hr. ; halfway 
the Folgefond becomes visible behind us. Beyond a projecting rock 
on the right ('Klumpen') we see the jrreat fall in the distance; 
then, high up on the left, the graceful Tyssestrenge, falling from 
a sheer rock. From the landing-place we have a rough climb 
of 1/4 hr- , through 'Ur', to the foot of the **Skjseggedalsfos, a 
superb waterfall 525 ft. high. Though less imposing, it is much 
more picturesque than the Veringfos (p. 128). In summer the 
volume of water is scanty, but when the snow is melting ('Flomtid'), 
or after heavy rain, the effect is very grand. 

From Odde ovek the Hardanger Vidda to Vik i Eidfjokd: four 
day's wa)k flake provisions and sleeping-rugs ; guide, Jergen Freim ofOddc). 
1st Day. by the EinstvtfjeM and Mosboden to the shooting-hut of Lanaeveis- 
bO'lcn; 2nd Pav, to the /Atlas Feeler ; 3rd Dav. to gaard Viverlid (bed 1 kr. ; 
no food); 4lh Day, to tl,r. "-'j Unlet Ycfri|i-'V:' and Vik (p. 127). 

Fjord. VIK 1 EIDFJORD. Maps, pp. 119, 43. ~ 19. R. 127 
d. The Eidfjord. 

Steamer (Com. 282) from Eide, where passengers by the Odde and 
Bergen steamer change, to Vik, on week-days in 2 hrs. (fare 2.10 kr. ; once 
a week via Utne in 4 hrs.); to UMk in 3-4 hrs. (2.10 kr. ; from Vik to 
Ulvik 1.20 kr.). 

The Eidfjord or Bifjord, the eastmost branch of the Hardanger 
Fjord, is enclosed by bold rocks. The steamer calls when required 
at Ringeen, Djenne, and Vallavik. Beyond the Busnas, with gaard 
Bu, and the Bunut rising behind it, the Osefjord diverges to the 
left (p. 129). The steamer passes its mouth. On the right towers 
the Skoddalsfjeld. At the mouth of the valley running inland be- 
tween the Skoddalsfjeld and the Bullenut lies Erdal, with a saw- 
mill and a group of houses, where moraines and ancient water- 
lines are observable. On the N. side of the fjord rises the snow- 
clad Ontn (p. 129). Facing us rises the bare Vindaxlen. Between 
the Onen and Vindaxlen opens the Simodal (called at by few 
steamers), above which peers the snowy plateau of the Hardanger 
Jakul (p. 41). Near Vik, on the S.E. bank of the fjord, is the 
house of the painter Nils Bergslien. 

5 S.M. (from Eide) Vik i Eidfjord. — Vabingfos Hot., R. 1Vs-2, 

B. or S. V-fa, D. 2 kr.; Engl, spoken; in the dining-room are paintings by 
Kils Bergslien. Engl. Ch. Sen. in the season. — Skyds to the Maab0vand 
1 pers. 2.55, 2 pers. 3.75; there and back 5.10, 7.50 kr.; if horse be ridden 
on to the Fosli Hotel , 4 kr. more. Those who do not go beyond the Fos 
should take provisions with them. — Guide for long excursions, Halttm 
11. Megletun, of Ssebjzf (see below). 

Vik, grandly situated at the S.E. end of the Eidfjord, is a good 
starting-point for several fine excursions. The (10 min.) church 
oi Eidfjord stands on a moraine ('VbV), 1 M. broad, which separates 
the fjord from the Eidfjordsvand. The effluent of the latter forces 
its way through the moraine. 

To the VeRiNGFOS, and back, a walk of 8-9 hrs. (Skyds to the 
Maabavand, see above.) The road skirts the river to the Eidfjords- 
vand (42 ft. ; 5 Kil. long; 246 ft. deep), a lake enclosed by abrupt 
rocks, and follows its W. bank, being largely hewn in the rock. 
Beyond two short tunnels we see gaard Kvam ('basin') on the hill 
above, from which falls the Kvamfos. Opposite rises the Eidfjords- 
fjeld. At the head of the lake we cross the Bygdar-Elv (Hjalmo- 
Elv), which issues from the Hjortmodal (p. 128). 

7 Kil. Sale and other gaards (Megletun, Lilletun, Varberg, 
Raise) lie on a small fertile alluvial plain, watered by the Bygdar- 
Elv and by the Bjoreia, which issues from the wild Maabedal. The 
road ascends the Maabadal, at first on the left, then on the right 
bank of the Bjoreia, past gaard Tveito, where the river has pretty 
falls, to gaard Maabe (820 ft.; 7 Kil. from Ssebe). It crosses the 
river l»/ 2 Kil. farther, and ends for the present beyond the Maabe- 
vand, 25 min. from Maaba. A good bridle-path leads in 3/ 4 hr. 
more (passiug the path diverging to the right to the Fosli Hotel, 

128 Route 19 Y1K 1 EIDF.TORD. Hardanger 

see below) to the **V«ringfos, the roar of which has long been 
audible. A suspension -bridge carries us close to the fall. The 
Bjoreia plunges in a single leap of 535 ft. into a narrow abyss en- 
closed by sheer rocks on three sides. Dense spray constantly rises 
from the seething cauldron, forming a cloud above it, with beautiful 
rainbow-hues, especially in the afternoon. 

High above the fall is the conspicuous Fosli Hotel (ca. 2300 ft.; 
R., B., or S. 11/21 D - ^ kr., very fair). The path to it diverges from 
the Voringfos path, ] /4 nr - short of the Fos, crosses the Bjoreia by a 
wire bridge, and reaches the hotel in I-IV4 hr. Two points on the 
brink of the ravine, protected by railings, afford splendid views 
of the fall. 

The Fosli Hotel is a centre for interesting excursions. One of 
the finest is the passage to the Simodal (to Tveit frfa-frfa hrs; guide 
4-5 kr.). We cross the maTsby plateau between the Store and the 
Vetle Ishaug (about 4270 ft.), or we may make a slight de'touT over 
the latter. In I1/2 nr - a flne *View is disclosed of the great Hardanger 
Jakul, whose glaciers send down streams to the Rembesdal on the 
W. and the Skykjedal on the S. The top of the Rembesdalsfos is also 
visible. The old route to the Simodal bears to the left; we keep to 
the right, at first without a path, and soon reach the new route. 
"We descend straight for about 20 min. to the margin of the Skyk- 
jedal, where we obtain a magnificent *View of the upper Skykjefos 
(see below). — We then return to the top and go in the direction 
of the new path, crossing the Skykjedals-Elv (difficult in wet 
weather, when the old path is better). We skirt the upper margin 
of the valley to (20 min.) the new path (Fakkelaupet, see p. 129), 
winding down the green slope to (1 hr.) the foot of the Skykjefos, 
of which it affords a good view. Then down the valley to (3/ 4 hr.) 
Tveit and (1 hr.) the pier of Simodal, whence we row to (1 hr.) 
Vik (p. 127). 

With a guide, and in 51/2 hrs. more, we may include the Da;mmevand, 
hearing to the left from the Bakkelaupet along the slope; comp. p. 129. 

Another good excursion from the Fosli Hotel crosses the plateau to 
the S., by gaard Bel, the Skisaeter, and Bacrraitel, into the imposing 
Bjcelmodal, which a good path descends to Sseb0 (8-9 hrs. in all). — To 
the Kraikja-Bytte and Baugattel on the Bergen line, see p. 40. — Over 
the Hardanger Vidda to Bresterud in the Numedal, see p. 33. — To the 
Rjukanfos (3 days), p. 30. — A spare day at the Fosli Hotel may he spent in 
visiting one of the reindeer-herds pastured on the neighbouring hills (d-4 hrs ). 

To the Simodal, a splendid day's excursion (10-12 hrs. ; guide 
to the Skykjefos 4, Rembesdalsfos 5, Daemmevand 7kr.; provi- 
sions necessary), which may be begun from the Fosli Hotel and 
ended at the Bergen railway. The E. end of the Eidfjord is a nar- 
row creek, where the steamer calls two or three times a week, 
but it is generally visited by rowing-boat from Vik (5 Kil., in 
1 hr.). Before landing we see N. into the Aasdal, in which rises a 
curious isolated rock. We land near gaard Sad, on an old moraine 
(good quarters at Torstein T. Tvcit's). 

Fjord. VIK I EIDFJORD. 19. Route. 129 

A road ascends the Simodal to the gaards of Mehus, and then 
leads across a bridge to Tveit (5 Kil. from Ssed). We now ascend 
the light bank of the torrent by a bridle-path. Rich northern vege- 
tation. A view of both ends of the valley (N.E. and S.E.) is soon 
disclosed. After 1 hr. we cross the stream formed by the huge 
*Skykjefos, which falls from a height on the right (1150 ft.) in a 
sheer leap of 650 ft. We then ascend to the right in windings by 
a new path called 'Bakkelaupet'. A path to the left, 1 hr. from the 
bridge, leads to the N.E. end of the valley, where the copious 
*Rembesdalsfos, 853 ft. high, is visible. [It takes 1 hr. to reach 
this Fos ; we may then follow a fatiguing path named the Andresstig, 
which ascends about 1700 steps to (l-lt^hr.) theRembesdalsvand.] 
At the top of Bakkelaupet, about 2 hrs. from the Skykje Bridge, 
the path from the Fosli Hotel joins outs on the right (comp. p. 128). 
We now mount the slope to the left, enjoying a superb *View of 
the whole Simodal, to (1 hr.) the Skaaranut, high above the Rembes- 
dalsvand, to which descends the Rembesdalsbrce or Rembesdalskaakje. 
In 1 hr. more we come to the Tresnut, and then cross the glacier to 
(1 hr.) the tourists' hut. — It is more interesting, but longer, 
to descend rapidly from the Skaaranut to the Rembesdalsvand 
(ca. 3280 ft.), row across to the Rembesdals-Sctter, and re-ascend 
(fatiguing) above the N. margin of the glacier, and past the Lure 
Nut, to the hut. 

The tourists' hut by the Rembesdal Glacier, erected in 1900 for 
the workmen engaged in making the tunnel mentioned below, was 
enlarged in 1908 and affords good quarters and food. An ascent thence 
of barely 10 min". brings us to the wild and imposing *Dsemmevand, 
fully 4920 ft. above the sea. Striking contrasts are afforded by the 
dark-green water with its floating ice, the deep-blue glacier, the dark 
Tocks of the Lure Nut, and the glistening white Hardanger Jekul 
(p. 41), towering above. A tunnel, completed in 1901, affords the 
lake a regular outlet. Before its construction the water of the lake 
was sometimes dammed up by a barrier of ice, through which it 
finally burst, causing great havoc in the Simodal. — The return- 
route to the Rembesdalsvand, descending thence to the Rembes- 
dalsfos, is less recommended. 

From the Dsemmevand to Finse or Hallingskeit on the Bergen 
railway 2l/ 2 -3 hrs. ; comp. p. 41. 

From Vik we steer down the Eidfjord and into its N. arm, the 
Osefjord, with a grand mountain-background: to the E. the snow- 
clad Onen (5150 ft.), from which the lofty Degerfos descends; N. 
the majestic Vasfjceren (p. 130). On the right, near the entrance, 
is a fall of the Bagna-Elv. A low wooded hill, Qsen, separates 
the sombre Osenfjord from the smiling Vlvikfjord, which we next 
enter, soon sighting the gaards thickly clustered round the head of 
the fjord. 

130 R. 19.— Map, p. 119. TJLVIK. 

3 S.M. TJlvik. — 'Brakenjes Hotel, beautifully situated on the 
fjord, a great resort of tourists, R. 1V2--2, B. or. S. l'/z, D. 2, pens. 5 kr. — 
Westrheim's, higher up, a good family hotel and pension, B,., B., or S. IV2, 
D 2kr. ; Ulvik's, adjoining, similar charges, good. — Sponheim's, on 
the Graven road (p. 142), 20 min. from the pier, plain. — English Church 
Service in July and August. 

ZJlvik-Brakences, charmingly situated, is one of the most attract- 
ive places on the Hardanger Fjord. Brakenas, with its church, is 
the chief cluster of houses among the hamlets and gaards at the 
head of the fjord, collectively known as Vlvik. 

Walks. — Follow the road by the Ulvik and Vestrheim hotels, 
crossing the bridge at the fine fall of the Tyssaa, and winding up 
the Hyllaklev. In 1 /^ hr. we reach the point where the road sweeps 
round to the left, to avoid the gorge of the Tyssaa. Magnificent 
*View (still finer at the top, V2 ^ r - farther on ; comp. p. 142). — 
We may also follow the road on the fjord, S. from the Brakenaes 
Hotel, for a mile or so, to enjoy the fine view of Ulvik, backed by 
the Vasfjaren, as we return. The road goes on to (6 Kil.) Hetlenms, 
where the steamers call when the fjord is frozen. 

From the church a road, shaded at first by a fine avenue of limes, 
birches, ashes, and poplars, leads N.E., past many gaards [Hag,e- 
stad, Lekve, etc.), and through meadows dotted with apple-trees, 
across the hill to the Osefjord (1 hr.). If on the way a boat is 
offered for the trip to Ose (and back 2 l / 2 kr.), it should be accept- 
ed, as rowers are not always to be found at the boat-houses. The 
row all the way back to Ulvik takes 13/ 4 -2hrs. (3 kr.). 

The *Head of the Osefjobd (where the steamers do not touch) 
is enclosed by huge mountains. Opposite the boat-houses just men- 
tioned, to the E., is the lonely gaard of Segnethveit, amidst cherry- 
trees; a little to the S. of it is the 'Stenkirke', a rocky fissure with a 
low entrance. In 3/ 4 hr. we row to the N. end of the fjord. Provisions 
should be taken, as Ose (tolerable quarters) offers little food. Anve 
Osa is a good guide for excursions in the Osedal. 

The wild "Osedal runs inland, between the Krosfjaren and Nipahegd 
on the E. and the Vasfjoeren on the W. It narrows to a ravine To the 
Ose-Scete,; and thence, between the Oseskavl and Vosseikavl (right) and the 
Gangdalskavl (left) , to Opsmt on the Bergen railway , a toilsome walk ot 

Thfascent of the Vasfjawen (5355 ft.), and back, takes 12-16 hrs. from 
Ulvik. Ole Hakestad of Lekve (see above) is a good guide (6-S Kr.-). We 
may sleep at the steter on the Solsivand, 1 hr. N. of Lekve, the night ; be- 
fore. Splendid view from the top. — From the Solsivand to Opsset (p. 14UJ, 
10-12 hrs. 

20. Bergen. 

The large Steamers are mostly berthed on the ». side of the harbour 
by Bradboenken and Fatstningsbryggen (PI. B.' 2), but some of the British 
vessels land at the Toldbod (PI. B, 2). The Hakdangek Steamboats lie at 
the Holbergs-AlmemUng (PI. 5; B,2); the Sogsk and Nordfjobd boats by 
the Nykirke (PI. 6; B, 2). Cabs, see p. 131 (drivers apt to over-charge). 
Porter ('Bjerer') to the hotels, 350.-1 kr. — Travellers leaving Bergen by 
steamboat should ascertain where the vessel starts from. Berths, see p. xvin. 

1. Bergens JiredW>anJi C .3. 

"2..Brcwdru£ft C.3. 

%. Christie'* Statue. C.3. 

Lampskibsselskaber : &_Bergerts7ce 

Sflbrdeiiffeldske C.3. 

hJlardanger SondJiordfanske B.2 . 

&.l\Torure JBergenJuts (Soqn) B.2. 
I.Hblberg's Statue C.3. 

8. Forges Bank C.3. 

b.Priratbanlcen C3. 

lQ.Baadhus C.3. 

ll-Tfefcn&fc .£&?£- D.3- 

^^?P&&*H 4 Pa 



^a I h. e i Jos v i 

c ~~ 


l : 100:000 

_= Kilom 

F J O 








ykualrik \ Val*n 

Pjaep--.:/ ir ™sj ji^aan*^; Sol 

Jhorn ar ■ f "• {'■ ' 

* \\ - II A L. — °~ 

<sy±, ( u f 


dry 1 


Arts tad 



Lots taken 




Bl ! 


L Gulstenen 



v Fji>$tmqer "/ XaOand, 



Geograph. Anrt , v. Warier iDebes Xeu>xi£. 

Practical Notes. BERGEN. 20. Route. 131 

The office of the Bergenske Co. is at Torv-Almenning 8; branch by Brad- 
Dfenken; offices of other companies mostly in the Strand-Gade — The 
Eailwat Station (PI C, 4 p. 137) is in the S. part of the town, near the 

^ilSITln'moVmr 8,ati ° n ° n the St ° re ""H-rd-v-d i. 
Hotels. *Hot. Nokob (PI. a ; C, 3) , Ole-Bulls-Plads , with electric lieht 
elevator and bath,, R. 3-15 B. H/,-2, D. (at 2) 3, S. 2 k'r. , *Hoe»tThote L ' 
(PI. D; C, d) between the Torv-Almenning and Engen, an old house 
renovated and enlarged, with baths, R. 3-10, B. li/s-2, D. 3 kr. — Metro- 
pole (PL m ; C, 8), Christies-Gade, at corner of Starvhus-Gade, N. of the 
public park, with baths, etc., R. 2-5, B. 60 0. to V/<, D. 3 kr. ; Hot. Boule- 
vakd, by the o Town Park, to the 8 of the Hotel Norge, with baths, E. 3-8, 
£' v ?■ V /2 "?' D u 2/2 kr ^ Sond; Smeby (PI. e ; B, 2), Strand-Gade, E. of 
the Nykirke, two house.., R. H/ 2 -3, B. iy 2 , D. (2 p!m.) 2>A kr. ; Hot. d'Angle- 
l**ff (P i- „' C ' 3 >' Kaadstue-Plads, opp. the fire-station, R. 1i/ s -47b or 
A /2 ' t'nl -^ c ° mmend edi Victoria (PI. v; C, 3), Starvhus-Gade 10, 
« ?i/ r ?> ?V, ,8t,e ?; Gad ^ ° Pp - Hot ' M ^ tr «>POle, with baths, R. 2-3>/ 2 , B. or 
2>/s B IV, D ^ kr° T " CoimNENTAL (P1 - d > C > 3 )> Raadstue-Plads 3, R. li/ 2 - 
».. P * 1VA, * E Hotels and Pensions (comp. p. 9 ; all well spoken of) ■ Frk 
Ott Hansen, Torv-Almenning 12, corner of Valkendorfs-Gade (R. lV 2 -5, b! 
orS. IV2, D. 2, pens. 4-10 kr.); Frk. Marie Bech, Torv-Gade 16: Fru Sever 
Smaastrand-Gade 16, pens. 5kr.; Fru Dina Levaas, Smaastrand-Gade 6 ' 
Cafes. 'Grand Cafd (PI. x; C, 3), opp. Hot. Norge and the public park, 
dining-rooms on first floor (D. 14 p.m.) ; "Cafi Boulevard, with paintings bv 
Bergshen; Norge"t and HoldCs Cafi, in the above hotels. Music in all in 
the evening. - 'Fleien's Restaur. (PI. D, 2 ; p. 136); parties should telephone 
vSE£) m Tl tS; A a ? un - f ° renoon ° e « ««™d with warm meals. 
7^7 [?T, ( H' 4 V p - ^ T Confe ctioneb: T. Reimer, Olaf Kyrres- 
bade ; Miehelsen, Starvhus-Gade 5, corner of Olaf-Kyrre's-Gade. by the park 

fPi nT""*?^ °v"-l,. i,1 £- Chan # e of cars) - X - From the Xygaards-Bro 
(PI. D 5; p. Id6) by the Nygaards-Gade to the Torv, thence by the 0Vre 
bade to the Manakirke , and N. to Sandviken (PI. C, 1). — 2 From the 
N*stetorv (PI B, 3) by Engen and the Torv-Almenning, past the post-office 
and cathedra], and by the Kalfar-Vei to Kalfarel (PI E 4- p 136 

Camag es From pier or station into the town, 1-2 'pers. l'l/g, 3-4 pers. 
7 r ? « nk 20 n ,^-' per hour ' inside or outside the town, cariole 2 eic 
for 1-2 pers. 2y 2 , victoria for 1-3 pers. 3, landau-and-pair for 1-4 'pers 
4 kr. — For excursions apply to Christensen , Gamle Nygaards-Vei 5 and 
to the hotels and tourist offices : to Fleien (p. 136) and back (2V 2 -3 hrs ) 
cariole 5, stolkjserre 71/2, landau 10 kr. ; by Fljrien (where dinner may be 
ordered for the return) to the footpath on the Blaamanden, 8, 12 16 kr 
(time-tariff for excess if over 4 hrs.) ; to Fanloft-Birkelund (p. 137) and back 

lL h b S a ) c^3V 2 4hrs ; )tT 2 ,76 n k, by SaDdViken (P - 136) ' FJeldTei ' FaDt0 «' 
Boats (Flel): across the harbour 10-20 0. each, according to distance — 
Electric Ferry (5 0.) from Holberg's Almerming to Bradboenken (PI B 2) 
and from the Muralmenning to Drceggen (Droegs-Almennmg • PI C 2) ' 
Post Office (PI. C, 3), Raadstue-Plads, 8 a.m. to 7.30 p.m.' Sun 8-9 and 
-Telegraph, in the Exchange (PLC, 3; entrance behind), always open 
Shops. Hammer, Strand-Gade 57, antiquities, silver ornaments pic- 
tures (branch in the Torv, corner of Valkendorfs-Gade); Brandt, Strand- 
Gade 51 b, corner of 0stre Muralmenning, furs, one of the chief furriers 
in Norway (branch Torv-Almenning 12, corner of Valkendorfs-Gade) • Hm- 
flids-Forening, Torv-Almenning 12, wood-carvings, embroidery, etc • / ' Milne 
Grieg, Torv-Almenning 16, fishing and sporting requisites; Bundt & Co 
Strand-Gade 59-61, tailors for ladies and gentlemen, travelling requisites • 
./. L. Nerlien Torv-Almenning 16, photographic materials; C. Kroepelien'l 
Enke, btrandgade 40, wine and preserved viands ; Reimers & Son, Smaastrand- 
Gade d, near the Post, cigars. — Newspaper Eiosques in and near the Torv 
Banks, all in the Torv: Bergens Kredilbank (PI. 1), Bergens Privafbani- 
(PI. 9), office-hours 9.30-12.30 and 4-5.30; Norgei Bank (PL 17 10-12 
Goods Agents. Jrgens Transport, Torvgaden. 

132 Route 20. BERGEN. 


Baths. Gentralbadel, Nordal-Bruns-Gade, behind Hotel Norge (closed 
on Sun.). — Sea Baths at the Bontelbo, N.W. of the Fsestningsbryggen 
(PI. B, 1); ladles in the forenoon, gentlemen in the afternoon. 

Consuls. British, Edward F. Gray, Olaf Kyrres-Gade. American. 
F. S. S. Johnson, Olaf Kyrres-Gade ; deputy-consul, 77s. Beyer. 

English Church Service in summer. 

Tourist Offices. F. Beyer, Strand-Gade 2, with bazaar, photographs, 
dark room, bookstore, etc. ; T. Bennett & Sons (p. 10), Torv-Almenning 18 
also with a large bazaar of Norwegian souvenirs ; Tlws. Cook A Son, Torv- 
Almenning 20. — Bergens Torist Forening, Director H. Platon, Hansa 
Bryggeri. — Bergens Fjellmannaiag ('mountaineers' club'), Valkendorfs- 
Gade (president, Mr. Kr. Bing). 

Bergen (N. lat. 60° 23'), one of the oldest and also most pictur- 
esque towns in Norway, with 80,600 inhab., lies on a hilly penin- 
sula and isthmus hounded on the N. by the Vaagen and the Byfjord 
S.E. by the Lungegaardsvand, and S.W. by the Puddefjord. In 
the background rise the 'seven hills' which form the cognisance of 
the city (formerly seven balls): the Sandviksfjeld (1286 ft.) to the 
N., Blaamanden (1854 ft.) with the Fleifjeld (985 ft.) to the N.E., 
Vlriken (2113 ft.) to the S.E., Levstaken (1558 ft.) to the S., JDam- 
gaardsfjeld (932 ft.) with the Lyderhorn (1300 ft.), to the S.W.; 
and Askefjtld to the W. The climate is mild and humid, like that 
of the W. coast of Scotland ; the rainfall is 72 inches (in the Nord- 
fjord about 35 in., at Ohristiania 26 in. only) ; winter frosts are 
slight and short; the mean temperature of the year is 45° Fahr. 
(Ohristiania, 41°), and that of July 58° (Ohristiania, 62°). The 
vegetation in the environs is rich ; flowers abound, while grain and 
fruit ripen fairly well. 

The town extends round the spacious harbour, called Vaagen, 
back to the rocky spurs of the Fleifjeld, and over the peninsula of 
Nordnas, which separates the Vaagen from the Puddefjord, and is 
now spreading S. and E. towards the Lille and Store Lungegaards- 
vand. The quarters next the harbour, with its large warehouses 
('Stfgaarde'), alone retain a mediaeval stamp. The houses here are 
still timber-built, and painted white. The streets are called 'Gader', 
the lanes and passages 'Smug' or 'Smitter', and the large squares 
or open spaces 'Almenninge'. Bergen has been repeatedly burned 
down, as in 1702, a disaster described by Peter Dass (p. lvi) in 
three poems. A water conduit from the Svartediget (p. 137) now 
diminishes the danger. 

The inhabitants of Bergen and of the districts of Nordhorland, 
Sendhorland, and Voss are noted for their vivacity and sociability. 
'Live and let live' is the burden of one of their old songs. 

Bergen (from Bjergvin, 'pasture on the hills') was founded by Olaf Kyrre 
about 1075 on the E. side of the present harbour, which once ran inland 
to the cathedral. The town must soon have become important, as the 
greatest battles in the civil wars of the following centuries were fought 
near it. In 1135 Magnus Sigurdssem was captured and deprived of his 
sight here by Barald Oille, who in his turn was murdered by Sigurd 
Slembe the following year. In 1154 Harald's son Sigurd Mund was slain 
by his brother Inge on the quay of Bergen and in 1164 Magnus Erling sttn 
was crowned king here. In 1181 a naval battle was fought near the 

Torv Almenning. BERGEN. 20. Route. 133 

( ZV% «■„ Te " yea f IatCT - t -in g at the e S o n -S 1 ed b C e ge °n f summed 
the nvti Bjerkelener, under //aaicm Jarl and ftfc,- 8 wwr ,,,H2» 
under PMlipp Jarl and £rto<, » e f, itI ^, fought fofpSssioV £ the 

llZtnJX^Vo ^r^w^lrrec^ni^lrxTii, '* ^"^ * M * 0B 

T . 4 r F r?J \ tS i,° S lm ^l i f 1 P™ sperity , the town wa « indebted to the Hanseat 10 
League, which established an office here in 1445. Having wrested virion, 
privileges from the Danish government, the German mefchan ts erlduaHv 

HsbT X' Duich^afd I' "* W U»°™y. »1 fordhlfexclu^Eng 7 
iibo, ocoitisn, Lnitcn, ana even the Norwep-ia-n irndo^ i\.«, +■ • ^ b 

rp v^^v^? iu , a ^ffifttcc.; 
s^.r'S-ttira.^^. ^ "^ r^ir a * 

room at the back with a fire-place. Each wapesfded over by a^BvT 
herre', and was divided into several 'Stuer' or senarate Hw.iLt- y T g 
order t0 k eep the Bergen 'Comptoir dependent ift i& of 

»^x^- d P ^s ?^~L*&x: z££ 

pop^^fS'ch^st^iar beBinninS ° f the 19th -ntVer^^afm^ 
»nd Tn e *- F ' SH T E \ DE ha ? ever been the ch!ef source of Bergen's wealth 
and CwSnad 6 'lYYiv' 6 °1 ? e gr ° WiDg competition^ laTe^ 
[W^S eVing^) , ^en^e 'o^Ma. ^o^Ivf ^ 

gs-ESs? .sa^.^^j^ h^^-iiuf^ 

('Rogn'); and in July and August theV bring 'KHpfisk' and '^nV?«£ 

fnTfh - h d a - *", '^f St . me ™ antll « fleet "n g No^rv%: e nd 28 ^ ^mer S 7 
Ship-building also flourishes, as at Georaernes Verft on tw P,,/fJ T™- j 

The main street is the Steand-Gade (PJ. B, C 2 31 narallpi 
with the harbour containing the principal shops and offices, fits 
W. prolongation leads to the Nordnajs; see p. 134.) 

At the E. end of the Strand-Gade lie the Torv and Tobv- 
A™ IN g (PI. 0, 3), running S. from the E. end of the harbour 

flre oM8^ fr %"VT ** "^ qUarter built since *° 

Torv a, • "! the Exchan ^ and ^veral large hanks. The 

lorv-Almenmng 1S adorned with a Statue of Christie fPl 3 pqi 
president of the first Norwegian Storthing in 1814 To theN in 
front of the Ex >hange, rises a Statue of Ludvig Hoi JerofPl 7 C SI 
the poet (b. at Bergen 1684, d. at Copenhagen 1754 p IvO J ' 
From the Torv, at the head of the harbour, projects a wooden pier 
called Triangelen, at which the fishing-boats land. Interesting 
fish-market (especially Wed. and Sat., 8-10 a.m.). On the N th! 
Torv 1B bounded by the Meat Market (Kjedbazar) on the first floor 

12 2 It ^ * n Lihmr l <9 °' m VOls - lading-room ope, 
12-2 and 5-8) - N.E. runs the Vetrlids-Almenning and S E the 
Kong-Oskars-Gade, see p. 136. 6 

134 Route 20. BERGEN. Bergenhus. 

To the N.W. of the Torv extends the *Tydskebrygge (PI. C, 2), 
oi the German Quay, where the northern fishing-smacks land (see 
above). Originally built of wooden piles, it was replaced by a stone 
quay in 1900, and stone warehouses were elected in place of the 
old timber-built gaards of the Hanseatic League. Of these, how- 
ever, the one next the Torv, the Finnegaard, has been preserved 
and converted into a Hanseatic Museum (PI. C, 2). 

The Hanseatic Museum (daily, 10-6 in June, July, Si Aug., 3-4 the rest 
of the year; Sun., 12-1 \ adm. 1, catalogue 1 kr.) shows how the gaards 
were fitted up, and contains a collection of furniture, weapons, etc., mostly 
of the latest Hanseatic period. On the Grodnd Floor were the ware- 
houses; on the First Floor an ante-room led to the l Stue\ or office of 
the manager, with his dining-room and bedroom behind ; on the Second 
Floor were the 'Klaven', or rooms of the clerks and servants ('Byl0bert. 
In the court at the back, adjoining 0vie Gade, there was a common 
room ('Skjtftstue'), where alone light and fire were allowed, and where 
the residents held social intercourse, especially on winter-evenings. 

The Mariakirke (PI. C, 2),' with its two towers, erected in the 
12th cent., enlarged in the 13th, was the Hanseatic church from 
1408 to 1766, and German services were held in It down to 1£68. 
The nave is Romanesque , the choir Gothic ; the pulpit with its 
numerous figures and the altar date from the 17th cent. The ad- 
jacent Cemetery contains German tombstones, ancient and modern. 

The Tydskebrygge is continued N.W. by the Fastningsbrygge 
(PI. B, 1, 2), the quay of the deep-sea steamers. The entrance to 
the harbour here is defended by the old fortress of — 

Bergenhus (PI. B, 0, 1, 2), with the Rosenkrants-Taarn and 
the Haakonshal (free, 11-1 ; entered from the Fastningsbrygge, near 
Brodbamken). The Rosenkrants or Valkendorfs Tower, originally 
built by Haakon Haakonssen, extended by Rosenkrants in 1565, 
and restored in 1848, consists in fact of two towers, of which the 
N. is the later. Several balls built into the walls and gilded recall 
an attempt of English ships to capture the Dutch fleet which had 
sought refuge in the harbour in 1665. The interior of the tower 
serves as an arsenal (adm. 25 0.). The top (bad winding staircase) 
affords a fine survey of the harbour and the town. Behind this 
tower is the Haakons Hal, of the 13th cent., with a large festal hall 
(restored). — Above the fortress are the scanty remains of the 
ancient Sverresborg (PI. C, 1). 

On theS.W. side of the harbour, between it and the Puddefjord, 
the peninsula of Nordnses (PI. A, 1, 2) projects far into the sea. 
It is crowned by Fort Frederiksberg, now the fire-watch. On the 
N.W. side of the fort are the Observatory, thn Seamen's School, and 
the Hospital. The conspicuous brick building on the N. side is 
the Semandshus, an asylum for old sailors and their widows. At 
the end of the peninsula are promenades with benches and view. 

A new quarter with broad regular streets has sprung up around 
the Lille Lungcgaardsvand (PI. C, 3, 4). On the W. side of this 

Museums. BERGEN. so Route. 135 

lake lies the small Town Park, where a band plays on week-days 

in summer, 12.30 to 1.30, and usually also 8-11 p.m. To the W 

of the park, between the Grand Cafe (PI. x) and the Norge Hotel 

[VI. a), rises a Monument to Ole Bull, the violinist ("1810-80") by 

Mephan Sinding, erected in 1901. On the rock-pedestal a northern 

lairy is playing on a harp, over which water trickles. 

To the S. of the Town Park is the Vestlandske Museum f PI C 31 

built b> r Hen,. Bucher in 1894-97, with a bronze statue 'of' the 

painter Dahl (p. lix), by Ambrosia Tonnesen, on the facade. 

11 1 Tnfh ?"• °" tb , e left is the Fish <»*« Museum (Sun., Wed , Frid 
11-2; at other times apply at the office of the Fisheries Co entered 

SSS^&xS*? ™»™?-°^- - On the right ?s a^ermS 

wood-carvings of the 15-18th cent, gold and silver plate, porce ?n C 
SFSS SSU'SSr^ « ta *"'* ««™ orna^tcW^r 

On the Second Floob is the Picture Gallery (daily 11-12 free • 
20*.): paintings by Bodom, Eckersberg, Tiddand, Onde, Yordenbera flat 
mussen, FrjtzTAaulow, etc. Among earlier works we note: 272 A RMenas 
Cartoon of the Entombment; 319. Co-stens, The people of EUgen setS 
to purchase freedom from Holstein (drawing) - Here also i, tyTfJ 
hibition of the Art Union {Kunstforening ; daily 11-127 50 /) 

The Cheisties-Gadb runs S. between the Vestlandske Museum 
and the Railway Station, past the Rom. Cath. Church of St Paul 
to the Sydnashouy, a hill on which rises the — ' 

Bergenske Museum (PI. 0, 4), containing antiquarian and natural 
imFI c ^t ctl0na and a Ubrary. The central block was erected in 
l»t>0 by Nebelong, the wings were added in 1897-98 by Sparre 
Adm daily, 11-2 and 4-6 ; 25 0. on Tues., Thurs, Sat. ; other days free' 

the Gkodnd and Sunk- Flooks contain Norse Antiquities fe-ood 
catalogue with illustrations, by Lorange, 50 .), chiefly fromW Norwav 
]VclZ tra nce - ha11 * s a . la ^ e model of the old Hanseatic quar°e7 on 
the German Quay; on the right, two carved church-portals from the Sorrne 

oak' of'th'elfirn^'^f 1 Vf and f 1 . 6 *™"' a fi ™ ■".£&£ i» carded 
vf»w. cent, tankards, porcelain, carved furniture (largely Dutch)- 

views map. and plans of Bergen; souvenirs of Ole Bull (see above)- 
prehistoric and ethnographical curiosities. - The Natueal Hihtort Co^ 
lection (first and second floors; catalogue 25 0.) comprises a verv cl 

bacS %%ZsT*Z S : ^otho^a Vnic^Hair »££££ 
and tombstones, the model of a prehistoric tomb, etc. oautastenar 

m, ^^"l 1° *^ W ' 0f the muse im rises the conspicuous 
Church of St John (Pi. B, C, 4), a large Gothic brick building 
erected in 1890-93 from plans by H. Backer, with altar-piece 
(Christ m the desert) by Gronvold. 

To the E. of the museum is a pleasant villa quarter, through 
winch we pass to the Nygaards Park (PI. C, 4, 6), with fine views 
Wear the entrance, on the left, is a bautaBten in memory of the 
founders of the park. On the S. side of the grounds, opposite 
Holmen, are a pavilion where a band plays (Sun., 5-7) and a cafe' — 

136 Route 20. BERGEN. Environs. 

Outside the S. gate of the park, on a bay of the Solheimsvik, is an 
Aquarium (PI. C, 5; Danielssen's Biological Station; open daily, 
except Sat., from May till the end of August, 11-2 and 4-7; 20 0.). 
The salt-water tanks outside contain seals, dolphins, etc. 

We may return by tram (p. 131) from the neighbouring Nygaards-Bro 
(PI D 5) Under it is the Store Strem, connecting the StoTe Lungegaardsvand 
with the' Solheimsvik and the Puddefjord. The tide flows through this strait. 

The Torv is prolonged to the N.E. by the Vetrlids Almenning. 
Between them, to the S.E., opposite the meat-market (p. 133), runs 
Kong-Oskars-Gade (PI. 0, D, 2, 3). Here rises the Korskirke (PI. 
C, 3), or Church of the Cross, founded about 1170 but rebuilt in 
1593,' containing a memorial stone of the Norwegians who fell in 
the naval battle of the Alv» (16th May, 1808). — Farther S.E. is 
the Cathedral (PI. D 3; St. Olaf i Vaagsbunden, i.e. 'at the end 
of the harbour'), originally a monastery-church, erected in 1248, 
rebuilt in 1537, and restored in 1870. It consists of a nave and 
S. aisle only. Fine Gothic windows and portal in the lower story 
of the tower. — The Kong-Oskars-Gade (tramway, see p. 131) then 
passes the Technical School (PI. 11), near which the new railway 
station is being built, and ends at the Stadsport (PI. D, 3; built 
about 1630). On the right and left of this lie the old cemeteries 
of Bergen. 

Outside the Stadsport runs the Kalfarvei (PI. D, E, 3, 4), with 
its old plantations and remarkably luxuriant gardens, sheltered by 
the hill rising on the left. On the right are the Pleiestiftelse, a 
hospital for lepers, and the Lungegaards Hospital (PI. E, 4). A little 
farther on is Kalfaret, the tramway terminus (p. 131). 

The best view of Bergen and environs (finest by morning-light) 
is obtained from the *Fjeldvei (PI. D-F, 2-4), a road halfway up 
the wooded Fleifjeld (p. 132). We reach it in lD-20 min. either 
from the Vetrlids- Almenning (PI. C, 2; tram station; p. 131; No. 1) 
or from the Kalfarvei (PI. E, 4; see above). From the Kalfarvei 
there are two routes : one, rather steep, opposite the Pleiestiftelse; 
the other, easier, but longer, ascends from the tram-terminus (p.131; 
No. 2), passing the Cafe Bellevue (p. 131). The finest point is 
marked by a rounded terrace with benches (384 ft. ; PI. D, 2), above 
the cathedral. The N. prolongation of the Fjeldvei descends the 
Skradderdal to the suburb of Sandviken (P). C, D, 1), whence we 
return to the town by tram. The whole excursion takes II/2 nr - 

The view is more extensive from the *Fl«ien (984 ft. ; PI. D, 2), 
ascended in % hr. from the Fjeldvei by a winding road. On the 
top are a large iron vane, which has given its name ('Flei') to the 
hill, and a good Restaurant (p. 131). 

(best by evening-light). A path __. 
'Blaamand (1854 ft.), the most accessible of the hills round Bergen, com- 
manding a fine open view of the coast-islands and the open sea. 

Environs. BERGEN. 20. Route. 137 

We note also the view from the Cafe Knatten, 20 ruin, above 
Cafe Bellevue (comp. PJ. F, 4), where we overlook the lake Snarte- 
diget, enclosed by bare rocky hills. The Kalfarvei goes on to the 
Store Lungegaardsvand, and to Fleen and Mellendalen (PI. F, 5), 
near the new cemetery. From either place a steam-launch starts 
every V2 nr - for the Lille Lungegaardsvand. 

A trip may be taken from the quay of JYostet (PI. B, 3) by steam-ferry 
(every >/« hr. ; 5 0., after 9 p.m. 10 0.) across the Puddefjord to Lakse- 
vaag , with its large shipbuilding-yards and dry docks (p! 132). We then 
walk to the Gravdal at the foot of the Lyderhom (1300 ft.), which may 
be ascended, or else E. along the fiord, passing pleasant villas, to Solheims- 
viken (see below) and the Nygaards-Bro (PI. D, 5; p. 136). 

The ascent of "lavstaken (1526 ft.) from the tram-terminus at the 
Nygaards-Bro (PI. D, 5; p. 131) takes P/t hr. (there and back 3 hrs.). We 
cross the bridge, take the first road to the right in Solheimsviken (see below), 
and where it forks follow a path straight on ; after 5 min. we turn 
to the right, and, 100 paces farther, to the left, partly through wood; then 
by a good zigzag path to the top in li/ 4 hr. : Extensive panorama; from 
the height a few paces S. we descry the Folgefond to the S.E. 

Another good point of view is TJlriken (2113 ft.). Follow the road past 
the Store Lungegaards-Vand (see above) to (20 min.) its bifurcation; here 
turn to the left; in 1/4 hr., by a mill, ascend the path to the left, past 
several gaards, and then in zigzags, steeper, to (I1/4 hr.) the stone pyramid 
on the nearer top (1992 ft.). 

Pleasant drive (and back, 21/2 hrs. ; see p. 131) to the estate of Fantoft, 
with its beautiful grounds. An old 'Stavekirke' from Fortun (p. 77) was 
re-erected here in 1884, freely restored (but without any trace of a Lop, or 
open arcade ; comp. p. 28). The pavilion above commands a fine view of the 
Nordaasvand. (Birkelund, a good restaur., 5 min. from the church.) Fantoft is 
Viihr. from rail. stat. Fjetsanger (ask the way at station when arriving by rail). 

To Solslrand, a bathing-place near Os, see p. 138. 

Interesting trip by steamboat (pier by the Muralmenning, PI. 2; 
fare 30 0.) to the (1 hr.) AskjB (Inns Kongshaug and Ask), a large island in 
the Skjsergaard, N.W. of Bergen. Ascent of '/ 2 hr. to the 'Udsigf on the 
Dt/rteig ; superb view of sea and coast. 

21. From Bergen by Vossevangen to Myrdal (Oulsvik, 
Christiania) ; to the Hardanger Fjord; to the Sognefjord. 

Railway. (The W. section of the Bergen-Christiania line was opened 
as far as Vossevangen in 1882. For the E. section see R. 7.) To Trengereid 
V-ji hr. (fares 2.10, 1.90 kr.) ; to Vossevangen 31/2-4 hrs. (expr. 6.40, 4 25 kr • 
ordinary 5.30, 3.35 kr.); to Myrdal 6V4 hrs. (9 40, 6.30 or 7.80, 4.80 kr.). 
No first class. 

From Vossevangen, much-frequented Roads lead E. to Eide and Ulvik 
on the Hardanger Fjord (p. 141), and N. to Gudrangen on the Sognefjord 
(p. 142). A shorter route to the Hardanger is by the new road from 
Trengereid to Norheimsund (p. 140). A grand road leads from Myrdal to 
Fretheim on the Aurlands-Fjord (p. 144) ; but the steamboat times from 
Fretheim are less convenient than from Gudvangen. 

The railway (views mostly to the left, as far as Voss) passes 
through a short tunnel and crosses the Store Stram. — 2 Kil. 
Solheimsviken, the industrial S. suburb of Bergen (see above), lies 
on the bay of that name at the foot of the Lavstaken (see above). 
We pass several small lakes. 5 Kil. Fjesanger, with villas, on the 

138 Route 21. GARN.ES. From Bergen 

Nordaasvand (to Fantoft, see p. 137). — 8 Kil. Hop. Then a gradual 
ascent to — 

9 Kil. Nestun or Nedsttun (104 ft. ; Rail. Rest. ; Hot. Nestun), 
near the marble quarries of Midtun. The high level of the line affords 
a view to the left across the Nestunsvand to the slopes of Ulriken. 
Near Nestun is Troldhaugen, formerly the seat of E. Grieg, the 
composer (d. 1907), now that of his widow. 

Bbanch-Railwai' from Xestun to (20 Kil.) Os or Oseren (Nilsen's Hot., 
Elvig's Hot.), on the Bierneftord, 3 A M. from the "Solstrand Hotel <t Seabath 
(Engl, spoken; pens. 5-6 kr.), pleasant for some stay. Fine view over the 
fjord to the.Folgefond (p. 120). Excursions to Hatviken, the Lysekloster(\>. 117), 
and the Ulvenvand. — We may return to Bergen hy steamer (Com. 292). 

We cross the Nestun-Elv by a high bridge (views right and 
left), turn N.E. into the pretty Langedal, and ascend through two 
tunnels and twice across the river. 15 Kil. Heldal, a little S. of 
the Grimenvand. "We pass through two tunnels, and skirt the 
Haukelands-Vand. 18 Kil. Haukeland (269 ft). Then a descent, 
with a good view of the torrent issuing from the lake. 

25 Kil. Arne (65 ft.), with its church, at the S. end of the 
Arnevaag, a narrow creek of the Serfjord. 

29 Kil. Garnees (65 ft. ; Rail. Rest.~), on the Serfjord. Opposite 
rises the church of Haus on the large Ostere. The engineering of 
the line on the bank of the Serfjord is very interesting. Many 

39 Kil. Trengereid (50 ft.; quarters at M. Trengereid' s) is the 
starting point of the new road to Norheimsund (p. 140; skyds may 
be ordered beforehand by telephone to meet train). To the S. rises 
the Gulfjeld (3235 ft.; ascent and back 5 hrs.; extensive panorama; 
guide 4 kr.). 

By the Raunip (2471 ft.), which the train rounds, the Serfjord 
is only 550 yds. wide. Opposite are the church of Brudvik and 
the Brudviksnip (2674 ft.). On tbe Olsnazs-0 is a school. We cross 
the Vaxdals-Elv, which has a fall above the bridge (right) and 
drives a large mill lower down. 51 Kil. Vaxdal (50 ft. ; Rail. Rest.). 
Several tunnels ; the longest pierces the Hattaparti. 

59 Kil. Stanghelle. We leave the Serfjord, cross the Dalevaag, 
skirt the W. bank of that long narrow creek, and ascend the Dals- 
Elv. Steep rocks on the right. 

66 Kil. Dale (Rail. Rest. ; Gullachsens Hot), with large cloth- 
factories, lies at the mouth of the Bergsdal. 

A good road, passing through several tunnels, lea'ls from Dale by 
(6 Kil.) Fosse, the hiehest gaard in the Bergsdal, to the flieixmd. Thence a 
rough path by the Lien-8mLer and Redland to the (20-22 Kil.) HamUgre Hotel, 
on the S. hank of the HamUqrexand (1940 ft.; 8 M. long: fishing). Thence 
to the Fiksensund, see p. 121. 

Beyond Dale nine tunnels; the Hyvingen Tunnel is 1414 yds. 
long. Charming views of the Bolstad-Fjord between those. The 
train 'skirts its S. bank. 

to Myrdal. VOSS. 21. Route. 139 

78 Kil. Bolstad (29 ft.), at the E. end of the fjord, enclosed 
by rocky hills. — Eight tunnels. "We ascend the left bank of the 
Vosse-Elv, and then skirt the S. bank of the Evangervand. Fine 
views of the wooded hills all the way. Near Evanger, to the left, 
lies Fadncts, at the month of the Tejdal (p. 146). 

88 Kil. Evanger (50 ft.; Monsen's Hot., well spoken of), at the 
head of the lake. The village and church lie on the opposite bank 
of the Vosse-Elv, which here falls into the Evangervand. To the, 
S. towers the Myklethveitvete (3740 ft. ; ascended from Evanger in 
2-3 hrs. ; extensive view; guide, Jakob A. Evanger). 

We follow the left bank of the Vosse-Elv, cross it, and pass 
through a short tunnel to (913 Kil.) Bolken, at the efflux of the 
Vosse-Elv from the Vangsvand (148 ft.). A suspension -bridge 
crosses to Liland's Hotel (good). 

From Bolken by Grimestad and Skjeldal to the Bamlegrevand and 
thence to the Fiksensund (Hardanger, 9-10 hrs.), see p. 122. 

Skirting the N. bank of the Vangsvand, we see, to the S., the 
long crest of Oraasiden (4273 ft), partly snow-clad. 

108 Kil. Voss. — Railway Station to the W. of the village. 

Hotels. "Fleischek's Hot., in an open situation outside the village 
immediately W. of the. station, often crowded, E. 2-3, B. l-f/2, dei (12 o'cl j 
2, D. (2n.m.) 21/2, S. (8p.m.)H/s, pens. 5V 2 -7 kr.; baths and Skyds-station. — 
1 the E. of the station, in the village, Vossevangens-Hot., by the church, 
R - IVi-^i B. or S. f/2, D. 2V4, pens. 4-5 kr. ; opposite, Pk^estegaard's Hot ' 
R. I1/4-IV2, B or S. IV4, D. 2 kr. ; Michelsen's Hot., unpretending, at 
the upper end of the village, far from station. — Also lodgings, indicated 
by bills. — Engl. Ch. Sen. in the season. 

Post Office in the main street, about 150 yds. beyond the church — 
Telegraph and Telephone, opposite the church, to the N. 

Carriages and Skyds to (30 Kil.) Eide, (47 Kil.) Ulvik, (36 Kil.) Stal- 
heim, (48 Kil. 1 Gudvangen, usually engaged for the whole jnurney Carr 
and pair for 2, 3. 4 pers., to Eide 14, 16. 18 kr. : to Ulvik 24 28 32 k- • 
to Stalheim 16, 20, 24 kr. ; to Gudvangen 25, 30, 36 kr. (bargain advisable)! 

Voss or Vossevangen (177 ft), in a fertile region at the E. end 
of the Vangsvand. is the chief centre of traffic between the Har- 
d anger and the Soghefjord. The stone Church, in the middle of 
the village, dating from 1271-76, contains memorial tablets to 
pastors of the 17th and 18th cent., a candelabrum of 1733, and 
a Bible of 1589. L. Holberg, the poet (p. 133), was tutor at the 
parsonage in 1702. At the upper end of Voss the road divides: 
left to 'Gudvangen, Sogn'; right to 'Eide, Hardanger'. 

About 1/2 M. W. of Fleischer's Hotel, on the upper road diverging to 
the right from the Bergen road, is gaard Fin, near which is preserved 
the Finneloft, a timber-house built in 1300. ('Loft' or 'Bur' is a two- 
storied farm-house, as opposed to the 'Stue', or house of one story.) The 
lower story of the Finneloft is of solid timber, the upper in a, more ornate 
slyle. There is no inside staircase. The inferior contains a few rustic 
antiquities (adm. 10#.). 

Walk of H/2 hr. A path leads S. from the church, skirting the upper 
end of the Vangsvand, partly through pine-woods, to the (10 min.) Run- 
dals-Elv, the E. feeder of the lake, which we cross by boat. (5 0. each pers ) 
On the left bank we mount to the road ascending the hill, and follow 
it through wood and across a wooden bridge, and then in sharp winding- 

140 R.'JL — Mop, p. 138. MYRDAL. From Bergen 

to C/z hr.) the Cafi Breidablik . Fine view of Vossevangen and its environs. 

— The road continues to ascend to (3-4 Kil. from Breidablik) Herri and 
Rogn (about 4 Kil. further). 

A motor-boat plie3 on the Vangsvand. 

The ascent of the Ljanehorje (4672 ft.), N. of Voss, is easy and attract- 
ive (5 , there and back 8 hrs. ; guide 3 kr.). A road diverging from the 
Gudvangen road a few paces E. of the church of Vossevangen leads by 
Ringheim (p. 142) and Traae to the Klepsaeter. Thence a path ascends over 
pastures and loose stones, rough at places, to the S.W. summit, with a 
picturesque view of Vossevangen, and then across a slightly sloping snow- 
field to the higher E. summit, whence the view embraces the mountains 
N. to the Jostedalsbrse, E. to the Hardanger J0kul, and S. to the Folgefond. 

— Another grand view is obtained from the Hondalsnut (4783 ft. ; ascent 
also about 5 hrs.). 

From Voss, or from Bolken (p. 139), by Grimestad and Skjeldal (6 Kil. ; 
road thus far), to the Hamlegrevand and to ifstense on the Hardanger 
Fjord, see p. 121. 

The train crosses the effluent of the Lundarvand (left ; p. 142) 
by a handsome stone bridge and ascends, affording a view of the 
Hondalsnut (see above) to the right across the broad valley. Two 
tunnels. 113 Kil. Ygre. Then several tunnels in the Sverreskar 
ravine, which is said to be so named in memory of a perilous cam- 
paign of King Sverrir and his Bjerkebener (p. xlii) in a snowstorm 
in the autumn of 1177. We ascend to the Rundal, or Raundal, and 
follow the wooded valley , above the right bank of the winding 
Rundals-Elv. Numerous tunnels , with glimpses of the slopes of 
the Hondalsnut on the other side of the valley. 120 Kil. Grove, 
129 Kil. Reime, 138 Kil. Mjellfjell. To the left opens a view of the 
Rjoandedal, the effluent of which passes through a tunnel under the 
line. The valley contracts. To the right we see into the Slondal. 
Below the line lie the small Langvand and Rundvand. Trees cease. 

150 Kil. Opset or Opsmt (rustic Inn), in a lonely Mil -region, 
lies near the W. mouth of the Qravehals Tunnel, % l l% M. long, 
driven in 1897-1902 through the Vrhovd, the hill at the head of 
the Rundal. 

Toilsome passes from Opsset: up the Slondal (see above), and round 
the Skaarafjeld to TJlvik (p. 130; 9-10 hrs.); or up the Oangdal to the 
Vosseskavl (p. 130); then to the N. end of the Osefjord (p. 130; 10-12 hrs.). 

Beyond the tunnel we reach — 

156 Kil. Myrdal (Rail. Rest.), the highest region of the Flaams- 
dal (p. 144), amid wild scenery, on the N. slope of the Brjokfjeld. 
The Vatnahalsens- Hotel (2625 ft. ; R. 2, B. or S. IV2, D. 2 l / 2 ^-, 
good), 15-20 min. from the station, a good centre for excursions, 
has a grand view of the Flaamsdal, and also E. up the Myrdal, where 
the effluent of the Rejnunsvand forms the Kjosfos (electric works). 
Continuation of the railway, see pp. 41-39. 

From Trengereid, or Voss, to the Hardanger. 

From Trengereid to Norheimsund , 51 Kil., shortest land- 
route between Bergen and the Hardanger. (Skyds for one pers. 'J, 
2 pers. ID'/nkr-; corup. p. 137.) The road winds up between 

to Eide. GRAVENSVAND. Maps, pp. 7.W, 77,9.— 27. R. 141 

the Gulfjeld and the Kraaen (2142 ft.), with fine views of the 
Serfjord behind, crosses a high plateau, and descends in view of 
the Samnanger-Fjord. 

11 Kil. Aadland (Aadlands-Hot., R. li/ 2 , B. or S. li/<>, D. 
2i /4 kr -), prettily situated on the bay of that name in ihe"Sam- 
nanger-Fjord, where a Bergen steamer plies several times weekly 
(Com. 292). The road rounds the N. and E. banks of the fjord 
crosses the Egedals-Elv, and reaches — ' ' 

8 Kil. Tysse or Tesse (R0sseland's Hot. ), with its large woollen 
factory. We then ascend the valley of the Egedals-Elv, past the 
Frelandsvand and the Egedalsfos , 289 ft. high , to the Kvamshauu 
Hotel (D. 2 kr. ; good). 

12 Kil. Ekeland (1280 ft.), where horses are usually changed. 
We descend, with a fine view of the Folgefond (p. 120), through 
the ravine of *Tokagjelet, by a grandly engineered road with many 
tunnels, and down the beautiful Steimdal, past the 0fsthusfos, to — 

20 Kil. Norheimmnd, see p. 121. 

From Vossevangen to Eidb or TJlvik (3 hrs.', or 51/., hrs.' 
drive ; fares, see p. 139). The Hardanger road diverges at the upper 
end of the village to the right from the Sognefjord route (p. 142), 
crosses the Vosse-Elv, and ascends on the left bank of the river 
(in view of the Myrdal railway to the left), through beautiful wood- 
lands and past substantial gaards. It then enters a side -valley, 
passes gaard Male, and 11-12 Kil. from Voss reaches its highest 
point (873 ft.). It descends gradually and crosses the boundary of 
Hardanger. The Skjerve-Elv, flowing S., has its dark brown tint 
from a number of marshy ponds. The upper part of the valley ends 
suddenly, and the road descends in windings into *Skjervet, a 
deep and picturesque ravine flanked with huge rocks. On the 
left falls the Skjervefos in two halves, the upper veil-like in form. 
We cross a bridge between the two. Below the bridge is Ca/eFos- 
heim. Rich vegetation and many traces of old moraines. 

22 Kil. (pay 25 in opp. direction) 0vrt Vasenden or Seim (Nas- 
heim's Hot., veTy fair, R., B., S. each 1 kr.), at the N. end of the 
Gravensvand (95 ft.; 3 sq. Kil.; 282ft. deep), commands a fine 
view of the lake and of the massive (3248 ft ) to the 
S.W. The Oxen (p. 122) is visible to the S. 

The Road to Eidb skirts the E. bank of the lake, leaving to the 
left both branches of the Ulvik road (see below) and Qravens-Kirke. 
It is then carried by wooden viaducts and cuttings through the rock 
past the lower end of the lake, and lastly through the rocky ravine 
of the Gravens-Elv, to — 

8 Kil. Eide (p. 122). 

The Road to LTj.vik from 0vie. Vasenden (3 hrs.' drive, 4'/ 2 hrs.' 
walk; times given refer to walking), which will repay' walkers, 

142 R.21, — Map, p. 119. TVINDE. From Voss 

diverges to the left from the Eide road V4 ur - from N/esheim's Hotel 
and ascends in a curve. Beyond a stone bridge over the feeder of 
the Gravensvand it is joined by the road from Gravens-Kirke, used 
by travellers from Eide. Walkers may cut off the next long bend. 
We ascend the valley, above the left bank of the stream. After 
3/ 4 hr. we pass gaard Dale, on the opposite side of the valley. In 
20 min. more we reach the top of the hill (1125 ft.), where the 
Skavskarnut towers to the left and a marshy brook flows down both 
sides of the pass. Here we have a fine view S.E., between the Sotenut 
(l.J and the K jarring field (r.), of the Vasfjaeren (p. 130). In front 
lies the Espelandsvand (1125 ft.), the JN. bank of which the road 
now skirts, passing the Espelandsgaard. To the left, in the de- 
pression between the Skavskarnut and the Sotenut, is a flue water- 
fall, the outflow of which is crossed by the road. As we near the 
end of the Espelandsvand the snow-clad Onen (p. 1'29) appears in 
the background to the right. Beyond the Espelandsvand lies the 
little Stokkevand, drained by the Tyssaa, which we cross 1 hr. from 
the top of the hill. To the right diverges a road to the Leining-Sieter. 
The main road goes straight on, crossing to the left bank at (20 min.) 
a saw-mill, and recrossing in 20 min. more. Below the bridge the 
river forms the pretty Verafos and plunges into a deep ravine. The 
Vasfjarreu again appears in front, above wooded hills. In */4 nr - 
more we suddenly come upon a delightful *View of the Ulviksfjord 
and the mountains around it. Below lies the church of Ulvik. The 
road descends the Hyllaklev in long windings, some of which walkers 
may cut off, and again crosses ( 3 / 4 hr.) the Tyssaa, with its tine 
cascade (saw-mill). 

22 Kil. (pay for 29; from Eide for 32) Ulvik (p. 130 j. 

From Vossevangen or from Myrdal to the Sognefjord. 

From Vossevangen to Gudvangen, 48 Kil., a drive of 5-0 hrs. 
(fares, see p. 139), partly pleasant for walking. The road ascends 
gradually, passes under the railway, and skirts the W. side of the 
Lundarvand. On the left, above, 2 Kil. from Voss, is gaard Ring- 
heim (p. 140). A rich wooded and grassy region. To the left towers 
the abrupt Lcnehorje (p. 140), on the right theHondalsnut (p. 140), 
behind us the Graasiden (p. 139). We pass the small Melsvand, on 
the opposite bank of which is seen gaard Dukstad (past which runs 
another road from Voss, joining ours at Tvinde), and the Lenevand, 
4 Kil. long. By gaard Lene is (left) the Lenefos. coming from the 
Lemehorje and driving a saw-mill. We then ascend the Vossestrands- 
Elv, the feeder of the two lakes. An iron bridge to the right crosses 
to gaard Grotland. A drive of 13/ 4 hr. from Voss brings us to — 

12 Kil. Tvinde or Tvinne i Voss (312 ft.; Tvinde's Hotel, D. 
2 kr., good). On the left is the fine *Tvindefos. The road, now 
steeper, will repay walker.-. The valley is shut in by lofty wooded 

to the Sognefjord. STALHEIM. Map,p.U4.-~ 21. R. 143 

slate rocks. About 2 Kil. above Tvintle the Vossestrands-Elv forms 
a picturesque fall, which the road crosses by the Asbrakke-Bro 
(436 ft. ; we descend cautiously a few paces to see it). About 4 Kil. 
farther up, the road returns to the right bank; it passes several 
gaards and crosses two large streams from side-valleys on the left. 
The second of these, about 1 Kil. from Vinje, is the Merkadals- 
Elv, up which a path leads by Aarmot to Vik on the Sognefjord 
(10-12 hrs. ; p. 146). The valley expands. 

10 Kil. Vinje i Vossestranden (738 ft. ; * Vinje 's Hotel, K. H/a-2, 
B. or S. iy 2) D- 2 kr.), in a pleasant site, not far from Vinje-Kirke, 
l'/4 nr - by carr. from Tvinde. View of the Lanehorje (p. 140) S.W. 

The road ascends the course of the river, through a ravine, 
to the S.W. end of (3 Kil. from Vinje) the Opheimsvand (955 ft • 
"'Framnas hotel, li. 2, B. li/ 2 , I). 2i/ 4 kr. ; Engl. Ch. Serv. in' 
Aug.), a lake abounding in fish, and skirts its N.W. bank. Above 
the wooded hills of the opposite bank tower mountains of light grey 
syenite, producing a curious effect. To the S. rises the Malma- 
yrensnaave (3610 ft.). The church of Opheim and the Opheim Hotel 
(K. 172-2, B. or S. 1.40, D. 2 kr., good) are prettily situated on the 
lake, about 4 Kil. from Vinje. A tablet on the right, 20 min. 
farther, is in memory of two Americans who lost their lives here in 
a carriage accident. 

Beyond the Opheimsvand we cross the watershed between the 
Bolstad and Sogne Fjords. On the right, the Aaxeln; then, the 
Kaldafjeld (4265 ft.). We follow the left bank of the Nceredals- 
Elv, which descends to the Sognefjord, and then ascend in a curve 
high above the stream, to the — ' 

14 Kil. Hotel Stalheim (1122 ft.; It. 2-2V 2 , B. or S. 17 2 , I). 
272 kr.), at the top of the Stalheims-Klen, an'abrupt rock about 
820 ft. high, at the head of the Naredal. The **View of the deep 
and sombre valley, and the huge mountains right and left, is one 
of the grandest in Norway (afternoon light best). On the left towers 
the blunted cone of the Jordahnut (3610ft. ; see below) ; on the right 
the Kaldafjeld and Aaxeln (see above), all of light-grey syenite. In 
the distance the background is formed by thehili from which falls the 
Kilefos near Gudvangen (p. 151). We also enjoy a fine view, S., of 
the broad valley towards Opheim, whose river forms the Stalheims- 
fos; but the fall only comes in sight as we descend into the Nawadal 
(p. 152). 

The hill rising N.W. of the hotel is the Stalheimmut, to the E. of which 
a narrow road ascmds a valley N. to (10 min.) gaard Brakke. Here to 
the right diverges a line, but rough mountain path, called "NaaUne. It 
descends a Utile, then crosses the gorge whence issues the Sjvlefos (p. 1521 
and skirts the heights, affording a superb view of the ravine of Stalheim 
i.".. K , we may return - The P atu goes on to gaard Jordal, from 
which the Jordahnut (see above; may be ascended (with K uide; Anders 
Osen Gudvangen or Ole Myren). _ The asc^t of the Hr^kempa takes 
Ohis , there and back; guide 3kr. r 

144 Route 25. SOGNEFJORD. 

From Stalheim to Gudvangen, 12 Kil., repaying also for pedes- 
trians (2V4-2 3 / 4 hrs.; seep. 152; Stolkjserre for 1 pers. 2.04, for 
2 pers. 3.06 kr.; carr. for 2, 3, 4 pers. 9, 10, 12 ki.). The steep 
winding descent to the floor of the valley must he made on foot. 

Myrdal and Vatnahalsens Hotel, see p. 140, and comp. Map, 

p. 43. 

The Road to the Aurlandsfjobd (20 Kil. ; downhill, 2 1 / 2 -3hrs.' 
walk) vies in heauty with the Stalheim route. It descends the 
steep slope in sixteen loops to gaard Kaardal, where a path from 
Opsat (p. 140) comes from the left. We cross the pretty Kaardals- 
fos by an iron bridge and descend the narrow *Flaamsdal. Beyond 
a tunnel of 132 yds. and gaard Melhus the road crosses the stream 
and runs at some height on the left bank. Gaard Berekvam lies 
below on the right. The valley expands. Cuttings through the 
rocks have disclosed several large glacier cauldrons. The road is 
carried to the right bank by the Hegabro. High up on the W. slope 
of the valley, to the left, is the fine Riondefos. In a long bend the 
road then descends to the lowest section of the valley, where the 
church of Flaam lies. Lastly a nearly level stretch of about 3 Kil. 
to Fretheims Hotel (p. 152). 

22. The Sognefjord. 

The distance by sea from Bergen to Zcerdalseren at the E. end of the 
fjord (starting-point of the Valders and Hallingdal routes to Christians, 
KR. 8, 7) is 31 Norwegian sea-miles in a straight direction. The Steamboats 
take 151/2-24 hrs., according to the stations called at. They are well fitted 
up and have good restaurants (B. 1.40 kr., D. 2 kr.), but berths are limited . 
Those who have to sleep on board should secure a sofa or a caDin. 
(Comp. p. xviii.) 

The *Sognefjord ('Sogne', a narrow arm of the sea), the longest 
of the Norwegian fjords, measures 180 Kil. (112 M.) from Sogne- 
fest to Skjolden, averages 6 Kil. (4 M.) in width, and is 4000 ft. 
deep at places. Like all the other fjords , it is unattractive at its 
entrance, where the rocks have been worn smooth partly by the 
action of the waves and partly by the enormous glaciers which once 
covered the whole country. The scenery improves as we go E., un- 
til the fjord ends in a number of long narrow arms, with banks 
rising abruptly at places to 4900 ft., from which waterfalls descend. 
At the heads of the N. branches of the fjord appear the glaciers 
covering the plateau (Jostedalsbras , p. 157). In other parts of the 
fjord the narrow banks smile with orchards, corn-fields, and pleasant 
dwellings. In grandeur the Sognefjord surpasses the Hardanger, 
but the scenery of the latter is softer and richer, and its famous 
waterfalls are superior. 

Nowhere in Norway is the rapid decrease of the rainfall from W. 
to E. so marked as in the Sognefjord. At Sognefest, at the entrance 
to the fjord (see p. 145), thr annual rainfall is about 60 inches, on 

/ I /Clfe* 

Lardad.4 Si .$ _ 

fij' S •3 >L-« T'-- _&§ "^v a 

Soynefjord. VADHEIM. 22. Route; 145 

the Fjserlandsfjord (56 M. from the coast) 42, on the Nsrofjord 
(70 M.) 26, on the Lysterfjord (80 M.) 16, and at Lardal (87' M.) 
13 inches only. In the E. branches of fjord the climate resembles 
that of inland Europe, with short warm summers and long winters, 
in which, however, these arms are only partly frozen over. 

The following description follows the order of the stations of 
the Nonlre Bergenhusamt's steamers, but their routes vary. One line 
starts from Bergen (Com. 299), the other (Com. 300) confines itself 
to the fjord. The distances between the stations are given in Nor- 
wegian sea-miles (cornp. p. 107). 

a. The W. Sognefjord to Balholm and the Fjasrlandsfjord. 

Bergen Steamboat (Com. 299) five times a week, by Vadheim (G'A-ii lirs • 
(are 7-80 kr.), to Balholm (Balestranden) in 9-20 hrs. (10 20 kr ) Fare from 
Bergen to Lierdal 12.60 kr. — The Fjokd Steamer (see p. 149) plies only 
once weekly between Vadheim and Balholm (in 3 hrs. ; fare A kr.). 

Bergen, see p. 130. The voyage to the mouth of the Sognefjord 
is of little interest. It carries us through the 'Skjsergaard' fringin." 
the district of Nord-Horland, which with SOTid-Horland (p. 116) 
formed the ancient Herdafylke. Beyond the low bare hills in the 
foreground, worn by glaciers, rise the high mountains in the 
distance. The steamer threads some very narrow straits. 

First come Alverstrem and Lygren, rarely touched at. More im- 
portant is Skjmrjehavn, at the N. end of the Sande. Then Eivind- 
vik or Evenvik, on the small Gulenfjord, the old meeting-place of 
the Oulathing. This was one of the four great Norse 'Things' or 
popular assemblies (Frostathing, Gulathing, Borgarthing, Eid- 
sifathing) abolished by King Magnus Lagabetir (p. xlii). 

At the mouth of the Sognefjord lie the 8ulen-0er, the 'Sol- 
undare' of Frithjof's Saga, a group of islands with hills rising to 
1840 ft. (5 Kil. to the left). 

On the mainland, to the right, lies the station of Sognefest or 
Sygnefest, to the E. of which rises the Stanglandsfjeld. 

On the N. bank we see the Lihest (2470 ft.). Here are the 
stations of Befjord and Lervik. Beyond the headland of Varholm 
lies Ladvik or Lavik, the chief place in the W. Sogn district, with 
a church. 

On the S. bank lie Brakke, on the small Risnefjord, and Trcedal 
or Tredal, on the Eikefjord; then Bjordal, in the picturesque 
Fuglsatfjord, overlooked by the conical Graafjeld. The steamers 
do not always call at all these stations. 

We now steer N. into the pleasant Vadheimsfjord. 
19 S.M. (from Bergen) Vadheim {Vadheim's Hotel, R., B., or 
S. IY2, D. 2 i / , 4 kr.) lies at the mouth of two valleys, through the 
left one of which leads the route to the Nordfjord (p. 161). " 

On the rocky N. bank lies Kirkebe, with its church, a pretty 
place near the mouth of the Hejangsfjord. Then Maaren, with a 
Baedekeb's Norway and Sweden. 0th Edit. j[Q 

14(5 R.22. — Map,p.Ui. BALHOLM. Sognefjord. 

waterfall, and the small Lonefjord. Next, Ncese, or Nesse, and 
Sage, with a fine waterfall. 

On the S. bank lie Ortnevik and Sylvarnas or Selvarnas; then 
Neset, on the Arnefjord , with its fine mountain-background. At 
these places the steamers call once a week only. 

As we steer E., the scenery becomes more striking. The moun- 
tains, rising to over 3000 ft., assume picturesque forms and are 
clothed with vegetation, while snow-fields peep between them. The 
steamers call at Kvamse on the N. bank once weekly. We next 
steer S., round a headland at the mouth of the small bay of Vik, 
where we notice a 'Gilje' and other salmon-fishing appliances. 

7 S.M. Vik or Vihseren (Hopstock's Hot., good) lies in a fertile 
site at the mouth of two valleys, W. the Bodal, and E. the Ofriddal, 
with its branch the Seljedal. Snow-mountains form the background ; 
to the E. the Rambaeren (p. 149). The old churches of Hoperstad and 
Hove, the former a 'stavekirke' (p. 28) of the early 13th cent., the 
latter in stone, were both restored in 1891. 

From Vik we may drive inland about 8Kil., in one of three directions, 
to one of three mountain-passes (about 8 hrs. each) : — To Sialheim (p. 143 ; 
passing the Jordalsnut at the end of the route, fatiguing but interesting). — 
To Viiije i Vossestranden (p. 143; towards Aarmot the path is destroyed 
at places, a drawback for bad walkers, but we may drive the last 11 Kil. 
from Aarmot onwards, passing the Myrkedalsvand). — To Gulbraa in the 
Bxingdal (with guide), and on to Ncesheim (quarters); next day over the 
fjeld to (about 10 Kil.) Aarhus i Tejdalen, and byroad down the Tejdal to 
Fadnces on the Evangervand (p. 139). 

The Sognefjord here turns sharply to the N. In the distance, 
even from Vik, we see the Vetlefjordsbra (p. 147). The steam to 
Balholm takes about 8/4 hr. On our right lies Vangsncss, on a head- 
land where the fjord again turns E. The W. bank being the sup- 
posed scene of Frithjofs Saga, as rendered by Tegner, Vangsnaes 
is said to have been Frithjofs Framnas. 

2 S.M. Balholm. — Hotels (often crowded). 'Kvikne's Hotel, 
nearest the pier, R. lVz-3. B. or S. IV2, D. 2 l /i kr. ; "Hotel Balestrand, 
a few yards farther, R. 2-2Vs, B. 1, D. 2, S. IV2 kr., both with bath- 
houses in the fjord. — Physician, Dr. Ksster. — Boats at the hotels (50 0. 
per hr.). — Engl. Church Sen. in summer. 

Balholm, the chief place on the fertile and highly cultivated 
Balestrand, is beautifully situated to the S. of the mouth of the 
small Essefjord. Its well-wooded environs, its orchards of apple 
and pear trees, the view over the broad Sognefjord, and the pleasant 
walks invite to some stay. Norwegian, British, and German visitors 

A pleasant road, overlooking the fjord, leads from the hotels, 
past the English Church of St. Olaf (1897) and several houses, to 
(10 min.) a mound, with a large birch-tree and a modern 'bau- 
tasten', marking it as the tomb of King Bele of Frithjofs Saga 
(comp. above). The road goes on, shaded at places by tall trees, 
past the villas of the painters A. Norman, Hans Dahl, and others. 

Sognefjord. BALHOLM. Map, p. 144. — 22. R. 147 

Beyond the last, on the bank to the left, is (10 min.) a Laxvarp for 
catching salmon (rfmts. at the Hygea chalet). The hilly road ends 
at (1 hr. from the hotels) gaard Flesje, situated among fine trees 
on the fjord. 

Another pleasant walk is W. from the pier on the *Essefiord to 
(V2 nr the bridge over the effluent of the Essedal; or we may take 
a row (2-3 hrs.) on the fjord, with its superb girdle of mountains: 
to the N. the Toten (4593 ft. ; ascent & hrs.) ; then the Furunipa, 
separated by the sharp notch of Kjeipen from the snow-clad Ould- 
aple; farther on, the Vindreggen (3870 ft.) and Ojeiterygen ; and 
S.W. the Munkeggen (4118 ft. ; ascent 12 hrs.). 

A fine prospect is afforded by the hill above the Bale-Sceter, 
reached in li/ 4 hr. by a path, steep and stony at places. About 
75 paces beyond the Bele mound (p. 146) we cross the meadow 
to the right, between the houses ; then ascend on the left bank of 
the stream (not across it), through brushwood above the last houses, 
and to the right beyond the fence. The best point of view is about 
V2 hr. above the Bale-Saeter. 

To the N. of Balholm, on the other side of the mouth of the 
Essefjord, rises the prettily situated church of Tjugum. The good 
road, which leads to it from the landing-place, ascends past the 
parsonage, and, beyond (V4hr.) a path descending to the right, 
runs on at the same level, affording charming *Views of the FjEer- 
landsfjord and across the Vetlefjord, with the Jostedalsbrse in the 

From Balholm to Sande i Holmedal (two days). 1st Day. Eow to 
Svairen at the head of the Svcerefjord (see below; tolerable quarters); 
then ascend the valley gradually for about 3 Kil. ; mount a steep and rough 
path to the pass of Svmrskard (2297 ft. ; fine view of the Sognefjord be- 
hind); ascend a marshy slope to the watershed; descend past the Torences 
Salter (5 hrs. from Sveeren) to the Holme -Yand in the Viktdal; then 
partly through wood, past the Lange-Swter, across the river, and over 
marshy ground to Mjell (8-10 hrs. from Svseren). — 2nd Day. From Mjell 
bridle-path to gaard Hof; then down the Eldal to EldaUeren on the Tiks- 
vand (p. 162) ; ferry to Horsevik, and thence by road to Sonde (p. 162 ; in 
all, 3-4 hrs. on foot and 13/ 4 hr. by boat). 

The finest excursion from Balholm is to the Tjserlandsfjord, 
which runs inland, N. of Balholm (fjord-steamer to Fjarland daily 
in 2-3 hrs.), 26 Kil. long, nearly 2 Kil. broad in its S. and 1 Kil. 
in its N. half. Its banks are less abrupt than those of the Nser»- 
fjord (p. 151). The entrance is commanded by the Toten (see above) 
on the left and the Storhaugen (3200 ft.) and Trodalseggen (4627 ft.) 
on the right. 

To the left diverges a broad bay of the fjord, branching into the 
Svarefjord and the beautiful Vetlefjord. The steamer calls once a 
week at Ulvestad, at the head of the Vetlefjord. 

From Ulvestad a road ascends the valley to Melt, where we see the 
VetlefjordtbrtE descending from the Jostedalsbrse. The Melsnipa (p. 148) 
to the E. and the Ootopfjeld or Gotophest (5630 ft.) to the N. are said 
to command superb views. — From Mell a toilsome mountain-route leads 
to gaard Orening, near Haukedal (p. 163; 7-8 hrs., with guide). 


148 R.22. — Map,p.l4i. FJAERLAND. Sognefjord. 

After the steamer has rounded the headland of Menccs -we note 
on the right, above the Rommcdal, the Rommehest (4100 ft. ; ascent 
reputed easy), and on the left the Harevoldsnipa (5353 ft.) and the 
Melsnipa (5790 ft.), separated from the Jorddalsnipa by the Jord- 
daUdal, behind which appears the snowy Jostedalsbrae. We now 
obtain a *Vie-w of the head of the fjord with its background of 
snow and ice : first the Suphellebrse, then the Bejunisbrae ; but as 
we near the Mundal, the latter disappears. On the right lies gaard 
Berge, at the mouth of the Bergedal. (To Sogndal, see p. 150.) 

3 S.M. Fjaerland (* Mundals-Hot. , R. 1%-1, B. or S. li/ 2 , 1). 
21/4 kr. ; Engl. Ch. Serv. in summer), the steamboat- terminus, 
lies at the entrance to the broad Mundal, high up in which is seen 
the Jostedalsbrae. A granite tablet recalls King Oscar II. 's visit 
in 1879, and a 'bautasten', 19 ft. high, has been erected to Fru 
Pavels-Larsen, authoress of many tales in Sogn dialect. 

A visit to the glaciers which descend on both sides of the 
Skeidsnipa, a little N. of Fjaerland, into the Bvjumsdal and the 
Suphelledal, is interesting, but they are far more picturesque when 
seen from the steamer. We may drive to both glaciers. (Stolkjaerre 
to one, and back, in 3 hrs., one pers. 3 l /z, two pers. 4 1 /* kr. ; to 
both, and back, 5-6 hrs., 5 or 6 kr. ) The road skirts the W. bank 
of the fjord; at the end of it, on a hill to the right, is gaard Hor- 
pedalen, with a dashing torrent. To the left, farther on, we look 
into the Bajumsdal, with the Jostedalsbrae in the background. 
About 4Kil. from Fjaerland the road into that valley diverges to the 
left; that to the Suphelledal crosses the brook and goes straight on. 

The *B#jumsbree, the grander of the two glaciers, is P/4 hr. 
from the fork of the road. The road ascends the right bank, between 
the houses of Bejumsfmtenc and 0defjord, and ends at the Bejums- 
Sceter. Thence we ascend on foot, cross the stream, and in '/ 2 hr. 
reach the glacier (453 ft.). 

The *Store Suphellebrse, which descends furthest of all the 
glaciers in S. Norway (to 223 ft. above the sea), is also 13/ 4 hr. from 
the fork of the road. The road crosses the Bejums-Elv and ascends 
the Suphelledal, past the Suphelle Gaard, to a point about I1/2KH. 
N. of the gaard. Thence a walk of 10 mil), to the glacier. About 
480 ft. above its base the glacier is divided by a rock into two parts. 
Of these the upper only is united with the Jostedalsbrae ; the lower 
part is formed of masses of ioe which have fallen over the rock. 

The Vetle Suphellebras, which has the finest ice, is reached by the 
path to the right, 5 min. N. of the Suphelle Gaard, crossing the broad Elv, 
and leading over fallen rocks, which extend to the (2 hrs.) glacier. — 
A fatiguing walk hence (with guide and provisions) to (3'/2-4 hrs.) the 
Veitestrands&kar , then down the Snauedal t;> gaard SteUn, where the 
Snauedal joins the valley descending !o the Veitestrandsvand ; lastly down 
the latter valley to (4'/2-5 hrs.) Nordre Jfccs, at the N. end of the Veite- 
strandsvand (p. 155). 

The ascent of the Gretten (abiut 55£0 ft.), W. of Fjaerland, snd back 
takes 8-9 hrs. (guide 5 kr.). Superb view of the fjord and 1he J< stedalslise. 

Sognefiord. LEKANGER. Map, p. 144. — 22. R. 149 

In the Horpedal (p. US), to which we row in 20 mm., a good path 
leads in a/ 4 hr. to the picturesque Horpedalsfos. 

, ,2o r f n - d JP 3 ! 8 /? 68 from ^'^ri 111111 cross the Jostedalsee^l to Jujlstek 
(p. lod), in 9-10 hrs. (guide 10 kr.). Skirting the Bfljumsbra;, a good path 
ascends the Jakobbakkadn to the glacier in 2i/a hrs. ; we cross the latter 
(roped), past the Kvitevavde (about 4920 ft.), descend to (1V2-2 hrs ) the 
Troldvand, and then follow a recently improved path, through the wild 
ravine ot the LUndeskar, to (4i/a hrs.) Lunde (p. 164), whence we may row 
in 2i| 4 hrs. to Skej (two rowers, 4 kr.). — From Fjserland we may walk 
direct up the Mundal, pass hetween the Jostedalsbrte and the Jostefond, 
with the Seknesandsnipa (4964 ft.) on the W., and then descend through 
the Seknesandsskar to (10-12 hrs.) Seknesand. 

Guides at Fjserland : Mikkel S. Mundal (certificated), Join. Mundal Hans 
Beijum, Henrik Mundal, and Anders T. Mundal. 

b. From Balholm to Gudvangen. Aurlandsfjord and Nser«fjord. 

The Fjokd Steamer (Com. 3C0) plies hetween Balholm and Lserdal 
four times weekly, touching in both directions at Gudvangen (from Bal- 
holm 31/2-4 hrs. ; fare4kr.), and also once or twice at Aurland and Flaam — 
The Bergen Steamers (p. xvii; Com. 229) call at Oudvangen and at Aurland- 
Jflanm twice a week. — The fjord-steamer touches at a few only of the 
stations mentioned below. 

Balholm, see p. 146. Fine view of the Balestrand behind us, with 
the Langedalsbra in the background. The first station of the Bergen 
steamers is Vanymms (p. 146). The steamer skirts the S. bank of 
the fjord, above which rise imposing mountains. To the N. is the 
Blaafjeld, from which a waterfall descends. 

Oa the S. bank is Fedjos or Fejos, with a church, touched at 
several times a week, whence, through the Gulsatdal , we may 
ascend the Rambceren (5250 ft. ; grand view of the Jostedalsbraj and 
the fjord ; those who object to mounting so high may turn at the 
Kongshei or the Kongsvand, 2-3 hrs.), and the Fresviksbra (p. 150). 

2y 2 S.M. (from Balholm) lekanger, or Leikanger (J. Olsen's 
Hot.), lies on the Sjestrand, the fertile and well-peopled N. bank 
of the fjord. To the W. is gaard Husebe, with a tall 'bautasten'. 
To the E. of the pier are the house of the 'Amtmand', the parsonage, 
and the church ; farther on is gaard Henjum, with a 'Stue' (timber 
house) of the 17th cent. 

V2 S.M. Hermansveerk (Hot. Leikvang) lies at the mouth of the 
Henjumsdal, through which a day's excursion may be taken N. to 
the Ounvordsbrce (5119 ft.). 

The fjord-steamer (Com. 300) steers direct to the mouth of the 
Aurlandsfjord (p. 150). — The Bergen steamers usually first enter 
the narrow Norefjord to the E. On the left are gaards Lunden and 
Slinde (occasional boat-station). On the right is Fimreite on a 
fertile hill, with the mountain of that name above it (2572 ft.'). Oil 
15th June, 1184, Magnus Erlingss<m was defeated and slain here 
in a naval battle by King Sverre. To the left is the church of Olm- 
heim. — Bounding the Nordnces, a spur of the Skriken (4118 ft.), 
we enter the Sogndals fjord, with smiling, cultivated banks. On 
the left lies gaard Fardal (touched at on the return from Sogndal), 

150 fi.22. — Map, p. 144. FRESVIK. Sognefjord. 

at the mouth of the 0verste Dal 01 0fste Dal, whose river plunges 
headlong into the fjord. On the right rises the Storhougfjeld (see 
below). To the left is gaard Stedje or Steie (Frk. Lem's Inn), with 
its fine orchards. 

3 S.M. Sogndal (Danielseris Hot., good ; Skyds-station at gaard 
Fjcern), composed of gaards Sogndalskirke, Hofslund, Sogndals- 
fjaren, and others, is charmingly situated on a moraine pierced by 
the Sogndals-Elv, with lofty mountains around it: S. the Stor- 
hougfjeld (4236 ft.; easily ascended; fine view); SW. Skriken 
(4118 ft.), and N. Njuken (3190 ft.; easily ascended in 3i/ 2 hrs.). 
Pleasant walk on the bank of the river to the waterfall, with its 
mills ; then S. to the new church, a 'bautasten' by which bears 
the Runic inscription: 'Olafr konungr saa ut mille staina thessa' 
(i.e. 'King Olaf looked from between these stones'). Thence to 
Stedje (see above), with its two large 'Ksempehouge' ('giant tumuli'), 
and back to Sogndalsfjaeren by boat (1 hr. in all). 

Feom Sogndal to Solvorn (14 Kil. ; pay for 19), ok to Marifjjeben 
(22 Kil.; pay for 33), by carr. in 3 and 5 hrs. respectively, while the 
steamboat does not reach these places for 12 or 14 hrs. (comp. p. 153). 
The scenery will repay walkers also. 

Fkom Sogndal to Fj.srland (12-15 hrs.). A tolerable road ascends from 
Sogndal to the Sogndalsvand (1542 ft.) and leads on its E. bank to Gaard 
Selseng (17 Kil.). To the W. opens the Gunvorddal. From Selseng we 
may ascend the Thorstadnakken (5250 ft. ; imposing view of the mountains 
ol the Fjserlandsfjord and of the Jostedalsbrse ; E., the Hornnger, in clear 
weather). — From Selseng we may ascend the Langedal by a marked 
path, past several saeters, the highest of them being called ToftahougiMe, 
to the central of the three notches in the mountain (about 4140 ft.), to the 
left of which rise the peaks of the Frudalsbrae (5168 ft.). Then down the 
Bergedal to Gaard Berge on the Fjserlandsfjord (p. 148), from which we 
row in V2 br. to (3 Kil.) Fjserland. 

The steamer returns to the great highway of the Sognefjord, 
passes the promontories of Meisen and Hensene, and steers either 
E. direct to Laerdal (p. 153), or S. to — 

3 S.M. Fresvik (Bethuris Hot.), on a bay formed by the pro- 
jecting hill of Nute, and commanded on the S. by the Nonhaug 
('non' being 2 p.m., when the sun stands above the hill). Fine 
view looking back on Lekanger, with the Gunvordsbrje above it. 
A visit to the Fresviksbrce on the Fresviksfjeld (5144 ft.), 8-9 Kil. 
from Fresvik, is interesting. 

From Fresvik through the Tundal, and across the mountains to the 
Jordal and Stalheim (p. 143), takes fully 8 hrs. 

Most of the steamers now steer S. between the headlands 
Saltkjelnas and Solsnaa into the *Aurlandsfjord, an enormous 
ravine about ll/a Kil. broad, flanked with sheer precipices 3000- 
3900 ft. high. At a few spots only dwellings have been erected on 
alluvial deposits ('0r', 'Aur'), or are perched high above the lake 
on some apparently inaccessible rock. On both sides are many 
waterfalls, either leaping direct, or gliding in streaks of foam over 
the dark-brown rock, and reflected in the fjord. 

Roynefjord. GUDVANGEN. Map. p. 1 44.-22. R. 151 

Beyond the Solsnaes, on the- left, are the buildings of Buene, 
with a timber 'slide'. On the right is Simlences ; farther on, the 
Fyssefos. Then, on the left, Brednces or Breinas, and the mouth 
of the valley of the Kolar-Elv. — To the left, by the promontory 
of Narenats, we obtain a superb view of the upper Aurlandsfjord, 
with its vista of rocky crags (see p. 152). 

The headland of Bejteln separates the upper Aurlandsfjord from 
the Nferofjord, its S.W. arm. 

The **N8er0fjord, the grandest of all the branches of the Sogne- 
fjord, is at first 900-1000 yds. in breadth. Soon after entering 
it we see on the right a waterfall of the Lcegde-Elv, 985 ft. high. 
Opposite rises the pointed Krogegg; then the Ojeitegg. Between 
these, and afterwards between the Gjeitegg and the Middagsberg, 
we obtain fine glimpses of the snow-clad Steganaase (p. 152) high 
above. Opposite the Middagsberg, on the right, are several gaards 
on an old coast-line at the mouth of the Dyrdal. 

The fjord contracts to a defile about 200 yds. broad, with per- 
pendicular sides. On the right, between the Middagsberg and the 
Raueg, are the gaards of Styve; above rise the snow-masses of the 
Store Brce. Several veil-like waterfalls. On the right, the Dyrdals- 
fjeld. Then, on the left, the Nissedals-Elv, descending from the 
Skammedalsheidn (not visible). To the right is a waterfall from 
the Ytre Bakken, forming a double leap far above. The fjord bends 
to the S. We now see the Nsererdal Mts., notably the Sjaerpenut (see 
below), and to the right the fall of the Bakke-Elv, with the gaards 
aud the little church of Bakke (reached in 1 hr. from Gudvangen 
by a path which gives a vivid impression of the gloomy solitude of 
the fjord). Farther on are several waterfalls on both sides; the last 
(left) is the Kilefos (see below). 

4 S.M. (from Fresvik ; 8 from Balholm) Gudvangen. — Hotels 
(a few min. from the pier): Vikingvang Hot., R. 2, B. or S. H/2, D. 2 : /4 kr. ; 
Hansen's Hot., K., B., S., each l'js, D. 2 1 /* kr. ; both very fair; English 
spoken. — Engl. Church Serv. in the season. 

Conveyances to Stalheim (l 3 /4 hr.) usually at the pier: stolkjaerre for 
1 pers. 2.55 kr., 2 pers. 3.85 kr. ; there and back, incl. stay at the foot of 
the Stalheimsklev, 5 or 7 kr. ; caleschvogn for 2, 3, 4 pers. 10, 12, 14, 
there and back 20 kr. The scenery will repay walkers, especially in 
descending from Stalheim to Gudvangen (2V2-23/ 4 hrs.). The view from 
the top is best by afternoon-light. 

Gudvangen is a group of gaards at the head of the Naerefjord, 
at the influx of the Nceredals-Elv . The enclosing mountains are 
so lofty and abrupt that the little hamlet never sees the sun in 
winter. On the E. rises the Sjcerpenut; W. the Solbjergenut. From 
the Kilsbotten, to the N. of the former, falls the *Kilefos, 1840 ft. 
high, beginning with a leap of 500 ft. ; to the right of it are the 
small Hestnasfos and Nautefos, whose waters unite below. 

The picturesque *NaBr«dal, the inland continuation of the fjord, 
has the same wild character. The road crosses, l / 2 hr. from Gud- 

152 R. 22. — Map, p. 43. AURLAND. Sognefjord. 

vangen, a great l Ur' (p. xxxix), and then the clear river. On the 
right bank is gaard Sjccrping. To the right towers the huge Jordals- 
nut (3610 ft.; ascent, p. 143), composed of light-grey syenite. On 
the rocky slopes are many traces of the rock-avalanches ('Skred') 
which have fallen into the valley. The road gradually ascends on 
the right hank. On the left hank are gaards Hemre and Hylland. 
We re-cross (l 3 / 4 -2 hrs. from Gudvangen) to the left bank and 
reach the foot of the *Slalheimsklev ('cliff'), which abruptly closes 
the valley, and where we alight. We now walk up the 'Kiev' in 
sixteen steep zigzags ( 3 / 4 hr. to the top). On the right and left 
are the Sivlefos and the Stalheimsfos, two picturesque waterfalls. 
Superb view at the top of the pass (1122 ft; see p. 143; carr. 
fares to Vossevangen, p. 139). 

The *Upper Aurlandsfjord, which runs S.E. from the headland 
of Bejteln (p. 151), communicates by steamer two or three times 
weekly with Laerdal (Com. 299), and once or twice with Gudvangen 
(Com. 300). To the left, high on the steep E. bank, lie gaards 
Horken, Nedbsrge, and (in a ravine) Kappadal. To the right, on the 
hill, are the Stege-Satre, with two waterfalls near. Then Under- 
dal, finely situated, with a church, whence we may ascend by the 
Melhus-Sater to the Steganaase ('terrible nose'; 5660 ft.), the 
highest peak of the Syrdalsfjeld. — Farther on, to the right, rises 
the long Flenje-Egg, with its peaks, the Jelben (N.) and the Flenja- 
naase (4836 ft.). The fjord widens. On the left open several deep 
ravines, first the Skjerdal, with the gaard of that name, then the 
small Voldedal and the Vasbygd, the chief place in which (and the 
terminus of one of the fjord-steamers) is — 

4S.M. (from Fresvik or Gudvangen) Aurland or Aurlands vangen 
(Ellend Vangen s Hotel, R., B., or S. 1, D. 2kr., tolerable), with 
its little stone church. — A road ascends the valley of the Aurlands- 
Elv (abounding in fish) to the (6 Kil.) Vasbygdvand (p. 44). 

Keom Aurland to T0njoh in the L^edal (2 days). 1st Day: steep 
ascent of nearly 4000 ft. between the Blaaskavl (5817 ft. ; 6 hrs. from Aur- 
land; fine view) on the N. and the Heislcarsmtl (4488 ft.) on the S.; then, 
leaving the lofty Hodnsnipe to the left, to the Hodn-Sceter (8 hrs.). — 
2nd Day: to the Skaale-Sceter and up the Barshegda (4627 ft.): fine view 
as far as the Horunger, and of the J^ranaase with the Troldelifjeld. 
Then down a rough sfeter-path to the (7 hrs.) church of Telnjum, 10 Kil. 
by road from Loerdalseven (p. 153). 

Once or twice a week a steamer goes on to the head of the fjord, 
grandly encircled by mountains, and stops at — 

1 S.M. Flaam (Fretheim's Hot., R. li/ 2 kr., tolerable), with the 
large gaard of Fretheim, at the mouth of the Flaamsdal. Up that 
valley leads the road to Vatnahalsen and Myrdal, already described 
(p. 144). 

The walk up to (19 Kil., by sl<yd = , pay 27) Vafnahalsen is uphill almost 
all the way: to the llegubro i'/^lir., Mel/ms i'/-i, Kaardals/os S U, Vatna- 
halsen 1 hr. 

Sognefjord. LjERDALSj0REN. 22. Route. 153 

c. From Balholm or from Gudvangen to Iserdals«ren. 

Steamer (Com. 2C9, 300) from Balholm to LccrdaUeren, by Soqndal or 
by Gudvangen, b fames a week in 7-12 hrs. (fare 4 kr.). - l'rom Gidcangm 
to Lardalsm-en, 6 times a week in 3-6 hrs. (fare 4 kr.). 

From Balholm and from Gudvangen to the mouth of the Aur- 
landsfjord, see pp. 149, 150. — The steamer rounds the Sagarins, the 
base of the Holten, and sometimes calls at the substantial gaard of 

Ytre Freningen. On a green plateau, about 400 ft. higher 
is the school of this scattered district. 

■ e ? r ,? m Ytre Fr0ningen the "Blejan ('the sheet' ; 5560 ft.) may be ascended 
in 6-7 hrs. (rather steep): superb view of the Sognefjord, the Jostedalsbras 
Horunger, Jotunheim Mts., the Hallingdal, and Voss. The fjord itself is best 
seen from the brink of the Lemegg, an almost sheer precipice of 4900 ft 
to the N. — An easier ascent is from the Vindedal (see below), reached 
trom Laerdalstfren by boat. Best to sleep at the Vmdedals-Sceter, l'A, hr 
above Vmdedal and 2-3 hrs. from the top. ' 

To the N. towers the Storhougfjeld (p. 150). We next pass 
Indre Freningen and the promontory oiliefncestangen, a spur of the 
Hausafjeld, behind which rises the Lemegg (see above). We either 
steer direct to Lajrdalsarren, or first N. to — 

5 S.M. (from Sogndal) Amble (Husum's Inn, good), charmingly* 
situated on the crater-shaped Am bltbugt. A pleasant road leads hence 
past the Amblegaard (the owner of which, Hr. Heiberg, has a large 
collection of memorials of the Norwegian family of that name), 
and along the fjord, to (2 Kil.) Kaupanger, beautifully situated 
The small 'Stavekirke', with 20 pillars in the nave and 4 in the 
rectangular choir, probably built about 1200, was unskilfully 
restored in 1862. Fine elms and ashes. 

_ From Amble to Sogndal (13 Kil.). Beyond Kaupanger the road be- 
gins to ascend; superb view looking back on the Sognefjord and the snow- 
clad Blejan (see above). The road leads through pine-forest to the top of 
the hill and then descends past several large guards (each with 'Stabbur' 
and belfry) to (7 Kil.) Eidet (poor station). A road skirting the Eidsfjord 
with a view, S., of the slope of the Storhougfjeld, leads hence to (6 Kil ) 
Lo/tesnces, a handsome gaard opposite Sogndal, to which we ferry — 
To row direct from Eidet to Sogndal (6 Kil.) takes 1 hr. (with two rowers 
1 kr. 8 0.). Herrings abound in the Eidsfjord. The water is fresh on the 
surface, but salt below. 

Leaving Amble, we have a fine view of the Blejan (see above) to 
the S., and of the Fresviksbr«e (p. 150) to the W. in the distance. 
On the left opens the Aardalsfjord (p. 154). Opposite the headland 
of Fodnces, on the right, we see into the Vindedal, with the -Store 
Graanase in the background, and the long Glipsfjeld on the E. side. 
The fjord, now called Lcerdalsfjord, is bounded on the left by the 
Vetanaase and, farther E., by the Heganaase (4900 ft.). On the 
right, to the E. of the Glipsfjeld, we look into the Eierdal. In the 
foreground are the gaards of Haugene. 

7 S.M. (from Balholm) leerdalstfren. — Pier 1 Kil. from the hotels 
fcarr. 50«f. each pers. ; with luggage 60 «.). Those who have to start earlv 
trom Ls>rdals0ren may go on board Ihe steamer the night before bu' the 
noise i.f loading is faial to sleep. ' 

154 Route 22. AARDAL. Sognefjord. 

Hotels: «Lindstk0m's Hotel, three bouses with garden, R. 2, B. or 
S. ty 2 , D. 21/4 kr. ; Kvamme's Hotel, plain, hut good. Engl, spoken at 
both. Physician, Dr. Moinichen. 

Telegkaph Office at the pharmacy, to the right, beyond Lindstreim's 
Hotel. — Post Office farther inland, in a red house to the left, near 
the church. — Engl. C/i. Serv. in summer. 

Lcerdalseren, shortly called Lardal, the terminus of the Valders 
route (R. 8), lies on a broad marshy plain at the mouth of the Lara, 
enclosed by bare rocky mountains. View limited. To the E. , at the 
end of the Oftedal, on the left, rises the Haugnaase (4383 ft.), and 
on the right the Frejbottenfjeld. The village, with 800 inhab., has 
a doctor, a chemist, and a few tolerable shops. The timber church 
of 1873 with two towers, lies in a second group of houses 5 min. 
farther inland. A 'bautasten', 19 ft. high, recalls the wars of 1808-9 
and 1813-14. 

Walks. A good road leads past the pier and the winter-pier (used 
when the fjord is frozen) to the mouth of the Eierdal (see p. 153; there 
and hack l'/a hr.). — Up the Lserdal road, past the church, for 35 min. ; 
then to the left over the bridge ; next to the right to the hamlet of Bauge; 
lastly to the left to (10 min.) two yellow houses at the foot of the hill, 
containing the Fiske-Udklceknings-Apparat (for fish-breeding), founded in 1899 
(fee 15-20 0.). Near it is the low 'Klokstapel' of the old church of Lserdal. 

d. The Aardalsfjord and Lysterfjord. 

Steamer (Com. 299) from Lserdals0ren to Aardal twice weekly in 2 hrs., 
also twice weekly by Skjolden in 12 hrs. (fare 1.70 kr.); to Skjolden at the 
head of the Lysterfjord four timei weekly in 3'/2-7y2 hrs. (fare 3kr.); 
to MarifjjEren only in 3-5>/2hrs. (2 kr.). 

From Lserdalsaren to Fodnms, see p. 153. On rounding the pro- 
montory we obtain, to the left, a fine view of the Lysterfjord, with 
the Haugmaelen ; in the background is the Jostedalsbrae (p. 157) ; 
S.W. towers the Blejan (p. 153). 

The entrance of the Aardalsfjord is rather featureless. On the 
N. bank rise the Bodlenakken and then the Brandhovd, between 
which lie the Ytre and Indre Oferdal (see below). On the wooded 
S. bank is the station of Nadviken 01 Vikedal. We next look into the 
Sceheimsdal to the N., and soon sight the superb mountains en- 
circling — 

Aardal or Aardalstangen [Klingenb erg's Hot., very fair). The 
little village, with its pretty church, lies partly on an old coast-line 
(p. xxxii) and partly on deposits from the mountains on the right, 
at the mouth of the Aardals-Elv, which issues from the adjacent 
Aardalsvand. Opposite, to the S., rises the snow-clad Slettefjeld 
or Middagshaugen (4436 ft.). Excursion to the Vettisfos (1 day; 
p. 74). 

Returning from Aardal , the steamer calls when required at 
Oferdal , the station for the valleys of Indre (E.) and Ytre (W.) 
Oferdal, between the Brandhovd and the Bodlenakken. We then 
round the abrupt Bodlenakken and enter the *Lysterfjord, the N.E. 
arm of the Sognefjord, 40 Kil. long, where the wildest and the 



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Sognefjord. MARIFJ^.REN. 22. Route. 155 

most smiling scenery are combined. The glacier-streams give tire 
■water of the fjord a milky tinge. On the W. side rises the steep 
Haugmcelen (3806 ft.), which may be ascended nearly all the way 
on horseback. In 2'/4 hrs. from Aardal the steamer reaches — 

4 S.M. Solvorn ( Walakers Hot., pens. 3y2kr., very fair; Skyds- 
station), finely situated on a "W. bay of the fjord, hacked by the 
snow-mountains around the Veitestrandsvand (see below). 

A road ascends from Solvorn to the (2 Kil.) Bafilovand (456 ft.), the 
E. bank of which is skirted by the road from MarifJEeren to Sogndal 
(see below). To the N. of the junction of the two roads lies (2 Kil.) 
Hillestad (Hillettatfs Hotel, well spoken of, E. 80 0., B. 1, S. 1 kr. ; 4 Kil. 
from Solvorn, pay for 6), where guides and horses are obtained for the 
ascent of the Mold en (see below ; on foot 3-4 hrs.). 

From Hillestad, a road leads by Hafslo, with church and parsonage, 
to (8 Kil.) Soget, at the S. end of the Veitestrandsvand (640 ft.), a lake 14 Kil. 
long. Thence by rowing or by motor-boat to the If. end. of the lake, 
where rustic quarters (and probably a guide) may be had at the gaard of 
Naes or Nordre J/ees; then a walk of 10 hrs. by the Veitestrandsskar to 
the Suphelledal and to FJEerland (see p. 148). — From Nses we may also 
visit the splendid Austerdalsbrae, to the N., farther up the valley. The 
path to it leads by the Tungesceter (rustic quarters), at the junction of the 
Langedal and the Avsterdal, to the glacier in 3V2 hrs. ; then across the 
lower to the upper glacier, 1 hr. more. We may then, with guide, ascend 
the glacier and cross the Jostedalsbrse to Brigsdal (pp.170, 169) in 12-14 hrs. 
Several of Herr Bing's routes across the Jostedalsbrte are marked on the 
Map at p. 144 (to Aamot, see p. 164). 

On a tongue of land on the E. bank, opposite Solvorn, lies Vrnms, 
a pretty place where the steamer calls when desired. High above 
it is the oldest 'Stavekirke' in Norway (see p. 28), possibly of the 
11th cent., but the 'Lop' or arcade was removed in 1722. In the 
vicinity are several large tumuli ('Kaempehouge'). On the W. bank 
towers the Molden (3640 ft.). On the E. bank, 1/2 hr. from Solvorn, 
is gaard Ytre Kroken, famed for its orchards (small-boat station, 
when required). To the N.W. appears the Hestebrce, part of the 
Jostedalsbrse; to the right of it is the Leirmohovd; more to the N. 
are the Krondal mountains (p. 158). In l / 2 hr. more we reach — 

2 S.M. Marifjseren {Teroi's Hotel fy Skyds-station, at the pier, 
R., B., or S. 1.20 each, D. 2 kr., good), prettily situated on the 
Gaupnefjord, the best starting-point for the Jostedal (p. 157). On 
the hill, N.W., is the new church of Joranger, where we have a 
superb view of the fjord and the Feigumsfos (p. 156). To reach 
it we may take a steep footpath (unpleasant to descend) ascending 
from the Bygde-Elv bridge; but it is better to follow the Hillestad 
road (see below) to a (20 min.) bridge, and then ascend to the 
right (20 min.). 

From Makifj^een to Sogndal (22 Kil., pay for 33). This fine route, 
which will repay walking, leads up the Bygde-Elv. On the right, above, 
lies Joranger. Then past the abrupt Molden (see above). Numerous farms 
with cultivated fields. Fet, with its old church, lies to the right. From 
the highest point of the road (about 900 ft.) we see the distant snow- 
mountains S. of the Sognefjord. Descent rather steep, with grand view. 

8 Kil. (pay for 14) Hillestad, see above. 

We skirt the E. bank of the Hafslovand, where the road to Solvorn 

156 R.22. — Mnp, p .154. SKJOLDEN. Sognefjord. 

diverges to the left (see p. 155}, and pass through pine-wood, obtaining 
glimpses of the lake and the JostedalsbrEe to the N. Beyond gaard Oklevig 
the road reaches its highest point, and then descends the winding "Gildre- 
slreden (Skreien). Superb view of the fjord. On our right rushes the 
Ovra-Elv, the effluent of the Hafslo lake, forming the Helvetesfos and 
Futesprang. Below, at the N. end of the Sogndalsfjord, lies Nagelm-en. 
We now skirt the Barsnatsfjcrd. Oaks, elms, and ashes appear. The 
fjord contracts. On the opposite bank lies Loftesnses (p. 153). 
14 Kil. (pay for 19) Sogndal, see p. 150. 

The upper part of the Lysterfjord is grand and picturesque. 
The steamer passes Nas, on the left, and on the right the imposing 
Feigumsfos , which descends from a valley to the N. of the Bive- 
naase (3465 it.) in two falls, about 650 ft. high. To the N. of the 
fall rises the Serheirnsfjeld ; then the Skurvenaase (see below). 

On the W. bank is Hojheim or Hojumsvik. Then — 

2 8.M. Dtfsen (Desert Hot.), or Lyster, as the boatmen call it, 
charmingly situated, residence of a parson, Lensmand, and physi- 
cian. Adjacent is the old stone church of Bale, with a fine portal. 
To the left on the hill is a sanatorium for consumptives. 

From Dasen we may ascend the Daledal by a bridle-track, past gaards 
Bringe and Skaar and the seeters of Vallagjerdet and KvaU, to gaard Eilen, 
the highest in the valley. Then a steep climb over the Storhougs Vidde 
(2602 ft.) to the Vigdals-Sceter, and W. through the Vigdal, passing the 
Buskrednaase on the right, to the fjeld-gar.rds J0vre and Nedre Vigdal. 
From the latter we cross a hill, descend abruptly to the Ormbergs-Stel, 
and go N. to Gaard Ormberg in the Jostedal (p. 157), about 27 Kil. from 
D0sen (a fatiguing walk of 9-10 hrs., with guide). 

1 S.M. Skjolden (Thorgeir Sulheim's Inn, above the pier, to the 
right, good; carriages meet the steamer), the steamboat-terminus 
at the mouths of the Fortundal (p. 77) and Merkereidsdal, is the 
starting-point for a visit to the Horunger (pp. 78, 79). By the 
pier is the conspicuous landing-place for the ice stored in a large 
cellar a little way inland. 

In the sombre Mjjrkerejdsdal, extending about 20 Kil. N. of Skjolden, 
a road leads past gaards Skole, Bolslad, Flohaug, and Moen to Merkereid 
or Merkei (6 Kil.). Here the valley forks. A steep track ascends the left 
branch to the Aasatvand and skirts theW. slope of the Skurvenaase (4504 ft.) 
to the Aa-Sccter (reached also by rowing up the lake), whence we may go N. 
to the Rausdal (see below). The route to the right at Merrkereid ascends 
the Merrkerejdsdal, passing the Knivebakke-Swter (left), the Dul-Swter, and 
the Dalen-Sccler, to the Fosse-Sceter, at the junction of the glacier-routes 
from the Narstedals-Sseter (p. 78) and the Sola-Sseter (p. 86). We cross 
the river here to the left, and ascend to join the route from the Aa-Soeter 
to the — 

Fjeldsli-Saeter, a mountain-inn kept by Ole Bolstad, with the aid of 
the Norw. Turist-Forening, a good starting-point for several passes and 
for snow-shoeing on the glaciers. — Passes (with guide). 1. (Map, p. 154) 
Past the Bausdals-Satters and up the E. bank of the streamlet in the Rausdal 
to the frozen Rausdalsvand, then to the E. of the Rivenaaskulen (6190 ft.) 
and over the Kollbrw dowa to the Teceraadal, and on to the (10-11 hrs.) 
Sota-Swter (p. 86). Or from the Eausdal we may cross the Barbarsbrw, 
between the Tvatraadals-Kirke (6830 ft.) and the TundredaU-Kirke (6590 ft.), 
and descend past the Solkjceru to the (12 hrs.) Sota-Swter. — 2. Past the 
Rausdals-Ssetre, W. over the fjeld, and through the Martedal and Fager- 
dal to ^.iard iaaberg in the Jostedal (p. 158). 

Sonne fjord, SPERLE. Map, p. 154. — 22. It. 157 

From Marifjjsren to the Jostedai,. 

The Jostedai is a great fissure in a vast plateau of snow and ice, the 
W. part of which consists of the Jostedalsbrw with its hranches, while 
the E. half is formed hy the Speirlegbrw and several snow-clad peaks or 
'noses'. The sides of the valley, rising to 3000 ft., are generally wooded 
below, and are often broken by transverse rifts, from which torrents and 
waterfalls descend. At intervals the rifls recede, forming basins bounded 
by rocky barriers, through which the stream has forced a passage- This 
excursion takes l'/2-2 days, there and back, but in spite of the importance 
and beauty of the fflgardsbrce (p. 1.8), is scarcely repaying. The road is 
very hilly. — The Jostedalsbrse is the greatest expanse of snow and ice 
in Europe, being 330 sq. M. in area and 1400-1600 ft. in thickness. A few 
rocky knolls alone break through the ice-mantle. Into the adjacent valleys 
it sends down 26 glaciers, of which the longest is the Tunsbergdals-Brai 
(see below), 14 Kil. Icing, second only in Europe to the Aletsch Glacier 
(16 Kil. long). The ice, as everywhere else in Norway, has been receding 
for several decades, so that the ascent over the glacier-tongues to the great 
plateau has at places become steeper and more difficult. The passage of 
these glaciers is only fit for experts with guides. 

Marifjceren, seep. 155. The road leads past the precipitous 
W. hank of the Gaupnefjord to (3 Kil.) Reneid, at the mouth of 
the Jostedals-Elv, situated, with several gaards, on the alluvial soil 
of the river opposite the old church of Oaupne (note the finely- 
carved portal from an earlier 'Stavekirke', and paintings of the 
17th cent, in the interior). Above rises the Raubergsholten ( 2675 ft.). 

The road ascends on the right bank of the muddy torrent. The 
lower part of the valley is well cultivated. We pass an old moraine 
and cross the Kvcerne-Elv. High and shapeless rocks now flank the 
road all the way to Leirmo. In front of us rises the Leirmohovd. 
After crossing the Fondela the road turns to the right to the gorge 
of Hausadn. Behind us may be seen the twin peaks of the Asbjern- 
naase (5270 ft.). From the rocks on the right falls the Ryefos. We 
soon reach the first of the basins peculiar to the Jostedai, named 
after the gaards of Leirmo, on the hill to the left. (From Leirmo we 
may visit the Tunsbergdalsbra, see above.) We cross the foaming 
Tunsbergdals -Elv. To the right towers the Kolnaase. The river 
expands over the whole floor of the valley. 

14 Kil. Alsmo lies on an old moraine ( 'Mo'). We socn enter a 
gorge called Havgaasgjel, in which are the falls of the Vigdela, 
and pass through the deep and imposing basin of Myldtmyr, once 
a lake. To the left rises the Hompedalskulen (4823 ft.); in front, 
to the right, is the Yangsen (seep. 158). Passing gaards Myten, 
Teigen, 0en, and Mylclemyr, the road leads through a narrower 
part of the valley, with the large gaard of Ormberg on the right, 
and enters the basin of Fossen and Dalen. Beyond another defile, 
with a bridge leading to D#sen (p. 156), we reach the basin of — ■ 

10 Kil. Sperle (plain but good quarters, B. 60e., D. H/ 2 kr.). 
We now cross a rocky height, where we have a fine view of the 
Liaxlen and the Jostedalsbrae to the N. Beyond gaard Sperle is 
the waterfall of that name, coming from the Listelsbrce on the left. 
Then a steep ascent to the Nedre Lid, wooded at the top, and past 

158 R. 22. — Map, p. 154. FAABERG. 

the 'Gjel' of that name on the right. A drive of 3/ 4 hr. from Sperle 
brings us to the beautiful basin of Jostedal (660-ft.), with the church. 

On the left we see the Bakkefos, descending from the Stron- 
dafjeld, and near it the 0vre Qaard. On the right the Gjeitsdela 
has three fine waterfalls. To the S.E. rises the imposing Vangsen 
(5713 ft. ; ascended from Jostedal in 4 hrs.), with a glacier on its 
N.E. slope. Between the valleys of Vanddal and Gjeitsdal, which 
open to the right, is seen the pyramidal Myrhorn, a peak of the 
great Spmtegbra behind it. Beyond gaard Ojerdet we cross the 
stream issuing from the Krondal. Up that valley, on the right, 
rises the Haugenaase (4262 ft.), on the left the Vetlenibben and 
Grenneskredbrce. Corn thrives thus far. 

The "Krondal well repays a visit, from Kronen (quarters), at its entrance, 
to its head beyond gaard Btrgset (quarters), where three very fine glaciers 
descend: in the middle the ice-terrace of the Bergtetbrce, with (r.) the Tvasr- 
brce and (1.) the Gretmeskredbrce. — • From the Krondal over the Joste- 
DALSBEiE to Loen or Olden (p. 168), 12-15 hrs., a grand but trying route. 
(Guide, Johannet Snelun , in the Krondal , 14-20, porter 10 kr.). From 
Kronen or from Bergset we ascend the E. side of the Tvcerbrae or Bjer- 
nestegbrce, which comes from the N., to the (3 hrs.) Haugenetet, between 
the Tvserbrse and the Nigardsbrse, marked by the last 'varde' in the Jos- 
tedal (good water). The passage of the glacier now begins. In 1 hr. the 
Kjendalskrona, the Lodalskaupa, and other Nordfjord Mts. come in sight. 
In 2-3 hrs. more we reach the first 'varde' on the opposite side. We 
descend the Kvandalsbrce (20 min.), and by a very fatiguing route on its mar- 
gin, to the Kvandal (i 1 /* hr. ; p. 171). Or we may follow the Jostedals- 
brse farther W. and descend by the Sundebroe to Sunde on the Olden- 
vand (p. 169). 

We next cross a hill and obtain a fine view looking back. On 
the further side, 2 hrs.' drive from Sperle, we obtain a splendid 
general view of the *Nigardsbrae, descending between the Hauge- 
naase and Liaxlen. The road passes the Berge-Smter and crosses the 
Jostedals-Elv. A path diverging to the left before the Berge-Saeter is 
reached soon crosses the effluent of the Nigardsbras, and, ill-defined, 
skirts the N. slope of the glacier-valley. The best view of this 
famous glacier, so often described by Norwegian and other writers, 
is obtained about y 2 hr. from the Berge-Saster, from a point where 
the crest of the lateral moraine juts a little into the valley. The 
descent to the foot of the glacier is of little interest. 

After crossing the Jostedals-Elv we come to gaard Kroken, 
where another steep ascent begins. The road then descends and 
(3 Kit.") ends at — 

17 Kil. (pay for 19) Faaberg (1313 ft.; rustic quarters at Ras- 
mus Larsen Faaberg's, a good guide, independent of the Norw. 
Turist-Forening ; bed or D. 1, B. orS. V2 kr -)- The Forening recom- 
mends Lars Larsen Lien, at the Lien-Sceter, on the opposite bank, 
reached by a foot-bridge across the river a little short of Faaberg. 

From Faaberg through the Fagerdal to the Merkerejdidal, see p. 156. 

From Faaberg ovek the Jostedalsbr^: to Hjelle on the Stbtns- 
vand, 13-14 hrs. (two guides 25 kr.). We ascend en the left bank of the 
Jrstedals-Elv, which bends to the N., in 1 hr. reach the Fcabergsteltbrce 
on the left, and then (40 min.) crrss the stream and accerd in a few min. 

FLORR 23. Route. 159 

to the left to the f'aaberg - Sater (1874 ft.; where a night may be spent). 
We next ascend the desolate Slordal, on the right bank of the broad 
river-ted (were the path over the Handspikje to the Sota-8a?ter diverges 
to the right; see p. £6). Where the valley divides, and the Stegeholtbrce 
descends on the right, we turn to the left and ascend the huge moraine 
of the Lodalsbrce , the lower end of which (about 2970 ft.) we reach in 
13/ 4 hr. from the Faaberg-Sseter. Next a slight ascent over ice almost free 
from crevasses. Roping only becomes necessary at the top, where the 
glacier is covered with snow. In front rises the Broenibba, an isolated 
rock. Ice permitting, we continue to ascend on the glacier, but it is 
sometimes advisable to ascend the rocks of the Rauskarfjeld to the right. 
Opposite us rises the Lodalskaupa (6795 ft.), the highest peak in this 
region. We soon reach (d l /i brs. from the beginning of the glacier) its 
highest point, a little to the left of the Stomaase (6935 ft.). We then 
descend on the N.E. margin of the Erdalsbro?. Where the glacier descends 
more abruptly, about 2 hrs. from the top, there begins a narrow path on 
the rocks to the right. Here we leave the ice after 5 1 /* hrs. Then a 
steep and rough descent into the broad Erdal, where in '/< nr - we reach 
the IAlle-Bceler. Thence in 2 ] /4 hrs., by Slor-Sceter and Qreiding, by a good 
path to Erdal on the Strynsvand, whence we ferry in 1 /s hr. to Bjelle 
(p. 172). The descent from the Lodolsbrse to Bedal en the ioenvand 
takes about the same time, but is seldom made. 

A pass, said to be easy, leads from Faaberg by the stone hut on the 
Liaxlen, rising N.E. of the Nigardsbrse, or by the Nigardsbrae, then across 
the Jostedalsbrse, and down to Bedal on the Loenvand (p. 171). 

23. From Bergen to Aalesund and Molde by Sea. 

42 S.M. (168 Engl. M.) to Aalesund, 51 S.M. (204 Engl. M.) to Molde. 
These official distances are greatly increased by the sinuosities of the 
steamer's course. The distances given below in Norwegian sea-miles are 
from station to station. 

Steamers (Com. 224b, 227a, 60, 124) almost daily to Aalesund in 
15-18 hrs. (fares 16.80 , 10.50 kr.) , to Molde in 19-22 hrs. (fares 20.40, 
12.75 kr.). Some of the steamers touch at Aalesund only, going thence direct 
to Christianssund and Trondhjem ; others call at Aalesund and Molde; others 
again at Flore, Molde, Aalesund, and Molde; few touch at the minor 

From Bergen to tlie mouth of the Sognefjord, see p. 145. The 
Polletind (1740 ft.) here rises on the island of Indre Sulen. 

To the N. of the Sognefjord we skirt the district of Sendfjord, 
which with Nordfjord ("p. 165) formed the ancient Firdafylke. "We 
steer between the islands of Ytre and Indre Sulen. The scenery 
improves, and the mountains show more variety. We pass the 
Dalsfjord (p. 162). To the W. lie the Vcerei and the island of 
Alden (1552 ft.), known as the 'Norske Hest\ which pastures up- 
wards of 1000 sheep. The steamboat usually passes to the "W. of 
the lofty Atlee (2283 ft.), and steers across the Stangfjord, past 
the headland of Stavnces and the Stavfjord, the entrance to the 
Fardefjord (p. 163). On a solitary cliff to the W. stands the light- 
house of Stabbensfyr. 

20 S.M. Florer (Salomonseri's Hot.; Fru Olsen's Hot.) is touched 
at by most of the large steamers. The thriving little town (6£0 in- 
hab.) is the trading centre of the Norddals, Eike, and Hedals fjords. 

A local steamer (Com. £05) plies once weekly from Flor/j up the small 
Eitefjord to the station of that name, whence we may penetrate into the 

160 R. 23. — Map, p. 1 6:>. MOLD0. From Bergen 

great glacier-region of the Kjeipen (4460 ft. ; explored by Wm. C. Slingsby), 
the snowy heights of which are seen (N.) from the fjord. 

The Bergen and Nordfjord steamer (p. 165) follows from Flor0 to 
Mold0 a route similar to that described below, but calls at more stations. 
It corresponds (Com. 304b) with steamers on the Oulefjord, which opens 
S.E. of Bremanger. From Kjelkenas, on this fjord, we mav row to Rise 
(quarters) and walk thence by a wild path, N.W. of the Kieipen (see 
above), to the Aalfotfjord (p. 166). 

Steering N., we have on the left the islands of Skorpv and 
Aralden; then the mountainous Frei-0, with Kalvaag or Kalle- 
vaag, a station of the Nordfjord steamers (p. 165). With the Frei- 
fjord, the strait between the mainland and the large island of 
Bremanger, begins one of the finest parts of the voyage. In Bre- 
manger is Berdle or Berle, another station of the Nordfjord steamers. 
To the right, the grey moss-grown rocks are relieved by a few 
long slender waterfalls. Soon, to the left, at the N.E. angle of 
Bremanger, is seen the huge Hornelen (3002 ft.), towering almost 
sheer, ascended on the E. side by K. Bing in 1897. This is the 
Smalsorhorn of the Saga, said to have been visited by Olaf Trygg- 
vason about 1000. In the Skatestrmin, a strait to the N. of Hor- 
nelen, between Bremanger and the Rugsunde (p. 162), the ebb and 
flow of the tide produces strong currents. 

The steamer crosses the mouth of the Nordfjord, affording a fine 
mountain-view, and (3 hrs. from Florer) reaches — 

7 S.M. Mold# (Moldeen H'A.), a small island between the 
mainland and the Vaagse. On the Vaagsa, with its hills 2300 ft. 
high, lies Scetemxs (Sunde's Inn), a station of the local steamers. 

We next steer N. through the Vlvesund, a strait between the 
Vaagstf and the mainland; then across the bay of Sildegabet ('herr- 
ing's mouth') and past the Barme and Seljee. On the latter are 
the ruins of a Benedictine monastery and of a shrine of the 
Irish St. Sunniva, the tutelary saint of Bergen. Sailing vessels 
had formerly often to lie here for weeks till the wind served for 
taking them round Stadtland. 

The peninsula of Stadtland is a hilly plateau 28 Kil. long and 
■4-13 Kil. broad, stretching far into the sea 'like a huge right hand 
with a long fore-arm'. The highest point is the Skraalna, rising 
above Drage. More conspicuous is the Kj&rring (1683 ft.), an- 
swering to the end-joint of the middle finger. The N. point is 
called Staalet. On the N.E. side rises the Revikhorn (1410 ft.). 
Stadtland is much exposed to storms, and even in summer the sea 
is often rough. 

On Stadtland, opposite the Seljea, by the church and parsonage of Hove, 
lies Selje, a station of the Bergen and Nordfjord steamer (Com. 306), whence 
we may row up the little Moldefjord in 1 hr. to guard Eide. A rather 
steep bridle-path leads thence in 3/ 4 hr. (pay for 7 Kil.) over the Mandseid 
(about 490 ft.) to Enerhaugen on the Kjedepollen. Then by boat in 1 hr. to 
(4 Kil.) — 

Aaeim (Aaeim Hot.), near the church of Vanelven, at the S.W. end of 
the Vanelvsfjord. Steamboat to Aalesund, by Volden, once weekly (Com. 318 ; 
p. 1S5). Road to Bryggen on the Nordfjord, see p. 166. 

to Molde. VALDER0. 23. Route. 161 

The bay on the N.E. side of Stadtland is the Vanelvsgab, ad- 
joined on the S.E. by the Vanelvsfjord (p. 160). The steamer 
passes the Sande, in which is the Dohtenshul, a cave 200 ft. above 
the sea, and the large islands Ourske and Hareidland, and some- 
times calls at Hereen, N. of the Gursk», at Volden (p. 185), and at 
0r$Unvik (p. 185). Next, to the right, lies the large Sule. To the 
N. appears the Oode, with a lighthouse ; then, on the right, the is- 
land oiHessen, with the pointed Sukkertop ; farther N.-, the Valdere, 
with a lighthouse and a cave (Sjong-Hul), 120 ft. high, on the S.W. 
side. Passing the Stenvaag, the bare rocks of which are used for 
drying fish ('Klipfisk', p. 223), we reach, in about 5 hrs. from 
Moldtf, — 

15 S.M. Aalesund, see p. 181. 

The voyage from Aalesund to Molde (fere ^fa-A kr.) is beautiful, 
especially by evening-light. Beyond Aalesund we have a grand 
•View of the Sandmare Mts. (pp. 197-200) to the right, the Assured 
Jenshorn and the snow-fields of the KolaastindeT remaining long 
visible. Farther on, to the left, is the Lepse, with the Renstadhul. 
To the right is the lighthouse of Ounaviken. A view of the conspic- 
uous Skaala (p. 192) and other mountains N. of the Romsdal is now 
disclosed. Lastly we enjoy a panorama of the whole Romsdalsfjord. 
From Aalesund to Molde the large steamers take 3V2-4:hrs.; the 
local steamers, with their many stops, take much longer. 

9 S.M. Molde, see p. 186. — Voyage to Ohristianssund and 
Trondhjem, see p. 194. 

24. From the Sognefjord to the Nordfjord. 

Feom Vadheim to Sandene (or Gloppen), 124 Eil., a two days' drive: 
Stolkjserre for 1 pers. 20.91, for 2 pers. 31.38 kr. ; Caleschvogn for 2, 3, 
4 pers. 55.35, 61.50, 67.40, 73.80 kr. — This is a much frequented route, 
as the huge Jostedals'oroe (p. 157) precludes any other. The first part heing 
the least attractive, we may take the S0ndfjord steamer from Bergen to 
Ferde (Com. 303), or we may steam all the way to the Nordfjord. 

Good walkers or riders may take the route from Skj olden over the 
Sognefjeld to Rejshejm (p. 67) and thence by Grotlid to Stryn (p. 172). The 
glacier passes from the Josledal to the valleys of the Nordfjord are fit 
for experts only, with good guides (pp. 158, 159, 168). 

Vadheim (by steamer from Bergen 7-10, from Lserdalsaren 
9!/2-10, from Balholm 3-4 hrs.), see p. 145. Conveyances usually 
await the steamer. 

The hilly road ascends the Vadheimsdal (westmost of the two 
valleys opening here), flanked with rocks 1500-1900 ft. high. The 
first gaard is Ytre Dale, on the left. The road crosses the river and 
ascends between the Dregebenip (left) and the Fagersletnip (right; 
2995 ft.). On a rock to the left lie the gaards of Dregebe. The 
road then re-crosses the river, skirts the Lower Yxlandsvand, and 
again crosses the river before reaching the dark Upper Yxlandsvan-I 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden 9fb Edit. \\ 

182 Route 24. F0RDE. From the Sognefjord 

(433 ft.). The watershed is by the gaards of Aareberge (535 ft.), 
lying in a basin to the right, -with a small lake. To the N. rises the 
imposing Kvamshest (see below). Passing gaard Lofald on the 

right, we cross the Quia or Holmedals-Elv, and soon reach 

16 Kil. Sande (Sivertsen's Hotel, R. 11/2-2, B. or S. iy 2 , IX 2y 4 , 
pens. 5-6 kr.; very good; Engl, spoken), with the church 'of Indre 
Holmedal and several gaards. To the S. rise the ifope/w (2850 ft.) 
and the more distant Dregebenip ; W. the Stenscetfjeld (2470 ft)- 
N.W. the lofty Kvandalsfjeld (3324 ft.). 

From Sande a good road leads W., down the left bank of the Holme- 
dals-Elv, to (14 Kil.) the slow station of Eidevik , near the church of 
Begstad and gaard Sveen (good quarters; E. li/ s , B. or S. iy 4 kr.) on the 
Dalsfjord, on which a steamer plies twice weekly (Com. 302; 19.1/2-13 hrs. 
from Bergen). The finest point on the Dalsfjord is Dale., on the S. hank, 
with the Salshest (2333ft.), the dome-shaped Kringlen (2434ft.), and other 
mountains. — From Sveen to Langeland (see below), 11 Kil. 

From Sande a road leads E., up the Holmedal, to (7 Kil.) the slow 
station of Borsevik on the pretty Viksvand (525 ft.), which repays a visit. 
On an island near the N. bank of the lake is the church oiBaestad. From 
Horsevik to Vik, at the N.E. end of the lake, 14 Kil. (by boat). Near Vik 
is the mouth of the Eldal (p. 147) on the right. — From Vik a road leads 
through the Haukedal to (7 Kil.) Mostadhaug on the Haukedalsvand, whence 
we may row to Ktfrvik (p. 163). 

Beyond Sande the road ascends to gaard Tunvald at the base of 
the Tunvaldfjeld. Fine view behind us. We soon sight the moun- 
tains of the Dalsfjord (in Sandfjord) ; in the distance, the Leke- 
landshest (2625 ft.); nearer, the Kvamshest or Store Hest (4065 ft.), 
resembling a huge horse's head; below us the wooded basin of 
Lundebygden. We next reach the gaards of Skilbred, on the peaty 
Skilbredsvand, whence we view the Kvamshest and the Lille Hest 
(3019 ft.) to the N.E. of it, with a snow-field between them. We 
pass several pleasant gaards. 

12 Kil. (pay for 14 in this direction) Langeland (rustic quar- 
ters) lies high above the S. end of the Langelandsvand (2t/ 2 Kil. 
long), where a road to Sveen on the Dalsfjord diverges to the left. 
The road to Eerde follows the E. bank of the lake, and above the 
Ba-kkevand reaches its highest point (1119 ft.); it then descends 
in windings into the valley of Ftfrde and to the Ferdefjord. Walkers 
may avoid the windings by short-cuts, but should not wander too 
far from the road. To the left rises the Solhejmsheia (1276 ft.); to 
the right we see the Halbrandsfos. The ascent from Ferde to the 
Bjekkevand takes l^hr. 

In the valley the road to the left leads to the steamboat-pier on 
the Ferdefjord, of which the upper bay only is visible. We turn to 
the right and ascend by the broad Jeilster-Elv to (about 1 Kil., 
472-572 hrs'. drive from Vadheim) — 

11 Kil. (pay in opp. direction for 14) F,erde. On the road is 
*Hafstad's Hot. (R. 2, B. or S. I1/2, D. 2i/ 4 kr.). On the right bank, 
reached by a long bridge, is *Sivertseris Hot. (same charges; Engl, 
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to IheNordfjord. J0LSTERVAND. Map, p. 144. — 24.R. 16o 

(right) is the church. The broad and smiling valley is enclosed by 
high hills : N. the Ferdenip (2828 ft.); E. the Viefjeld (see below) ; 
S.W. the Solhejmsheia (p. Ib2). Ferde is the capital of the district 
of Send fjord (p. 159). The 'fjord race' of horses bred here is noted. 
On the Fjardefjord, on whose bank runs the road mentioned above, a 
steamer plies twice weekly (Com. 303): to Naustdal on the N. bank in 
l-IVs hi-., to Florj* (p. 159) in 5 hrs. 

Leaving Farde, we look to the left, N.E., into the Angedal, 
with the Sandfjeld (4100 ft.) and the Kupefjelde (4190 ft.) in the 
background. Our road ascends the well -cultivated valley of the 
Jelster-Elv, passing numerous gaards. Fine view of the broad Bre- 
landsfos. On the opposite bank rites the Viefjeld (2210 ft.). About 
6 Kil. from Ferde the long Farsunde-Bro carries us across the lower 
end of the Movatten (75 ft.), a small lake through which the Jalster- 
Elv flows. The road skirts the N. bank of this lake, at the foot of 
the Viefjeld. On the S. bank lie several gaards. At the head of 
the lake, on the right, is the agricultural school ('Landbrugsskole') 
of Mo, beyond which is seen the Huldrefos. Beautiful pine-wood. 
About 5 Kil. from the Farsunde-Bro a road diverges to the right to 

The road to Holsen (no skyds) crosses the J0lster-Elv and leads a little 
N. of the Aasenvand ; then on the if. bank of the Holsenvand (410 ft.). 
The church of Holsen is about 9 Kil. from the parting of the ways. The 
road next leads over the Rtirvikfjeld, and past the Rervik Scetre, to gaard 
Rervik on the Haukedalsvand (863 ft.), at the N.E. end of which, about 
15 Kil. from Holsen, is the church of Haukedal. The road ends at gaard 
Groaning (1090 ft. ; quarters) , 4-5 Kil. farther up. Thence to Balholm on 
the Sognefjord, see p. 147. — A grand but rough route, fording several 
brooks, ascends the Grendal, with a view of the Orovebrce on the left 
and the Jostefond on the right, to the Seknesandsskar, and descends to 
Sflknesand (p. 164). 

Beautiful scenery. The green wooded valley is backed by fjelds 
to the E. and N.E. 

20 Kil. Nedre Vasenden (Nielsen's Hot., R. 1 V2"2, B. or S. 1% 
D. 2!/4 kr.) lies at the W. end of the Jedstervand, out of which 
the J»lster-Elv flows in a series of rapids (seen from the bridge by 
the inn). 

On the pretty *J«lstervand (673 ft.), 23 Kil. long from S.W. 
to N.E., plies a small steamer (Com. 495; 2 hrs., fare 2 kr.). The 
banks are studded with gaards, mostly on the 'Solside', orN. side. 
The road on the N. bank leads by the base of the Jygrafjeld, past 
the gaards of Sviddal at the mouth of the Bergsdal, and through 
the fertile Aalhusbygd, with the church of Aalhus or Jmlster. 

On the S. side of the lake rise the Sanddalsfjeld, the Klana, the 
Orken, and the Sadelegg. Above these peep at intervals the Orove- 
brce or Jelstrajekul and the Jostedalsbrae. By the gaards of Mykle- 
lostad are pretty waterfalls. 

To the left, at the E. base of the Bjersatfjeld (3ol4 ft.), which 
the road rounds, are the gaards of Aardnl or Ordal. Then the 
church of Helgheim. 


164 72.24.— Map,p. 144. VAATRDAL. 

On the right opens the Kjesncesfjonl (10 Kil. long), hacked by 
the blue-green *Glacier of Lund e. To the N. of this fjord rises the 
Bjerga [5512 ft. ); to the S. the Seknesandsnipa (4968 ft.). 

At the E end of the Kjflsnsesfjordlie the gaards of Seiknesand and £«»<?« 
(poor quarters at both), whence, with a guide, we may cross the Ur0ndal 
(i) 163) and go on to Sveeren (p. 147), or we may cross the Jostedalsbrfe fa.k,. 
in ' Fiarland (p. 148). The latter is an attractive route, not difficult tor 
adepts, to the middle Sognefjord (comp. p. 150; to the Lundeskar 2'/*, the 
glacier 1, across it l«/s, the B0,jum-Sa;ter 2'/4, Fjarland 2 hrs.). 

At the head of the Jedstervand lies — 

23 Kil. Skej (*Hot. Skej, R. 17 2 -2, B. or S. li/a, D. V/ it pens. 
4i/o-5 kr. ; Engl. Ch. Serv. in July & Aug.). Vehicles always to be had. 

The road ascends past several small lakes. On the right, between 
the Feglevand and the Skredevand, is the Fosheimsfos, descending 
from the Bjerga. By the Bolscetvand the old road remains on the 
left. Our road crosses a hill to the Stardal, at the head of which 
appears the huge Jostedalsbrse. Beyond Klagegg (741 ft. ; 5 Kil. from 
Skei) the road divides: left to Egge, right to Aamot in the Stardal. 

The latter road ascends to (about 10 Kil.) Aamot (tolerable quarters 
at Tolleif AamoPs; guides always at hand), the starting-point of several 
grand passes across the J ostedalsbrjb (guides, Ole T. Aamot, Elling Aamot, 
1'eder iVavnles; rope necessary): - (1) Road to Drtvet (q^ers at the 
guide's M. Be/sat)-; then over the "Oldentkar (above 3450 tt.) to the Olden- 
vand (guide 5 , kr.,' p. 169), 6-7 hrs.: 2 to the foot of the Aamot Glacier 
2 over rough 'IV to the highest point, and a very steep and fatigmns 
descent of 2 hrs. more, with line views, to Malkevold and Rusleen . (p. 169). 
A most interesting excursion, often taken by ladies, and not "1™™" in 
good weather. — (2) Across the .Tostedalsbrie to the Autterdalsbrw ; then 
lown to Nordve Nat (10-12 hrs.), comp. p. 155. 

The road to Egge turns to the left into the narrow Vaatedal, 
flanked with high mountains, and descends by the stream. On 
the right is the Hcnghejmsfjeld, on the left the Svenskenipa (4770 ft.). 
The road crosses to the right bank, and the valley expands. On the 
right towers the conical Eggenibba (5250 ft. ; ascended from Egge, 
(i-7 hrs.; bridle-path to the Egge-Sseter, halfway). 

14 Kil. Egge i Vaatedalen (558 ft.; Hot. Egge, R. l 1 ^, B. or 

We next skirt the E. side of the Bergemsvand (469 ft.). On the 
left rises the Raadfjeld, on the right the Vora. Beyond the gaards 
of Bergheim or Bergem the road crosses an effluent of the Sanddals- 
vand on the right and divides. The right branch (rough) crosses a 
high hill, by Moldestad, to Utviken (p. 165); the good road to the 
left leads to — 

12 Kil. Red or Re (Hot. Gordon, good), finely situated on the h. 
bank of the *Bredhejmsvand, Breimsvand, or Breumsvand (184 ft.; 
81/0 sq. M. in area ; 896 ft. deep), a grand and sombre Alpine lake, 
about 16 Kil. long, enclosed by imposing mountains. On the left 
rises the Skjorta ('shirt'; 5780 ft.). 

The *Road, hewn in the rock and partly buttressed by masonry 
on the N. bank of the Bredbejmsvand, rivals in grandeur the Axen- 

NORDFJORD. 25. Route. 165 

strasse in Switzerland. To the left rises the Rysdalshorn Beyond 
Vasenden the stream issuing from the lake forms the kidsfos. Inc 
roid ascends a little, partly through wood, and then descends, 
affording a fine view, to — ..-„„„+• 

14K11. Sandene, on the Qloppenfjord (p. 1673, a station ot 
the Nordfjord steamers and of a local boat (see below). 

The rough road diverging to the right from the road between 
Bergheiin and Red (see above) leads to (7 Kil. from Egge) Moldestad, 
whence a road to the right leads to Foshejm and Myklebostad 

To Foshejm 5, thence nearly 4 Kil., past the Sanddalsvand, to Mykle- 
bostad From Foshejm a glacier-pass leads past the Store CeoihenkroDa 
to Olden (p ?63). From Myklebostad we may ascend the Snempa (6063 It.). 

The road to Utviken now crosses the high hill between the 
Bredhejmsvand and the Invikfjord ; it first ascends and then de- 
scends so steeply that walking is almost imperative most of the way 
(from Moldestad to Utviken 3i/ 2 -4 hi..). The road ascends between 
the Skavlevagge on the right and the FaUefjtld on the left. As we 
mount, a view to the right is gradually disclosed of the vast snow- 
expanses of the Ojetenyken (5823 ft.). At the top we reach a plateau 
of moor (2074 ft.), where the road undulates considerably. Numerous 
glacier boulders. To the S.W. we look back on the sharply defined 
Skarstenfjeld (p. 167). On the N. margin of the plateau we sight 
the Invikfjord far below, commanded on the N. by the Laudalstmder, 
the Storhorn with its large glacier, and the Hornindalsrokken. lhe 
descent is steep at first and afterwards in gradual windings, which 
the walker may avoid by short-cuts. The Stor-Elv, winch descends 
in many falls on the right, turns several mills near Utviken. 

20 Kil. (from Egge ; pay for 26) Utviken, a station of the Nord- 
fjord steamer and of a local boat (see p. 167). 

25. The Nordfjord. 

Stfameks fCom 306 a; a few only have sleeping-berths) from Bergen 
to FaZdell times a week in 20-36 hrs. (fare 15 kr.); to«Y««. 
i/,hr more (15.40 kr.) ; to Loen, tyhr. beyond Visnses, and to Olden, l h-i bi. 
more 05 80 kr.l. In the height of summer a local steamer also plies almost 
daily (Com 306 b) from Sandene (Gloppen) to Utviken, Falejde, Stryn, Olden, 

atld ThTsea-vova-'e from Bergen is long. Whether starting from Bergen or 
from sLXLfPp 165, 167), the traveller had better steam ««£'»£««», 
Loen, or Olden\ V . 168), make excursions in the Loen dal . or tl e OHeniUl, 
and continue his journey through the Strynsdal and Videdal (R. 2b). 

The *Nordfjord, running parallel with the Sognefjord, one de- 
gree of latitude farther N., but scarcely half the length extends 
80 Kil. inland to the N.W. slope of the Jostedalsbra; (p. 157). ihe 
different parts of the fjord have different names. The common 
designation, 'Nordfjord', originally meant a district, the IS. part 
of the Nordre Ber^enhus-Amt, but is now applied to the ijord itself, 

166 Route25. NORDFJORDEID. Nordfjord. 

Its finest scenery is in its inmost recesses, here unusually grand and 
picturesque. No finer combination exists of vast expanses of water 
■with mighty mountains and glaciers. Nowhere are the peculiar 
charms of Norwegian scenery, vying with the Alpine, more admir- 
ably illustrated. 

Steamer from Bergen to Molde (13-15 hrs.J, see pp. 159, 160. 
The steamer retraces its course and steers E. between Vemelsvik 
and Gangser into the Nordfjord. The first station here is Rugsund 
(Inn), on the S. side, opposite the Rugsunde. 

From the next station, Bryggen (Inn), on the N. bank, a road 
leads over the Maurstadeid (2080 ft.) to Aaeim on the Vanelvsfjord 
('20 Kil. ; p. 160). We next call at Haugs or Haw in the Daviks- 
fjord, also on the N. bank; then at — 

Davik, in a pretty bay of the S. bank, once the residence of the 
poet Claus Frimann (d. 1829); and at Domsten or Dombesten. 
Splendid view, S., of the Aalfotbra. 

The fjord now forks into the Isfjord to the S.E. (see below) and 
the Eidsfjord to the E. ; in the latter the steamer touches at Starheim, 
Naustdal or Nestdal, and (5^2 hrs. from Molde) — 

Nordfjordeid, a large place with church, post-office, and bank. 
About 1 M. from the pier is Boalth's Enkes Hotel (good; often 
full of English salmon-fishers). Near it is a military camp and 
drilling-ground. — From Nordfjordeid a road ascends the valley to 
Nor or Nord (7 Kil.), on the Hornindalsvand (20 sq. M. in area), 
the geological continuation of the Eidsfjord, 184 ft. higher, while 
its depth is 1590 ft. below the sea-level. Its lofty banks are partly 
wooded. From Nor a steamer (Com. 500) plies 4 times a week in 
2V2-372 hrs. to Orodaas and Kjm (p. 176). 

From Nordfjordeid to Volden (p. 185; 46 Kil.). The road leads 
W. on the Eidsfjord to a bifurcation: the road to the left leads to 
Naustdal (see above), that to the right to (15 Kil.) the slow station 
of Smerdal. Fine view of the Gjegnabrse (see below) behind us. The 
road crosses the pass (1640 ft.) and descends rapidly to (11 Kil., pay for 
13) the slow station of Seindre Birkedal, on the lake of that name, 
with picturesque rocky environs. Then, by Kile, to the (10 Kil.) slow 
station of Stremshavn, on the Kilefiord, the S.W. bay of the Voldenfjord, 
and by boat on the fjord to (10 Kil.) Volden. 

From Spindre Birkedal an interesting path ascends the Laui'dal and 
crosses the fjeld to the Dalsfjord. On the way we may ascend the Felden 
(4300 ft.: grand mountain and glacier view), in which case the route 
takes 8-10 hrs. (with guide). From Indre Dale, on the Dalsfjord, aa arm 
of the Voldenfjord, to Volden by boat about 14 Kil. 

Returning to the entrance of the Eidsfjord, we steer round the 
JJuvnnas into the Isfjord, then round the Askevik into the Aalfot- 
fjord, where we call at Aalfot. To the S. of the Isfjord we see the 
: ''0ksendalsstrenge, draining the Aalfotbrce and the Gjegnabra, and 
descending in fine cascades from the gorges of the Vestre and 0stre 
0ksendnl (p. 167).. We pass close to them on the way back from 
the Aalfotfjord. We next pass the massive Skjcering (4075 ft.), 
v ith the solitary gaard of Skjeistrand. The fjord here is called the 

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Nordfjord. UTVIKEN. 25,-Route. 167 

Hundviksfjord. We cross the mouth of the Hymfjord, which cuts 
deep into the S. bank, in view of the Gjegnabrse, to the station 
of Hestnceseren (quarters at the post-office). One steamer goes to 
Hyen, at the S. end of the fjord. 

In the Hyenfjord, opposite Hestnaesjzrren, opens the Skjserdal, through 
which we may ascend past the Heimestel to the Gjegnabrtx. The Svarlevands- 
lind and the Ojegnet (5653 ft.), two splendid points of view, may be 
ascended. Descent to the 0kimddt, or S. to Hope, near the 8. end of the 
Hyefjord (guide and rope necessary). The indication of these routes on 
the map has been given by Hr. K. Bing (p. 132), who has explored this 
region. — Glacier-excursions may also be taken to the BuMenipa (5250 ft.) 
and the Slorhest, W. of the J&ksendal, and to the Marietind and Sagen, W. 
of the Aalfotbrce. 

The steamer now rounds the Kvitences into the attractive Gloppen- 
fjord, flanked on the W. with lofty, partly snow-clad mountains. 
On the W. bank are Ryg and the church of Qimmestad, on the E. 
the church of Gloppen. Then (372-4 hrs. from Nordfjordeid) — 

Sandene or Oloppen (*Hot. Oloppen, 5 min. from the pier, It. 
1V2-2, B. or S. IV2, D. 21/2 kr. ; *Sivertseris Hot., 5 min. farther, 
same charges ; Engl. Ch. Serv. in Aug.), in a charming site at the S.E. 
end of the fjord, terminus of the road from Red on the Bredhejms- 
vand (carr. to Skej , etc., see p. 161). Trout-fishing and pretty 
walks near. Steamer to Bergen thrice weekly (fare 14.20 kr.); to 
Falejde, Loen, and Olden daily (4 kr.). 

We return to the main fjord, here called TJtfjord. The hills are 
wooded and dotted with pleasant gaards. Fine view behind us, 
S.W., of the glacier-clad Gjegnet (see above). Stations: Rysfjceren, 
on the S., and Rand on the N. bank. On the latter, a little farther 
on, is a fine waterfall. 

The fjord is now called the Invikfjord. Numerous gaaids on the 
green slopes of the N. bank. To the E. we view the glaciers of the 
Store Cecilienkrona (p. 169) and Gryterejdsnibben. In 2 1 /2 _ 3 1 /a nrs - 
from Sandene we reach — 

Utviken {Hot. Britannia, R. 1-1.20, B. or S. 1.20 kr., good), 
a pretty, scattered village with church. The road from Egge (p. 164) 
ends here. Both the Bergen and the local steamers call at Utviken. 

The fjord now turns sharp to the N. On the left rises the Selvbjerg- 
fjeld. On the right, in a beautiful bay, is the pier of Indviken (no 
inn), with its church, at the mouth of the wild Prmstedal, which is 
flanked N. by the Skarstenfjeld (5384 ft.), and S. by the Sterlaugpig 
(5554 ft. ; both easy and interesting ascents). We next round the 
headland of Hildehalsen, where the fjord again turns E., to — 

Falejde (Hot. Falejde, three houses; Engl. Ch. Serv. in July 
and Aug.). A road with beautiful views, from which the Grodaas 
road (p. 176) diverges to the left, skirts the fjord, crosses the Stryns- 
Elv at Toning, and leads to Visnses (9 Kil. ; skyds for one pers. 1.53, 
two pers. 2.35 kr. ; caleschvogn for 2, 3, or 4 pers. 4, 5, or 5 J /2 kr 0- 

The fjord is here superb. Facing us is the castellated Aarhejms- 
fjeld (2018 ft.); at its foot, at the mouth of the Strynsdal, lies — 

168 B.25.— Map, p. 166. OLDEN. Nordfjord. 

Visnses i Stryn (*Hot. Central, with view, R. I1/2-2, D- 2i/ 2 , B. 
or S. IY2, pens. 4-6 kr. ; Visnces Hot, very fair, both at the pier; 
Hot. Stryn, at Toning, see above; Hot. Wiig, at Vik, further "W., 
20 min. from the pier), starting-point for the Strynsdal and the 
Videdal (pp. 172, 173). Beautiful road along the fjord to Loen 
(10 Kil.; stolkjasrre, in II/4 hr., 1.70, 2.55 kr.). 

In the distance, a little to the right of the Aarhejmsfjeld, are 
the Skaala (p. 170; 'howl'), with its glacier-hasin opening N.W., 
and the Sandenib (p. 170); nearer rises the Auflemsfjeld (seebelow), 
between the Loendal and the Oldendal. To the right, behind the 
Auflemsfjeld, appears later the Melhejmsnib (p. 170). To the S. we 
look into the Oldendal, with the Store Cecilierrkrona (W. ; p. 169) 
and the Ravnefjeldsbrae (E.). On the N. bank rises the Ophejmsfjeld, 
a splendid point of view (ascent from gaard Rake, 2 hrs.). 

Loen (*Hot. Alexandra, two large timber houses, 6 min. from the 
pier, Engl, spoken; R. 11/2-2, B. or S. 1 1/2, D- 2i/ 4 , pens. 41/2-6 kr. ; 
Engl. Oh. Serv. in July and Aug.), with a small church, finelly 
situated at the mouth of the Loendal (p. 170), which is here bounded 
by the Lofjeld (N.) and the Auflemsfjeld (S.; 5090 ft.), merits a 
prolonged stay. The new road to Olden is nearly completed (7 Kil, ; 
by boat in 3/ 4 hr. ; there and back with two rowers, 5 kr.). Steamer 
from Loen to Olden 1/2) fr° m Visnses 3 / 4 hr. (1 kr. ). 

Olden, or Olderen {Yri's Hotel, !/ 4 hr. from the pier, R. lVa-2, 
B. or S. I1/2, D. 21/2 kr. ; vehicles in waiting; Engl. Ch. Serv. in 
summer), lies at the S. end of the fjord, at the mouth of the beau- 
tiful Oldendal. To the right we see the snow-clad Store Cecilien- 
krona and the Bermses-Klaaven, to the left the Synsnib and the 
Melhejmsnib (comp. p. 170). 

Excursions to the Oldendal, Loendal, and Strynsdal. 
The three valleys Oldendal, Loendal, and Strynsdal, S.E. and E. of 
the Invikfjord, ascend into the heart of the Norwegian Fjeld, and to the 
Jostedalsbrw (p. 157). Each is occupied by a lake, 11-16 Kil. long, formed 
by ancient moraines or (in the case of the Loenvand) by a barrier of rock 
(Ejd), which separates it from the fjord. All, notably those in the Olden- 
dal and Loendal, are enclosed by huge precipices rising to 4900 ft., over 
which tower peaks to a height of 1000-1500 ft. more. From these descend 
glaciers on every side. Abundant trout and salmon attract many anglers. 
— Guides, unnecessary except for the glaciers : Rasmus R. Aatraikke of 
Olden, Thor Ejde of Ejde (p. 169), and Thor Antonsen Greidung of Opstryn 
(p. 172) are certificated by the Tnrist-Eorening. Per J. Gvenfvr, at Fosnces 
or Greidung (p. 172), and Elias M. Hogrenning and R. Jacohien of Flo 
(p. 172) are also commended. 

*ExctmsioN to the Oldbndal (there and back, 872 hrs.) . 

Olden, see above. The road to Ejde (5 Kil. ; stolkjserre 1.28 kr.) 
affords a pleasant walk, but we may have to drive to catch the steam- 
launch on the Oldenvand. The road ascends by the milky stream, 
in view of the Store Oecilienkrona (p. 169), passes the Lekenfos 
with its saw- mill halfway, crosses the river, and then leads on the 
W. hank of the pretty Floenvand to (25 min.) the gaards of — 

Nordfjord. BRIGSDALSBR^. Map, p. 166.— 25. R. 109 

Ejde, at the N. end of the *01denvand (122 ft.; 3i/ 4 sq. M. in 
area ; 295 ft. deep), running S., 11 Kil. long and barely 1 Kil. hroad. 
The steam-launch^ 1 /^, there and back 272 kr.) makes the passage 
in 3/ 4 hr.; hut if time permit, a rowing-boat (with one rower 4, 
with two 6 kr. ; 172-2 hrs.) is preferable. 

On the left, soon after starting, is gaard Sandnces ; on the right 
an ancient moraine with gaard Bennas, and the Bennas-Klaaven 
above it. Waterfalls on every side. To the right rises the steep 
snow -clad Store Cecilienkrona (5627 ft.; ascent 7-8 hrs., fairly 
easy ; guide 6 kr.). To the left, on the banks of torrents, lie gaards 
Haahjem, Strand, and Gjerde. To the S. the lake appears closed 
by the Synsnib ('noon-Mil'), but nearing Sunde we see through an 
opening to the right the Grytereidsnib (5614 ft.) and the Yrinib 
with two glaciers. — The strait of *Sunde, through which a strong 
current flows, has been formed by the deposits of two streams de- 
scending on the left from the Sundebra, between the Gjerdeakseln 
(6408 ft.) and Neslenibben (4862 ft.). On the right are the gaards 
of Sunde. On rounding the precipices of the Synsnib, we obtain a 
magnificent **View of the S. half of the lake, now broader, with 
the Maelkevoldsbrse, which seems to descend to the head of the 
lake, though 5 M. distant from it. To the right, scarcely less im- 
posing, towers the Yrinib, with its waterfalls, and at its base gaards 
Bak-Yri and Indre-Yri. At the end of the lake is the Ruste field, 
with its conspicuous waterfall. On the left is the abrupt Kvam- 
fjeld, with several cascades. 

We land at Rusteen (quarters at the guide's, Jakob Jenssen 
Myklebostad). As the launch starts 4 hrs. later for the return-trip, 
we drive to the Brigsdalsgaard (about 5 Kil. ; vehicles in waiting; 
2-3 kr.). The road leads across swampy alluvial lands , passing 
(10 min.) the gaards of Kvamme, to ( 4 / 2 hr. ) Mcelkevold. To the 
left, above, is the Aabrehkebrai, between two rocky heights, taking 
its name from the gaards visible beyond Maslkevold. Also to the 
left is the Brigsdalsbrae. At the head of the valley is the Malke- 
voldsbrce, imbedded between the Kattenak and the Middagsnib. To 
the right of the glacier are the twin falls of the Vaalefos. 

From Mjelkevold to Aamot, a splendid fjeld-pasa of 7-8 lirs., see 
p. 161. Rasmus R. Aabrcelkke is recommended as a guide. 

The road ascends over 'Ur' and, 25 min. from Mselkevald, crosses 
the river at a sharp angle, at the union of the streams descending 
from the Vaalefos and from the Brigsdal on the left. In 10 min. 
more the road ends at — 

Brigsdals-Gaard (493 ft.), where dinner may be ordered for 
the return ( 2, bed li/ 2 kr.). 

A somewhat stony path on the right bank of the Brigsdals-Elv 
ascends to the ('/ 2 hr.) Waterfall of that stream, and to a higher 
level of the valley, where we obtain, E., a most striking view of 
the **Brigsdalsbr8e, the blue ice of which towers above birch and 

170 B. 25.— Map, p. 166. EOENVAND. Nordfjord. 

alder thickets. We pass through the wood, and lastly over fatiguing 
moraine, to (20 min.) the foot of the glacier (1000 ft.), -with its 
superb iee-cavern, from which the stream issues. High up to the 
right is seen the Kjetabra, from which waterfalls and occasionally 
blocks of ice descend. 

The Brigdalsbrae, a very steep offshoot of the Jostedalsbree, was ascended 
for the first time in 1895 by K. Bing Cp. 167), with the guide Rasmus Ras- 
mussen Aabrekke to the top, 9 hrs.). 

*Excuesion to the Lobndal (7 hrs., there and back). 

Loen, see p. 168. The road to the Loenvand (stolkjserre 7b 0., 
there and back l 1 ^ k r -! a pleasant walk, but comp. p. 168) ascends 
on the right bank of the torrent. We follow the main road, which 
trends to the right. Park-like landscape, with trees, shrubs, and 
green meadows. Above it tower great mountains. We cross the 
stream issuing from the Tjugedal on the left. The Loendals-Elv 
forms the Haugfos, of horseshoe-shape. 

The ascent of the Skaala (6353 ft. ; from the Tjugedal near Loen, and 
back, 8-9 hrs., not difficult for good walkers; guide for one pers. 5, for 
each pers. more 50 0.) is attractive. Refuge-hut on the top (adm. V2, bed 
1 kr.). A vast snow-field covers the W. slope. — A path ascends E. from 
the Tjugedal to the Tjugedah-Sceter; thence a stiff climb, without path, at 
last over unpleasant 'TJr' to the top of the pass. On the other side we 
descend, at first over snow, and then by a sseter-path to the church of 
Opslryn (p. 172; 5-6 hrs. in all). 

From Loen it is a drive of 25 min. or a walk of 3 / 4 hr. to — 
Vasenden, at the lower end of the *Loenvand (289 ft. ; 437 ft. 
deep), a grand Alpine lake of pale-green colour, 14 Kil. long. The 
small steamer 'B^dal' plies twice daily to B#dal in 40 min. (re- 
turn-fare 21/2 kr.); a rowing-boat takes about double the time 
(there and back, with two rowers, 5V2 ^ r 0- 

Soon after starting we survey the whole lake. On the left, 
above gaard Sande , rises the Sandenib (5426 ft.); on the right 
are the Auflemsfjeld and Melhejmsnib (5429 ft.). From all the 
mountains , especially the Eavnefjeld (see below) on the right, 
descend large glaciers, ending, however, far above the lake. At 
the Brengsnces-Sceter, on the left, a high waterfall descends from the 
Skaalebrae (see below). On the W. side of the lake is the Hellc- 
sceterbrce, ending abruptly at a height of about 3900 ft., whence 
numerous streams and, in hot weather, ice-avalanches fall, spread- 
ing out in fan-shape below. On the E. bank are gaard Hogrending 
and a waterfall from the Osterdalsbra. The W. bank is unin- 
habited. On the E. rises the Kvmmhusfjeld (5700 ft.), with gaard 
Redi at its foot. To the W. is the steep, serrated Eavnefjeld 
(6575 ft.), where a terrible landslip occurred on 15th Jan. 1905. 
The falling rocks produced a great wave in the lake, which swept 
away several gaards on the E. bank, causing a loss of 61 lives. 
Farther on, to the E., opens the Bedal, backed by the Skaalfjeld 
with the Skaalebrce. A memorial-stone on a low rock by the lake 
recalls the landslip. 

Nordfjord. KJENDALSBR/E. Map, p. 166. — 25, R. 171 

In the B0DAL, where the steamer stops if desired (or reached hy row- 
ing-boat, 4 kr.), a new track ascends, first on the left and then 0/4 hr.) 
on the right hank, looking back on the Eavnefjeld and the Loenvand. 
On the right, 1 hr. from the bridge, is the Heisteinfos. The track, be- 
coming rather stony, ends at the (1/2 hr.) Beidah-Sater (1969 ft.; bed 1, 
B. or S. 3 /4, D. 2 kr., fair). Grand environs. On all sides protrude 
glacier-tongues into the valley. We cross a bridge S. of the sseter and as- 
cend by a path, rough in parts, to ('/z hr.) the foot of the * Badalsbrse, 
the glacier which descends farthest. — The ascent of the * LodaUkaupa 
(6794ft.; p. 159) from theBcrdals-Sa;ter takes 7-9 hrs. '(two guides, 25-30 kr.); 
the pass to Faaberg in the Jostedal (p. 158) takes 15 hrs. (two guides). 

The lake contracts to a strait. High up to the light, on the S. 
slope of the Eavnefjeld, we see traces of the great rock-slide (see 
above). In front towers the Nonsnib, rising almost sheer 6000 ft. 
At its foot opens the Kvandal or Ncesdal, with its glacier and the 
adjacent TJtigardsfos, about 2000 ft. high, descending in steps from 
the glaciers of the Ravnefjeld. Passing through a bend of the lake, 
we enter the impressive *Basin of Ncesdal, bounded on the W- 
by the Ravnefjeld, S. by the Nonsnib, and E. by the Bedalsfjeld. 
Between the last two peep the Kronebrm and the Kjendalskrona 
(5998 ft.). In the midst of this grand scene, at the mouth of the 
Kvandals-Elv, lie the turf-roofed gaards of Ncesdal. 

At the Kjendal pier is a good restaurant connected with the 
Alexandra Hotel (p. 168), where dinner (2i/ 4 kr.) may be ordered 
for the return. A road leads hence over a sandy plain, and then 
up the E. side of the valley, protected against the river by stone 
dykes. After 1/2 hr. suddenly appears the *Kjendalsbrse in all its 
grandeur , on which waterfalls descend from the right. After 
20 min. more the road ends. A stony path, passing a rfrmt. hut, 
and then mounting the debris of the moraine, and crossing branches 
of the glacier-stream, leads in ^4 hr. more to the glacier. (Dan- 
gerous to mount it, or even to go near it, owing to falling stones.) 

From N^.sdal (see above) across the Jostedalsbrce to the Josledal, a 
grand expedition of about 15 hrs. (comp. p. 159). 

The *Steynsdal is usually visited on the way to or from Grotlid 
(comp. p. 174), but may be combined with a drive to beyond Skaare 
(p. 173): a fine day's excursion from Visnaes or Loen (10-11 hrs.). 

Visnces, see p. 168. The road (skyds, 1 pers. 1.87, 2pers. 2.81 ; 
caleschvogn for 1,2, or 3 pers. 5, 6, or 7 kr.) crosses the Stryns- 
Elv. On the right bank the road to Falejde and Hellesylt goes to 
the left (p. 167) ; we follow the Stryn road to the right. It ascends 
E., past Ytre Ejde (waterfall), the church of Nedstryn (right), and 
the gaards of Gjerven and 0vre Ejde. On the left rises the Kirke- 
nible (4072 ft. ; ascent from Visnass 8 hrs. ; guide 4 kr.), from which 
several waterfalls descend. On the opposite bank is the house of an 
English fishing-tenant. Farther on we skirt the Nedre Floden, the 
lower bay of the Strynsvand. On the left of the road is a large glacier 
'cauldron'. Ahea'd of us is the massive Flofjeld, with the Iiindals- 
horn (p. 172); to the right is the Brakkefjeld, with a large snow- 
tteld. In l'/ 4 hr. from Visnses we cross by a long bridge to — 

172 R. 25.-.. Map, p. 166. STRYNSVAND. Nordfjord. 

11 Kil. Mindre Sunde (Hot. Mindre Sunde, R. 11/2. T> -% B. or S. 
1^2 kr.), finely situated, where vehicles may always be had for 
driving "back to Visnass. 

The *Strynsvand or Opstrynsvand (69 ft.; 9sq.M. ; 650 ft. 
deep) is the largest of the three lakes to the E. of the Nordfjord. 
A motor-boat plies on it five times daily to Hjelle (13 Kil., in 
1-1 7 2 hr.; I1/2, return-fare 2y 2 kr. ; Corn. 499a, b). The W. part 
of the lake is narrow. On the left descends the Store Sundfos; to 
the right is gaard Dispen, below the glacier of that name. In front 
the scene is bounded by the Flofjeld, behind by the pointed 
Kirkenibbe. On the bank to the right are gaards Meland and Berg- 
stad. To the left rises the slope of the Skjilergsfjeld, beyond which 
opens the Vesle Bygdal, with its gaards. By two islets, between 
which we steer, beyond gaard Lindvik (on the left), the lake ex- 
pands and bends S.E., revealing its full grandeur. At its head is the 
Erdal,with its background of glaciers. To the right is the Fosnasbra, 
descending from the Skaala (p. 170). To the left is the Marsaafos; 
then, the Flofjeld (4403 ft.), with the Rindalshorn (5952 ft.) behind 
it, and the gaards of Flo in front (722 ft.; good quarters ; guide for 
the pass over the Flofjeld to Hellesylt, 2-3 kr. ; p. 177). Next, to 
the right, is the 'nose' of Tunoldshaugen, with gaards Brakke and 
Aaning high above. Farther on, to the right, are the church of 
Opstryn and the gaards of Fosnas. (Thence to Loen, with guide, 
4-5 hrs. ; p. 170.) On the left is the Glomsdal, with gaards Olomsnas 
and Sigdestad ; below is a fine waterfall. The huge Hjellehydna 
separates the Videdal from the grand Erdal (see below), in which, as 
we near Hjelle, appears the Tindefjeldsbra on the right, overlooked 
by Yngvar Nielsen's Tind (see below). At the mouth of the Videdal, 
near the head of the lake, lies Hjelle, where we land. 

Hjelle, or Jelle (Hot. Hjelle, R. iy 2 -2, B. or S. 1% D. 2'/ 4 kr., 
very fair), is the starting-point of the routes' to the Geiranger (R. 26) 
and to the Gudbrandsdal (see pp. 173 and 88-85). 

The wild Sundal deserves a visit. The path to it diverges to the right 
about 2 Kil. from Hjelle. It ascends on the left hank to (2 hrs.) gaard 
Sundalen (8 Kil.), soon crosses the brook, and reaches (jU/2 hr.) the Sundals- 
Salter (rustic quarters; bring provisions; route to the Rauddal and the 
Framrust-Sseter, see p. 87). — A toilsome pass crosses the Sognskarbrce hence 
to (5'/2 hrs.) the Jostedalsbrce, and in 2 hrs. more descends the Ausdalsbrw to 
the S/ygvand and the Avsdolsvand, which we skirt for 2 hrs.; then 2>/2 hrs. 
more to the 0jsater in the Stordal (poor quarter?), in all 12-15 hrs. from 
the Sundals-Sseter. To Faaberg in the Jostedal (p. 158), about 2V 2 hrs. more. 

From Hjelle we may row in 1 fe nr - to gaard Erdal, at the S. end of 
the Strynsvand, and walk in '/a hr. to gaard Qredung (poor quarters; guides 
see p. 168), the starting-point for the Erdal or Aardal, into which glacier- 
tongues from the Justedalsbrse descend on all sides. Before us, to the right, 
is the Tindefjeldsbrw, with Yngvar Nielsen' s Tind (5575 ft. ; ascended by K. Bing 
in 1893); to the left are the Ryghydna (5320 ft.) and the Sceter/jeld (6205 ft.L 
From Grednng we ascend, in view of the Erdalsbrw or Gredungsbrae, coming 
down between the Strynskaupe (1.) and the Skaalfjeld (r.), to (2-2V 2 'hrs.) the 
loftily-situated Gredimys- Salter, at the foot of the fissured glacier (2316 it.). 
— Uver the Jostedulsbrse to Faaberg in the Jostedal, conip. p. 159. 

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26. From the Nordfjord to Aalesund and Molde. 

a. From the Strynsvand via Grotlid to Marok. 

88 Kil. (pay for 121). Road, the grandest route between the Nordfjord 
and S0ndmore. Two days, a night being spent at the Videscfter or at 
(Jrollid. The road is drivable from mid-Jane to mid-September only. 
Vehicles are usually engaged for the whole journey from Hjelle to Marok : 
Stolkjserre for 1 pers. 2U.57, for 2 pers. 30.85; caleschvogn for 2, 3, or 4 pers. 
54.45, 60.50, 72.50 kr. (enmp. p. 174). — The best bits for walking (not 
before mid-July) are from Skaare to Vasvendingen (p. 174; 4'A> hrs.) and from 
the Djupvashytle to Marok (pp. 175, 176 ; S!/ 2 hrs.). 

From Hjelle (p. 172) the road, opened in 1896, ascends by 
an ancient moraine, •which the Videdais-Elv has broken through. 
Fine *View behind us of the snow-mountains S.W. of the Stryns- 
vand, notably the finely shaped Skaala (p. 170), the Tindefjeld, 
the Fornssbrae, and the Brekkefjeld. To tue right opens the Sundfd 
(p. 172), with the snow-fields and glaciers of the Saiterfjeld. We 
cross the Sundals-Elv and pass the gaards of Folven. The loops of the 
road on the Aaspelifjeld are seen in the distance, and theVidesseter 
high above. We then cross the river and, after a drive of 3/ 4 hr. 
from Hjelle, reach — 

7 Kil. Skaare (D. 2 kr. ; the host Rasmus Skaare and Olav Skaare 
are good guides). As the road to the Videsaeter (2 hrs.' drive) is 
very steep most of the way, we may take skyds for baggage only 
( 'enkelt') and ascend on foot. 

From Skaare to the Djhpvashttte, grand, but toilsome, 51/2-6 hrs. 
(guide 6 kr., not, indispensable). From the J0lbro (see below) we ascend 
the Skwringsdal to the left, to the (l 3 / 4 hr.) Skxringsdal - Sailer ; then to 
the right, up the Grasdal, steep at places, to the Ovasdalsvand, and lastly 
a stiff climb to (372 hrs.) the snow-clad Grasdalsskar, between the Gras- 
dalsegg and the Skseringsdalsbrse, where a superb view of the Djupvasvand 
and the Geirangerfjord Bits, is revealed. We then descend to the ('/2hr.) 
Vjupvashytte (p. 175). 

About 2 Kil. beyond Skaare, to the right, we obtain a view of the 
deep ravine of the Videdals-Elv. The road reaches the mouth of 
the Skatringsdal, crosses it by the *Jelbro (295 ft. above the river), 
and winds up the Aaspelifjeld between the two ravines. To the 
right is a high waterfall, descending from the snow-fields of the 
Nuken. The road crosses the Videdals-Elv and follows its left bank. 
Behind us is a splendid **View of the Videdal, flanked with grand 
mountains jutting one before the other. In the background rises the 
Skaala. Walkers who cut off the curves of the road take l 1 /^"! 3 /* nr - 
from the Jelbro to the Videsaeter. 

8 Kil. (pay for 9) Vide-Sseter {Inn, good, kept by the guide 
R. Skaare, R., B., S., each I1/2, D. 21/4 kr.) lies at the top of this 
section of the valley. Behind the inn a path to the left leads to a 
railed platform above the 0fstehrofos. 

The road gradually ascends the second section of the valley, 
crosses the foaming stream, arid in */ 2 nr - begins to mount in wind- 
ings to the third region of the valley. Waterfalls right and left. 

174 R.26.— Map,p.l73. GROTLID. From the Nordfjord 

To the right, aboye, on the steep slope of the Raudegg, is the long 
Tystigbrce. Looking back, we have another superb view of the head 
of the Strynsvand, with the Skaala and Braekkefjeld behind. Further 
up we twice cross the stream, which here forms pretty waterfalls, 
and pass several tarns. 

By the Langevand, which is not free from ice till August, is the 
boundary between Nordre-Bergenhus-Amt and Christians-Amt. To 
the right is the E. part of the Tystigbrae. Passing several small lakes, 
the hilly road leads through the long Vatsvenddal to (2 1 /4hrs.' drive 
from the Videsaater) Vasvendingtn (3737 ft. ; rfmts.), the highest 
point of the road. To the right are the snow-fringes of the Skridulaup- 
bra. Behind we have a last view of the Skaala. 

Grotlid is still about 12 Kil. distant, a drive of 2-2^2 hrs. To the 
right, between the Raudegg and the Skridulaup, opens the Maaraadal, 
with, its snow-fields and glaciers. Beyond the Heilstuguvand, turbid 
and milky from the glacier-water of the Maaraa, we descend to — 

28 Kil. (pay for 43) Grotlid, Orjotli, or Orjotlien ('stony slope' ; 
2888 ft.; Hotel, new and good, R. 11/2-2, B. or S. 1% D. 2-2i/ 4 kr.; 
quarters also, if need be, at the old inn, 2 Kil. E., same owner; 
see also p. 87), in a bleak fjeld-solitude, at the junction of the roads 
from Stryn, from the Geiranger, and from theGudbiandsdal(R. 10). 
Opposite the hotel lives a Lapp family, who tend the reindeer on 
the mountains around. 

Sktds Tabiff to the Djupvashytte (3-3 1 /* hrs.), 1 pers. 6.12, 2 pers. 
9.18; to Marok 10.54, 15.81; to the Videsater (3-3 ] / 2 hrs.), 7.31, 10.97; to ffjelle 
(5-5V2 hrs.) 10.03, 15.6; to Pol/oss (2'/ 2 hrs. ; p. 87), 4.59, 6.89 kr. 

Feom Grotlid to the Tafjoed, about 11 hrs. (guide to Kaldhus-Sa:ter 
necessary, 4-5, horse 7 kr.). We leave the Marok road before the bridge 
over the Hanua (see below ; the path on the right bank soon ceases), and 
ascend that stream to the Viavande, a series of lakes W. of the Heilstugegg 
and the Langegg. Then past the Fagerbottenvand and down to the Kaldhus 
or Kalur - Sceter , on the lake of that name (1970 ft.; good tourist -hut). 
Lastly a good path down the valley and past the Onilsvand to Tafjord 
(p. 183) about 12 Kil. 

The Road prom Grotlid to Marok skirts the N. bank of the 
Breidalsvand (2888 ft.; 8 Kil. long), bounded on the N. by the 
Breidalsegg and S. by the Vatsvendegg or Langvasakseln, and crosses 
several of its tributaries. Among these is the Hamsa, about 5 Kil. 
from Grotlid, whose mouth we pass round. We next pass the small 
Lcegervand and the Langvand, with the precipices of the Stavbrakker 
rising on the left and the Djvpvasegg (5383 ft.) on the right. About 
19 Kil. from Grotlid a stone marks the boundary between Christians- 
Amt and Romsdals-Amt. 

To the left appears the snowy Skaringsdalsbra, S.W. of the 
Djupvand (3295 ft.), which we now reach. The water of this blue 
lake, often ice-clad even in summer, descends E. to the Otta and 
the Laagen. The valley still rises a little towards the right. From 
the top the Kolbeinsdal descends N., traversed by a marked patli 
to the Viavande, Kaldhus-Sseter, and the Tafjord (couip. above). 

toMolde. DJUPVASHYTTE. Map,p.l73. — 2(1.R. 175 

The road rounds the Djupvand, on the S. side of which we perceive 
the huge rocks of the Grasdalsegg (5151 ft.) and the Skseringsdals- 
brse. A 'hautasten' marks the highest point of the road (3405 ft.). ■ — 
At the W. end of the lake, 5 Kil. from the frontier-stone, 2 J /2 hrs'. 
drive from Grotlid, is the — 

24 Kil. (pay for 36) Djupvashytte (Inn, two houses, R., B., S., 
each li/ 2 , D. 2 l UkT., very fair). 

From the Djupvashytte over the Grasdalssknr and through the Skcerings- 
dal to Skaare, see p. 174 (0-6 hrs. ; guide 6 ]<r.). 

A little farther on we reach the watershed between the Skager- 
Rack (towards which the Otta flows) and the Atlantic. The road 
skirts the Bundhorn (4902 ft.). About 35 min. beyond the Djupvas- 
hytte a finger - post on the left points to the short ascent to the 
Jctltegryde, a glacier 'cauldron', 7 ft. in diameter and 10-14 ft. deep. 

The **grandest part of the route begins here. The traveller 
should walk (S^hrs., or a drive of l 3 /4-2 hrs. to Marok). The road 
descends rapidly in zigzags. The distance to Marok is 17 Kil., 
though in a straight line scarcely 6 Kil., and the difference in height 
between the watershed and the fjord is 3405 ft. The road is one ol 
the grandest of its kind, and is not surpassed even in the Alps. 
Nowhere in Norway is the contrast between icy fjeld and genial 
fjord so striking. 

A superb mountain-scene presents itself, just beyond the 'caul- 
dron', after we have crossed the 0vre Blaafjeld-Bro: left, the 
Flydalshorn ; right, the Vindaashom, and beyond it the Saathom 
(5833 ft.), then the Orindalsnibba (5033ft.); in the distance are the 
hills enclosing the Geiranger Fjord; far below lies the smiling 
Oplasndskedal, which, in contrast to the vast fjeld, looks like a 
small park, with its meandering stream and winding road. In '/^hr. 
we cross the Nedre Blaafjeld-Bro. "Walkers had better keep to the 
road; the only advisable short-cuts are the path 10 min. beyond the 
Nedre Blaafjeld-Bro, and beyond the stone '800 m. over Havet'. To 
the right is the Kvandals-Elv, descending in falls from the Djupe- 
dal. After 40 min. we cross it by the Kvandals-Bro. Four bold 
curves carry us down to the upper Geiranger basin, the Oplcendske- 
dal , with the Oplandsgaard and the 0rje-Sccter (about 1420 ft. ; 
to the right, l/ 2 hr. from the Kvandals-Bro). 

We again descend rapidly to the next region of the valley, the 
Flydal, with a view, to the left, of the Flydalshorn and Blaahorn. 
Between these, high above gaard Flydal, appears a great snow- 
mantle, sending forth waterfalls. Some 6-8 min. beyond the 0rje- 
S;eter, 6 Kil. from Marok, the road forms a 'Knude' or knot (1335 ft.; 
rfmta.), passing under a viaduct which it has just crossed. To the 
left, 10 min. farther, is the fine Tverabefos, fully seen only from 
the rocks below the road. A finger-post, 10 min. farther, indicates 
the way to the *Flydalsdjuv (985 ft.), an abyss of several hundred 
ftet, whjle in front of us lies the picturesque lower valley, with 

1 76 R. 96. — Map, p. 1 73. GROT) A AS. From the Nordfjdrd 

the Union Hotel, and the church of Maiok. The road soon passes 
the good Hotel Udsigten (919 ft.; p. 178); the view here is similar 
to that from the Flydalsdjuv. A tall 'bautasten' recalls the adop- 
tion of the Norwegian constitution^ 1814 (p. Mi) and the foun- 
dation of the new kingdom in 1905. 

As we descend we are struck with the profusion of waterfalls 
on every side. The largest streams descend on the right from the 
Vesteraasdal, and unite, 5 min. from the Hotel Udsigten, below 
gaard Hole, where we cross the Hole-Bro. A finger-post to J;he 
right, 2 min. farther, points the way to the Storsmterfos (p. 179). 
We cross the Flaabro and the Kopebro. Before we cross the Ojerde- 
hro, by the stone '100 m. over Havet', a path to the right leads to 
the Kleivaf 08, a fine fall of the Vesteraas-Elv. 

In 5 min. more we reach the Union Hotel (p. 178). The road 
crosses the Vinjcbro and passes the copious Storfos, beyond which 
the river carries the united waters of the valley to the fjord. It 
then rounds the hill on which the church of Oeiranger stands, 
passes the Oeiranger Hotel, and ends at the steamboat-pier of — 

17 Kil. (pay for 26) Mnrok (see p. 178). 

b. From Falejde or Visnses by Grodaas to Hellesylt 
and Marok. 

Road to Hellesylt, a drive of 8-9 hrs., usually without change of horses, 
with a rest of l>/s hr. at Grodaas. Fares from Visnies to Hellesylt: btol- 
kiserre for 1 pers. 9.86, for 2 pers. 14.79 kr. ; caleschvogn for 2, 3, or 4 pers 
S 29, 34.80 kr. (from Falejde 25, 27i/„ 33 kr.). -Motor Boat (Com. 320) 
and Steamer (Com. 327, 325) daily from Hellesylt to March (Ge,ranger) m 
l'/shr. (fare 2 kr.). 

At gaard Svarstad, about 2 Kil. from Falejde (p. 167) and 
7 Kil. from Visnies (p. 168), the road ascends N.W. in steep wind- 
ings" affording fine views, through openings in the wood, of the 
fiord and the mountains behind us. The highest point of the road 
is about 800 ft. above the sea. Then over hilly ground, through 
monotonous wood , skirting the Langesatervand and some smaller 
lakes, and past several gaards, we descend to — 

12 Kil. (pay for 17 from Fale.ide, 23 from Visnies) Kjes, on 
the Kjesbunden, the S.B. bay of the Hornindalsvand. We may row 
from Kj0s to Grodaas, but driving is quicker. The hilly road skirts 
the lake and rounds the Kjesnebb. 

6 Kil. (pay for 8) Grodaas or Sanden (Raftevold's Hot., E., B-, 
or S. li/ 2 , D. 2kr., very fair, English spoken) has a charming site 
at the K. end of the Hornindalsvand, a lake abounding in fish and 
enclosed by wooded hills. Steamboat in summer (p. 166). A little 
to the N. is the church of Hornindal; N.W. rises the Hornsnakk. 
Ascents from Grodaas of the Hornsnakk, Kjesnebb, and other heights, 
2'/j-3 hrs. each; also of the Gulekop (p. 177) and the Qlilteregg (417d it.; 
5-6hrs.), which rises frorn the lake to the S. 

From Grodaas a bridle-path leads by Tommasyaard and ledemel 
(Rasmus A. l.sfdeniel, a good guide here, speaks Knglish) to the pass ol 

to Molde. HELLESYLT. Map, p. 166.— 26. R. Ill 

Kviven (2795 ft.) and past the Kvivdals- Stetre, where it joins a path from 
Oterdal on the Hornindalsvand, to (5 hrs.) Kaldvatn, on the road from 
Bierke to F0rde on the 0stefjord (p. 181). .,,„„,. , 

Finer but longer is the pass of the Hjorteskar to R0rstad (7-8 hrs.). 
This route leads up the Hjortdal (see below) to the Hjortdals-Sozter. through 
the Blaabrcedal, and along the glacier to the pass between the Lauedals- 
linder and the snow-clad Storhorn (5181 ft.) ; it then descends the Lauedal, 
past the Lauedals-Swtre, to Reirstad, on the Kaldvatn and Bjerke road (p. 181). 
The road ascending the Hornindal is so steep, that walking is 
as fast as driving. It passes thriving gaards, the Dene fan, and the 
entrance to the Hjortdal. The valley expands farther up, and is 
flanked with snow-mountains. On the right rises the huge Gule- 
kop; in front of it, the Seeljesceterhom (2207 ft.), hy which opens 
the Knudsdal; then, the Mulsvorhorn (2704 ft.); to the left, the 
Bra-kegg (4321 ft.) and Lilledalsegg. 

9 Kil. (pay for 11, but not in opp. direction) Indre Haugen or 
Hougen, a poor station. Hans A. Raftevold is a good guide. 

Farther on, up a side-valley to the left, we see the almost in- 
accessible-looking Eornindalsrokken (5017 ft. ; ascent from Haugen 
10 hrs., driving practicable for 2 hrs.; extensive view). We then 
cross the boundary of Nordre Bergenhus- Amt and Romsdals-Amt. 
6 Kil. Kjelstadli (1391 ft). — Grand scenery again. To the left 
opens the glacier-valley of Kjelstad ; and to the right the Rerhvsdol, 
with the pointed Rerhumibba. We descend to Tronstad (1161 ft.), 
a little N. of which, by Tryggestad, the Nebbedal (p. 179) opens 
on the left. Fine view of the Fibelstadnib. 

The road descends on the left bank of the Sundals-Elv ; the val- 
ley soon contracts to a deep ravine, descending to the Sunelvs- 
Fjord. To the left opens the Mulskreddal. From the great moraine 
we have a splendid view of the fjord and the mountains. We cross 
tliestream, which enters the lake in a waterfall, and pass the church 
of Sunelven. 

13 Kil. (pay in opp. direction for 17) Hellesylt (Grand Hotel, 
K. iy 2 -2, B. or S. ii/2, D- 2V2. Pens. 4-5V 2 kr.; Engl. Ch. Serv. in 
July & Aug.), grandly situated at the head of the *Sunelvsfjord, 
on which the Aalesund steamers and a motor-boat ply daily (p. 176). 
Vehicles await the arrival of the steamers. 

From Hellesylt to the Strynsvand. We drive up the valley to the 
SE passing the fine waterfalls Demefos and Freicefos , to Bjm-dal and 
(12 Kill Void-Hater (quarters). For the passage of the Flofjeld (4 hrajwe 
require a guide, who rows us over the Neslevcmd and .the Stegolnand We 
next pass the AangeUvand and descend by the tlvre m-Saittr* quarters if 
need be) and Nedre Flo-Sdter to Flo on the Strynsvand (p. 1U). 

Fine view of Hellesylt and the falls of the Sundals-Elv (see 
above) as we leave the pier. On the E. bank towers the Nokkeneb 
(4373 ft.) ; on the W. we see gaard Ljeen, whence a road winds up 
the Ljeenbakker (about 1970 ft.) and crosses the field to Slyng- 
stad (p. 183). 

Opposite opens the **Geiranger Fjord, into which we steer, 
notable for its bold cliffs and numerous waterfalls. On the right, 
Baedeker'8 Norway and Sweden. 9th Edit. 12 

178 R.26.-Map,p.l73. MAROK. From the Nordfjord 

the Nokkeneb; on the slope to the left, gaard Madvik. Then, to 
the right, gaards Syltevik and (above' it) Blomberg, the Liadalsnibba 
(4836 ft.), and; the Gjerkelandsegg (4941 ft.); and on the left, the 
Orauthorn (4426 ft.). The fjord now contracts. On the N. are the 
Knivsflaafosse or Syv Sestre ('seven sisters', but four only visible 
from below), falling from a perpendicular cliff. High up near them 
is gaard Knivsflaa. Above them rises the Ojeitfjeldtind (5145 ft.); 
farther on is the Ojeitfondegg (4800 ft.). From a gorge on the S. 
bank "emerges the fine SkaggefLaafos or Ojeitfos, near which is gaard 
Skaggeflaa (1640 ft.). Many smaller waterfalls pour from the cliffs, 
but partly dry up in August. Some of them descend in spray, be- 
traying their existence only by the white foam on the fjord ; others 
leap'sheer from jutting cliffs in' veil-like form. When the cliffs are 
shrouded in fog, the waterfalls seemjto come direct from the clouds. 
The rocks to the [right have fantastic outlines ; above them rises 
the Prcekestol (pulpit). Opposite, to the left, is the Gausdalsfos. 
Also to the left is gaard Grande, overtopped by the Lamhorn 
(4911 ft.). Nearing Marok, we obtain a superb view of the basin 
of , Geiranger, dominated on the left by the Saaihom (5837 ft.). 
High up on the right are the snow-fields of the Flydalshorn. At the 
head of the fjord, about 20 Kil. from Hellesylt, lies — 

Marok. — "Union Hot., on the hill above the church and the foaming 
Storfos, '/a b r - from *b e pier, carr. in waiting (short-cut, passing to the 
left of the church); Hot. Geirangek, 5 min. from the pier, with view 
of the fjord, plainer, bat also good; these two belong to the same owner 
and have similar charges (R. 172-3, B. or S. Vfe, D. 2y 2 kr.). — Mekok's Inn, 
close to the pier, plain, R., B., or S. 1 kr. — Hot. Udsigten (Bellevue), 
on the Grotlid road (p. 176), 21/2 M. from the fjord, seen, as we land, high 
over the church-spire; R. I1/2, B. li/ 4 , D. 2, S. IV2, pens. 5 kr., good. — 
Engl. Gh. Serv. in July and August. 

Vehicles await the steamer: to] the Flydalsjuv and back (2 hrs.), 
stolkjserre for 1 pers. 2, 2 pers. 3 kr. ; caleschvogn, 2-3 pers. 5, 4 pers. 
6 kr. ; to the Djupvashytte (17 Kil.), stolkjeerre for 1 pers. 4.42, 2 pers. 
6.63 kr. (there and back double fare) ; caleschvogn there and back, 2 pers. 
23V2, 3 pers. 26, 4 pers. 3tV2kr. ; caleschvogn to Ejelle i Stryn (p. 172) in 
two days, 54.45, 60.50, 72.60 kr. (in one day, without change of horses, 

Marok, Merok, or Mceraak, is a hamlet nestling round the head 
of the fjord on an old moTaine, overlooked by its church. Above it 
opens the basin of Geiranger, which the road to Grotlid ascends, 
rich in waterfalls (pp. 176-174). 

Travellers from Marok to Stryn miss the striking view they have in 
the reverse direction (p. 174), but see the waterfalls of 1he Geiranger basin 
to better advantage, while in descending the Videdal farther on they enjoy 
the splendid panorama of the snow-mountains on the Strynsvand. As far as 
the Djupvashytte (p. 175) driving takes as long as walking (4 hrs.). 

Visitors to Marok arriving and intending to depart by steamer should 
at least take an "Excursion to the Fltdalsdjov (p. 175), a walk of 
21/2 hrs., there and back. The road should be kept both ways. Below 
the Union Hotel is the Storfos, in which alUthe tributaries of the river 
unite. Above the second bridge of the road ('Gjerde-Bro'), on this side 
of the stone '100 m. over Havet\ a rough path diverges left to the Kleivafos, 
a fall of the Vesteraas-Elv. By the third bridge ('Kope-Bro') are other 
falls. Beyond the fourth bridge ('Flaa-Bro'), 10 min. beyond the stone 

to Molde. MEBBEDAL. Map^pp. 173, L06. — 2G.R. 179 


m. over Havet', a guide-post points left to the Storeceterfos (steep 
„a^nt" of 3 /i hr.). — The road ascends, crossing the 'Hole-Bro' at the 
Holefos to Hotel Udsigten, commanding a splendid survey of the Geiranger 
valley ' A little farther on, beyond the stone '300 m. over Havef, a finger- 
post indicates the way to the right to the Flydalsdjuv (p. 175). 

The '-Vesteraasdal, the N. approach to the Geiranger basin, between 
the Laushorn and the Grindalshorn, also deserves a visit. We follow the 
above-mentioned path, past the Stonceterfos, to (11/2-2 hrs. from Marok) 
the Stor-Sceter (2132 ft.). Splendid view. — We may then ascend the valley 
to the Vesteraas- Salter and mount the Kaldhusbakker to the S. end of a 
small lake, from which we visit the Vesteraasbrce to the left. Then either 
to the E down the Sletdal to the Kaldhus-Sseter, or N. down the Herdal 
to the HerdaUvand (1618 ft.) and Relling i Norddal (p. 182). 

Another fine excursion is to (p. 178; 5 hrs.). We row in 
1 hr. to the Skaggeflaanestet, whence the path ascends. Splendid view 

/kom Makok io the Norddalsfjord, 5-6 hrs., across the EidsdaHfjeld, 
an easy pass From gaard Grande (p. 178), to which a track leads on the 
N bank of the fjord in 35 min., a steep bridle-path ascends past several 
caards on the right bank of the brook. Fine view of the Geiranger Fjord 
all the wav. After ly, hr. we see a pretty waterfall below us, on the 
left- in ^'hr more we reach the top of the ascent and turn to the left. 
Then a gradual descent to (P|4 br.) gaard Indre Eide on the Eidsvaml 
(.'ood lishing), where a road begins. At the N. end of the lake (1/2 hr.) 
the road forks. The track to the right, at first level, then descends ab- 
ruptly in 2 hrs. (but better follow the easy road to the left in 2 hrs ) to 
Ytredal on the Norddalsfjord (p. 182), whence we row to Sylte in H/u hr. 
(1.92 kr.j. 

c. From Hellesylt through the Norangsdal and by the 
J-erundfjord to Aalesund. 

Road from Hellesylt to (25 Kil.) 0ie: stolkJEerre for 1 pers 4.25, 
for 2 pers. 6.38 kr. ; caleschvogn for 2, 3. or 4 pers. 14, 17, or 20 kr. - 
Steamer from 0ie to Aalesund (Com. 328) 6 times a week in 34 hr.-. 
(3.30 kr.; for Seholt change at Hundeidvig, p. 182). — From Ssebef by 
0rstenvik to Aalesund, I-I1/2 day; see pp. 181, 182. 

This route through the district of "Sandmare contains some ot the 
most varied scenery on the W. coast of Norway. The grandest parts are 
the Norangdal, the Norangsfjord, and the Jerundfjord. 

From Hellesylt up to Tryggestad, a drive of 3 / 4 hr., see p. 177. 

The road to 0ie turns N.W. and ascends the Nebbedal, a 
pleasant green valley sprinkled with birches. On the left rises the 
long Kvitegg, with several heights, between which a glacier is im- 
bedded. On the right is the Tryggestadndkken , separated by the 
Satredal from the abrupt Fibelstadnib, which forms the background of 
the valley all the way. To the N. rise the Smmskredtinder (p. 180). 

10 Kil. (pay for 12) Fibelstad-Haugen (1214 ft.; Hot. Norangs- 
dal very fair, a little to the left of the road ; finger-post), lying 
between the summit of the Kvitegg and the Fibelstadnib, on the 
watershed between the Sunelvsfjord and the Jarundfjord, is a good 

mountaineering centre. . 

Ascent of the 'Kvitegg (5590 ft.; 4-5 hrs.), one of the finest in S0nd- 
mtfre. Guides, Lars Eaugen and P. A. Lillebee, the schoolmaster (3-5 kr.) 

From Fibelstad-Haugen to Bjerke, on the Jtfrundfjord, a splendid 
walk of about 5 hrs. (with guide): W. up the valley to the Kvilelvedals- 
skat; N.W. of the Kvitegg; then past the N. side of the little Kvitelve- 
dalsland, and down its brook to the * Tussevand (1970 ft.), where we get a 


180 ]{.26.-~Map,jKlG6. 01E. From the Nordfjord 

view of the wild Hornindalsrokken (p. 177); round the N. side of the 
lake, down the Tusse-Elv through a series of gorges, and past the Tussefot 
to Bjerke (p. 181). 

AtFibelstad-Haugen begins the *Norangsdal, one of the grand- 
est valleys in Norwav. The road (to 0ie 272 hrs. , which -will repay 
walkers) follows the E. side of the valley. In front the valley ap- 
pears closed by the Smerskredtind, -which with its peaks and the gla- 
cier between them recalls the Wetterhorn near Grindelwald. Several 
small lakes are passed. The brook sometimes disappears tinder the 
rocks and the avalanche-snow, which lies in the valley throughout 
the summer. A few poor saeters are built into the rocks for shelter 
from avalanches and stone-falls. In 1 hr. we sight the curious peak 
of Slogen (see below), which seems to alter its shape as we proceed. 
The valley contracts. The scenery is wildest by the sheer black 
cliff of *Staven (over 4920 ft.), at the fouTth lake. The road crosses 
to the left bank. 

The valley expands. To the left is the Kjeipen, the prolongation 
of the Staven. The road keeps to the left side of the valley, oppos- 
ite the slope of the Smerskredtinder (5240 ft.; ascended by Mr. 
Slingsby, 1884'). To the left are the Middagshorn (4353 ft.) and 
Blaahorn; in the distance, the Saksa (p. 181). 

About 2 hrs. from Fibelstad-Haugen we reach Skylstad, the high- 
est gaard in the valley, at the foot of the Middagshorn. The road 
crosses to the right bank. Farther on (about 3/4 hr. from 0ie), a 
terrible landslip from the Kjeipen (see above) occurred im May, 
1908, which covered the valley with debris and boulders and dam- 
med it up, forming a lake and submerging the old road and several 
swters (new road on the "W. bank). 

14 Kil. (pay for 15) 0ie (*Vnion Hot., R. i%-% B. or S. 11/2, 
D. 274, pens. 5 kr.), at the E. head of the Norangsfjord, 7 min. 
from the pier, in a beautiful and sheltered site. On both sides 
of the valley and fjord rise imposing mountains : the jagged Slogen 
(summit not visible from 0ie) and the Middagshorn ; then (right) 
the Klokseggen and (left) the Blaahorn (4500 ft.). On the E. the 
valley is closed by the Skruven (see above), with its snow-fields. 
To the WV, the Saksa, with its singular notch from top to bottom; 
beyond the Xorundfjord are the jagged Gratdalstinder, near the 
Bonddal (p. 185). 

The ascent of the 'Slogen (5210 ft.) is recommended to good climbers 
(from0ie 4 hrs., with guide); the last part is an interesting clamber over 
rocks, free from danger. The view, called by Mr. Slingsby one of the 
noblest in Europe, embraces the numerous peaks of Sjzrndmizrre, and is 
often preferred to the Jotunheim views. 

A grand but fatiguing route leads from Skylstad (see above) hetween 
the Slogen and the Smtfrskredtinder over the pass of Skylsladlvekken 
('J592 ft.); then either N.E. to Stranden (p: 183), or N.W. by gaard Brtin- 
itad in the Velledal down to Aure (p. 18i). 

The **Norangsfjord (steamers, see Com. 328) is an arm of the 
Jerundfjord, of similar Alpine character. Leaving 0ie we see the 
Elgenaafos on the left ; then the gaards of Siennas in an exposed 

to Molde. J0RUNDFJORD. Map, p. IOC— 26. R. 181 

situation under the Staalberg (4138 ft. J; and on the right, at the 
mouth of the Urkedal, the gaards of Urke (pier). In the distance 
rise the snow - clad peaks of the Vellesaterhom. To the W., ahove 
Urke, towers the Saksa (3446 ft.), which with the Staalberg forms 
the grand portal to the Norangsfjord. Behind us is the Slogen. 

The **Xerrujidfjord (or Hjerund or Jering-Fjord), which the 
steamer now enters, is one of the mott superb in Norway. Instead 
of being a deep cutting in the great Norwegian plateau, with nearly 
upright sides, it is flanked with picturesque ranges and peaks, 
some of them strikingly bold and pointed, others isolated by deep 
gaps or notches ('Skard'), with snow and glaciers far above. Viewed 
by evening-light the effect is singularly beautiful. 

The S. part of the Jerundfjord is visited by the steamer thrice a 
week. On its W. hank is gaard Skaare, with the 'Fos' of that name, 
at the foot of the Skaaretinder ; on its E. bank, to the S. of the 
Jagta (5240 ft.), lies gaard Viddal (pier). At the S. end of the 
narrowing fjord, high above the water, lies Bjerke (quarters &i0ies, 
the school-master), the terminus of the steamer. Above it rise the 
Bjerkehorn (4445 ft.) and the Tussenut (4203 ft.). Near it is the 
Tussefos, descending from the Tussevand in three stages. Jacob 
Bjerke is a good guide. 

A road (slow stations) leads from Bjerke up the Sjaustaddal, by E«r- 
Itad and Rueid, to (15 Kil.) Kaldvatn (p. 177), and down to (8 Kil.) Fjarde 
(quarters at D. Moan's), on ihe Mstefjord, the S.E. arm of the Voldenfjord. 
(To Volden, 18 Kil., by boat; p. 185.). From Rjirstad the Storhcrn (5U6 ft.) 
may be ascended in 6 hrs. 

On other days the steamer, on leaving the Norangsfjord, steers 
to the W. bank of the Jerundfjord, over which towers the jagged 
Storhorn (see above), adjoined by the Skaaretinder. It then passes 
the Hustadnas. On the bank, a little S., is the Raamandsgjel, a 
cavern in the rock Raamand. 

Sabe (skyds-station), with the church of Jerundfjord, lies in 
a small bay, at the mouth of the well-tilled Bonddal (p. 185), 
backed by the Veirhalden (p. 185). Grand view of the S. arm of 
the lake, with the snow-fields of the Kvitegg (p. 179) and Tussenut 
(see above) beyond. 

From Stebo to Urslenvik, 24 Kil., a beautiful drive (comp. p. J 85); 
from 0rstenvik to Aalesund steamer 4 times weekly (Com. 32i). 

The scenery of the N. part of the Jerundfjord is at its grandest 
as we near Store Standnl (pier), at the mouth of the valley of that 
name (p. 185), on the N. side of which rise the glacier-clad Kolaas- 
tinder (4800 ft.), and on the S. side the vast snow-fields of the 
Selvkallen. To the N. towers the Standalshorn. As we steam on 
we have a very fine view of the Lille Slandal, with the serrated 
snowy lidge of the Romedalshom, recalling the Aiguilles of Mont 
Blanc; beyond rise the Tre Sestre. — Comp. Map, p. 180. 

On the E. bank, opposite Standal, rises the imposing Mr,Utuj>s- 
fjeld, named after gaard Molcmp at it.s N. base. Near it is the 

182 R.2fi. — Maps,pp.J7S,186. SYLTE. From the Nordfjord, 

cavern Troldgjel, where a phenomenon similar to that on the Lyse- 
fjord has been observed (p. 111). Then, on the same side, is the 
Slettefjeld. On the W. bank are the cloven Jemshorn (4714 ft.), 
with a glacier in the depression, and the station of Saltere. We 
now cross the mouth of the Je-rundfjord, obtaining in clear weather 
a final survey of the whole fjord (36 Kil. long), as far as the snow- 
flelds of the Skaaretinder, and call at Hundeidvig, where there is 
correspondence twice a week with the boats to Seholt and Marok 
(comp. p. 184). 

We next steer W. to Fceste, and then N. through the Vegmnd 
(see p. 184) to Aalesund (3 3 / 4 -4 hrs. from 0ie). 

d. From Marok and Hellesylt by Stfholt to Aalesund or Molde. 

Steamer from Marok to Seholt (Com. 327 and 335) daily in Ai/j-9 hrs 
f fare 3 60 kr.) -, (o Aalesund in 7-12 hrs. (fare 5.10 kr.). - From S0holt to 
(26 Kil'.) reslnas Road. From VestnEes to Molde Steamer in 1 hr. (fare 
2.3) kr.; see p. 187). 

Marok see p. 178. The steamer returns to the Sunelvs fjord and 
Hellesylt (p 177), and then steers N. Of the mountains flanking 
the fjord the chief are, W., the Aakernaisfjeld (5042 ft.), jutting far 
into the fjord, and, E., the Nonsfjeld and Snushom. On the E. side 
are several gaards and waterfalls. 

From the Sunelvsfjord, at the entrance to which, W. and if,., 
are the Oksnms and the Skrenak, most of the steamers turn E. into 
the Norddalsfjord, the inmost arm of the Storfjord (p. 18d). On 
the N. bank lie the gaards Li and Overaa. On the S bank is the 
rock called Si. Olafs Snushom. The first station (2 hrs. from 

Hel Slr a Tthe mouth of the valley of that name (Pass to the 
Geiranger Fjord, see p. 179.) Then Relling, with the Norddalsktrke, 
whence the wild Torvleisa (5994 ft.) may be ascended in 5 hrs. 

Svlte (Hot. Orenningsmter , good), with the church of Mun, 
lies on the N. bank. A vein of bright quartz in a rock high above 
the fjord is called St. Olafs Slange or Syltormen. To the K rises 
the Heqqurdalstind. . . 

From Syi/te over the Stegap«li> to the Romsdai y « "^"fc 
route of IV, day. The road ascends the °!d morale ^ ' fl ^**» lie £ 

^V^Z^J^V^ °^ ^"^hlchSS 
crossing the river several times, and P"^ ple 1S n if,"fr S I k'8yS? horse 
summef-visitors from Aalesnnd. At gaard Rem, 12 Kil. from bylte h owe. 
and vehicles may be obtained. Beyond Rem we °ross the great ^ 
„f Skjcersurden. At gaard Langdal (rustic quarters '). »*£* d " * U g ™£ 
«,-n»rafehw' drivel a guide may be obtained (to veDlungsnBes o kx.j. 
favlte (d'/2hrs. arivej a „ u me j w ascend the Meterdal, 

The road ends at «"« Stei, 20 mm. farmer. V¥e "" w ?f t,„ the f. rflt 

past the 0-cve Stel, at first on the left bank of the stream By the lirflt 

Lge 'Varde;, H|, •»• ^" ™« S ^ ^"now ne'vartr "passin 

to Molde. S0HOLT. Maps,pp.l73,186. — 26.R. 18.3 

distance. We then descend the Stigane, an awkward zigzag path, past the 
Isterfos, with a view of the W. side of the Troldtinder (p. 180) to the 
right. In 1 hr. from the top of the hill we reach the Knud-Sater, and in 
'/2 hr. more the Byrn-JScetev, where we cross the Itira by a narrow wooden 
bridge. At (20 rnin.) the Sogge-Soeter begins a cart-track, which, turning 
to the left by (40 min.) the houses of Isterdal, leads in 1 br. more to 
Veblungsnies ; or we may turn to the right to gaard Sogge, cross the bridge, 
to the Romsdal road, and follow the latter to Aandalsntcs (p. 188). 

To the S.E. of Sylte is the * Tafjord, served once weekly by a 
steamer bound for Aalesund, and twice by one going to Marok, 
very grand, but inferior to the Geiranger. On the left of the en- 
trance are two high waterfalls; then the *MuldaUfos, to which a 
footpath ascends. The upper part only is seen from the fjord. The 
terminus of the steamer is at the hamlet of Tafjord (11 Kil. from 
Sylte; poor quarters). On the hill above, to the right, are iron- 
mines owned by an English company. Lofty snow-mountains peer 
over the banks on every side. 

From Tafjord a bridle-path ascends through fine and at places superb 
scenery, generally skirting the foaming torrent, to (2V« hrs.) the tourist- 
hut Kaldhus-Sceter (p. 174), whence mountain-paths lead to the Djupvas- 
hytte (p. 175) and to Grotlid (p. 174). — From gaard Atuldal, by the Mul- 
dalsfos (see above), to Stueflaaten in the Romsdal, see p. 191. 

From Sylte we steer W., past the pretty gaards of Linge and the 
Liabygd (station). To the left, a beautiful view of the Sunelvsfjovd 
up to Hellesylt. The steamer then crosses to — 

Stranden (quarters at K. Olseria, P. Ous's, and gaard Ringstad), 
with its church and the pleasant gaards of Slyngstad (pier), at the 
mouth of the Strandedal. 

The fjord, also called Strandefjord or Slyngsfjord, continues 
beautiful. Rounding the prominent Stordalmces or Holmen, we 
steer into the small Stordalsvik (pier), with gaards Hove and Vinje, 
at the entrance to the Stordal. The next stations are Dyrkorn and 
Vagsvik, whence we may ascend the Laupare (4754 ft.), or drive to 
Sylte on the Tresfjord (p. 188). Nearly opposite Vagsvik is the bay 
of Sjevik with the station Ramstad. 

We round the Gausnas and (3l/ 2 -4 hrs. from Sylte) reach — 

S-eholt, or Sjeholt {Hot. Seholt, kept by A. Rasmussen, good, 
R. 2, B. or S. I1/2, D. 2 kr.; Th. Sjeholt Enke'a Hot.; Engl. Ch. 
Serv. in July & Aug.), at the N. end of the pleasant 0rskogvik, and 
separated from the church of 0rskog by a stream which here falls 
into the fjord at the base of the Lifjeld (ascent IV2 hr.). To the 
N.E. is the Snaufjeld (2880 ft.); over the Gausnas rise the moun- 
tains by Aure (p. 184). — From Seholt to Molde, see p. 185. 

Road to Aalescnd, 40 Kil. (a drive of 5-6 hrs.). Stations: (13 Kil.) 
Flaale or Flote, (13 Kil.) Redscet, and (14 Kil.) Aalesund (comp. p. 184). 
The steamer touches at the small wooded Langskibse, in a bay 
between the mainland and the Oksenei, next at Glomsel, and steers 
S. across the fjord, here for a short distance called Nordfjord, and 
then Storfjord. In the wider sense the latter name embraces the 
whole fjord up to Sylte (p. 182). We steer round the Awancts to — 

184 R.2G. — Maps,pp.lG6,186. AALESUND. FromlheNordfjord 

Aure (Hol.80ndm.0r; Hot. Aure), on the Sekkelvs fjord, prettily 
situated, with grand environs. As we near it we see the Hammer- 
scettinder rising above Aure on the left ; to their right is the pointed 
Stremshorn (3222 ft.); then the Brunstadhorn, the Ojeithorn, the 
Vellesaterhom (4750 ft.), and the Bingdalstind, partly snow-clad. 

Beautiful Excursion of one day (48 Kil. ; slow stations; best therefore 
to hire vehicle for the whole trip at Aure). We drive E. to (11 Kil.) 
Sj0vik (p. 183); then S. up the Ramstaddal to the (12 Kil.) Ny-Swter 
(quarters), on the Nysaetervand (1247 ft.), whence the 0seslar (3937 ft. ; fine 
view) is easily ascended. We next cross a hill to the Velledal, where 
Dvolninghaug , its highest gaard, is 6 Kil. from the Ny-Sseter. Magnificent 
view, in descending, of the snow-mountains above mentioned. Then past 
naard Velle, where the valley bends N., to (13 Kil.) Stremmegjeerdet, at 
the S. end of the S0kkelvsfjord, and back to (6 Kil.) Aure. 

On the W. side of the Sekkelvsfjord is the station Ekornas, 
with the Skopshom (4430 ft.) above it. Then, on the Storfjord, S. 
and N., the stations Tusvik and Emblejm or Emblem. We next steer 
E. of the large island of Sule and enter the narrow Vegsund, with 
its pier; but some vessels go round the whole island and pass be- 
tween it and the Hareidland. [Steamers in the reverse direction 
steer S. from Vegsund to Hundeidvig, where the Hellesylt and 
Jerundfjord lines (p. 181) correspond.] From Vegsund we cross 
the Borgundfjord to the Buholmskai, and then steer round the Aspe 
to the Skandsekai, in the harbour of Aalesund. 

Aalesund. — Schieldeop's Hotel (Sch. on the Plan, p. 18B), on the 
Skandsekai, 5 min. from the pier, good, R. 2-4, B. or S. IV2, D. (2 p.m.) 
2 kr. ; Soandinavie (PI. £*.), L0venvoId-Gade 8, farther from the quay, 
E. 2-4, B. or S. l'/z, D- 2 kr., well spoken of. — Post and Telegkaph, 
^'otenis-Gade, 4 min. beyond Schieldrop's Hotel. 

Aalesund, a busy trading town with 11,800 inhab., lies on the 
Nerve and the Aspe, two islands on the outer fringe of the 'Skjasr- 
gaard', a favourable site to which it owes its rapid rise. It was only 
in 1824 that it became a harbour, and in 1848 that it was privileged 
as a town. Originally built of wood, it was almost entirely burned 
down on 23rd Jan. 1904, but has been since rebuilt in stone. 
Aalesund is the commercial centre of the whole region of the Stor- 
fjord (see p. 183), and for the cod-fisheries of the W. coast (yield- 
ing 5-6 million kr. per annum). The harbour, which opens N.W. 
between the two islands, is protected by the Skandse, a peninsula 
of the Nerve, on one side, and by bulwarks on the other. The 
narrowest part of this strait, the Aalesund, which gives the town its 
name, is crossed by a bridge. On the Nerve ('indom Sundet') are 
the custom-house, the inns, etc., and on the Aspe('udom Sundet') 
are the church and the school. On the E. side of the Nerve quarter 
is a pretty Park. From the E. side of the park a steep path ascends 
in steps to the 'Fjeldstue' on the (>/ 4 hr.) nearer height of the 
*Axla or Aalesundsaxla (509 ft.), where we have an extensive view 
of the sea, the islands, and the Sendmere Mts. to the E. — A road 
on the S. side of the Nerve, in the direction Of Seholt (p. 183), 
affords fine views of the mountains. 

to Molde. 0RSTENVIK. Maps,pp. 186,166. — 20. R. 185 

The Steamboat Traffic of Aalesund is brisk. Besides the coasters 
of the Bergen and Trondhjem line (p. 159), and the S/zfndmore steamers 
to Hellesylt and Qeiranger (Com. 327), to the Jerundfjord (Com. 328), and 
to Molde and the Romsdal (Com. 332), note also the line — 

From Aalesund to Eidsaa and Aahjem (Com. 321). The steamer 
passes the island of Hessen (p. 161) and rounds the E. end of the Sute, into 
the Sulefjord, between E. the Sultf and W. the island of Hareidland. On 
the latter, the hills of which rise to 2360 ft., are the stations Braudal, 
Haveide with its church, and Liavaag. We next cross the Vartdahfjord 
to Vartdal, and steer S., past the LiadaUTtorn (3510 ft.), to the Urstenfjord, 
at the head of which (3 hrs. from Aalesund) lies — 

0rstenvik (0rsUimk\ Hot., good), at the mouth of the well-tilled 
0rstendal or Aamdal, watered by the 0rsten-Elv. To the N. rises the 
Saudehom (4330 ft.; easy ascent, and back, 5-6 hrs.; line view of the 
Sjzfndm0re Mts.). Another point of view is the Melshom (2740 ft. ; a shorter 
ascent). From J0frstenvik to the Jtfrundfjord, see below. 

From 0rstenvik to Volden by road (11 Kil.), a drive of l'Ahr.; the 
steamer, rounding the peninsula between the j&rstenfjord and the Volden- 
fjord. takes H/2-2 hrs. 

Volden (Nous's Hotel), near the slow skyds- station of Redsat (good 
quarters), on the E. bank of the Voldenfjord, is another starting-point 
for the Jgrundfjord (see below). 

Then several small stations, beyond which, once a week, the steamer 
goes to Eidsaa on the Savdefjord, and twice a week to Aaeim on the 
Vanelvsfjord (p. 160; about 5'/2 hrs. from Volden), returning to Aalesund 
by the same route. 

The "Roads to the Jjztrundfjord from 0rstenvik and from Volden 
form the finest approaches from Aalesund to the Alpine scenery of S0nd- 
m0re. Valleys with rich vegetation are framed with strikingly picturesque 
mountains. — From 0rstenvik the old road leads by (10 Kil.) Vatne and 
through the Bonddal (see below ; 3'/2 hrs.). The new road leads through 
the Follestaddal (3 hrs.). Both roads first ascend the beautiful 0rstenda), 
in view of a fine mountain-background, to gaard Aam, 5 Kil. from J&rsten- 
vik, at the mouth of the Tolleistaddal. We ascend the latter, in view of 
the superb Kolaastinder (p. 181), whence a glacier dips to the E. At gaard 
Kolaas (8 Kil. farther; modest quarters) the Romedal diverges to the left. 
The road, now rough and hilly, ascends the fitandalieid ; at the top we 
get a splendid -View of the Kolaastind behind and the peaks on the 
.Tjzrrundfjord before us. Then down the Standal to (8 Kil.) Store Slandal 
(pier; no quarters; p. 181). Lastly, row to SsebU, 8 Kil. 

From Volden the road crosses the Klevdalseid (984 ft.), and at gaard 
Bi'auteswt joins the road from 0rstenvik and Aam (see above), at the N. 
end of the Vatne- Vand, the E. bank of which it skirts. 

13 Kil. Vatne. Then uphill, past gaard Osvold, at the mouth of the 
Bjerdal, to the pass (919 ft.), where the "view of the Jgrundfjord Mts. is 
revealed. Next down the Bonddal, flanked by the Veirhalden (4013 ft.) and 
the Oretdalstind on the left, and the Aarsethorn (4498 ft.) and Storhoi-u 
(4488 ft.) on the right, and past several gaards. By gaard Hustad, on the 
Storhorn, high up on the right, is the ravine St. Olafsdal. 

14 Kil. (pay for 19, in opp. direction for 20) Rise (good quarters) ; '/* ur - 
farther is the pier of Soebei (p. 181). Lastly by steamer or boat-skyds to 
Hie (p. 180; 10 Kil.; order early). 

Feom SeHOLT to Molde. — Vehicles generally in waiting 
fp. 183: stolkjaerre to Vestnaes, 1 pers. 4i/ 2 , 2 pers. 7 72 kl '-)- r ^ ne 
road ascends trie 0rskogdal to a moorland plateau with a small lake. 
The numerous huts are '■Loer 1 for sheltering the hay; the long poles 
mark the route in winter. Beyond the highest point and the boundary 
between Bergens-Stift and Trondhjems-Stift, is (10 Kil.) the tourist- 
hut of 0rskogsfjeldet (coffee, 'brus'). We then descend theSkorgedal. 

186 Route 27. MOEBE. 

15 Kil. Ellingsgacml (574 ft.). Right and left are the Brustind 
and the Ysttinder. The valley becomes prettier. At Vikcn we reach 
the picturesque Tres fjord and skirt its W. hank, passing several 
gaards. We cross the mouth of the narrow Misfjord, leaving the 
church on the left, to — 

11 Kil. Vestnces (p. 187; in all 31/4 hrs.' drive). Steamer once 
or twice daily to Molrle and the Romsdal (Com. 332, 338, 341). 

27. Molde and the Moldefjord. Romsdal. Eikisdal. 

Arrival. The pier of the large steamers adjoins Hot. Alexandra; 
omnibus from the Grand Hotel meets steamers. The fjord-steamers land 
not far off, at the Torv, and also by the Grand Hotel. 

Hotels : Grand Hot. Pommerenk, finely situated at the E. end of the 
town, well fitted up, with baths, E, 2y 2 -7i/z, B. li/ 2 , D. (2 p.m.) 3 kr.; 
Engl, spoken. "Hot. Alexandra, at, the W. end, with baths, R. l'/2-3, 
B. I1/2, D. 3, S. 2 kr. — S0STRENE Holm (PI. H), R. li/i, B. 1, D. H/a kr. ; 
Moldkn^s Hot., in the main street; S#strene Eide, well situated on the 
fjord, pens. 4kr.; G. Anderson. 

Sea Baths, 6 min. W. of Hot. Alexandra (25 0.. towel 7 0. ; for men 
7-9, 11.30-2, and 5-8). 

Post & Telegraph in the main street (see Plan). — Engl. Ch. Sen. in 
summer at the parish-church. — British Vice-Consul, P. F. Dahl. 

Steamers to Bergen and to Trondhjem, each 11 times a week, to Aale- 
sund 17 times; to places on the Moldefjord, see pp.187, 191. — Careful 
enquiry should be made as to hours of departure. — Jlotor-launches may 
be hired by the day for excursions. 

Molde, a hright little town of 1700 inhab. , dating from the 
15th cent, is pleasantly situated on the N. hank of the Moldefjord, 
at the foot of green slopes backed by higher hills. Its trade is 
now small, but it is a great summer-resort. Being sheltered from 
N. and W. storms, the vegetation is surprisingly luxuriant here, 
though nearly 3° of lat. N. of St. Petersburg. Roses abound, and 
some of the houses are overgrown with honeysuckle. Birch, beech, 
horse-chestnut, lime, ash, and cherry-trees thrive. The cherries are 
good, though small. — The Church contains a picture by Axel 
Ender: the Women at the Sepulchre. 

The great charm of Molde is the noble survey it affords of the 
broad fjord and the long chain of mountains to the S. and S.E., with 
their rocky crags and snow-clad peaks. The finest point of view is the 
*Bekneshaug (259 ft.), a hill laid out in promenades, N.W. of the 
town, to which we ascend in 20 min. from the Grand Hotel by the 
upper road, crossing the Molde-Elv and passing the church, or in 
1 /4 hr. from Hot. Alexandra. At the top is a pavilion, with a view- 
indicator. In the foreground lies the town, at the foot of green 
hills, beyond which stretches the beautiful fjord, broken by the 
long islands Hj«rt0 and Faarfl. Our Panorama, taken from a slightly 
higher point, gives the names of the chief heights. 

Between the Humle Have, a private garden, and the Rekneshaug 
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Moldefjord. MOLDE. 27. Route. 187 

*ew min. by the path from the Rekneshaug, ascends to the right 
through a white gate past a pavilion with a flagstaff (rfmts.), to the 
(1 hr.) top of the *Moldehei (1349ft.), with a refuge-hut (usually 
closed) and a huge vane. The view is more extensive but less pic- 
turesque than from the Rekneshaug. About 5 min. W. of the hut 
is a stone 'varde', with benches commanding the open sea. 

A charming walk may be taken in the avenue leading \V. from 
the Alexandra Hotel, past the garden of Reknes , a hospital for 
consumptives. Still finer is the avenue leading E. from the Grand 
Hotel, past the old Molde-Oaard, and skirting the *Fanestrand or 
Fannestrand, where the rich vegetation of Molde is seen to ad- 
vantage. The road is shaded with birches, ashes, maples, larches, 
and other trees, and is flanked with pleasant gaards, villas, and 
gardens, such as Consul Johnson's Buen Retiro, i l /% M. from the 
Grand Hotel (visitors admitted). About 20 min. farther is the 
consumptive hospital of Legrovik. All the way we enjoy a fine view, 
to the S., of the fjord and the distant mountains. Continuation of 
the road, see p. 196. 

To the N.E. rises the Tusten (2284 ft.; 27 2 -3 hrs. ; guide advisable, 
as the way is not very easy to find). At the bridge on the upper road, 
cm the left hank of the Molde-Elv (see p. 186), is a red, white, and blue 
finger-post, showing the way to the Tusten, passing the match-factory of 
Elvbakken. After 5 min. a footpath ascends to the right, marked by other 
posts, at first through wood, always to the E., past several ponds, and 
partly over bog and moor. Lastly, a steep ascent, following the 'Varder', 
to the top, crowned with its huge Varde or 'ftone-man'. The view is very 
extensive, embracing the fjord and the mountains to the N., E., and S., 
and the boundless Atlantic to the W. 

To the Tkoldkirke, a day's excursion from Molde (stolkjserre there 
and back 6, 2 pers. 9, carr. and pair 12-14 kr.). We ascend the Aaredal, 
diverging from the Fanestrand (fine view of the Moldefjord from the top 
of the hill), and descend the Malmedal to the Malmefjord and the skyds- 
station of (20 Kil.) Julscet. We then ascend again, and farther on leave 
the Indre Frwrten road to the left. At gaard Varhol (5-6 Kil. from Julsset, 
4 hrs.' drive from Molde) we obtain a guide and torches for a visit 
(2'/2-3 hrs.) to the Troldkirke, a cavern in a shining white vein of limestone 
iu the Tverfjelde, 70-8U yds. long, 7-10 ft. wide, and 7-22ft. high. 

a. Excursion to the Romsdal. 

Steamboat from Molde to Aandalsncns (or JVws; Com. 332, 335, 33S, 
345) in 2-5 hrs. (fare 2-2.30 kr.). The last part of the voyage is magnificent. 
— Road from Aandalsnfes up the Romsdal (comp. p. 189). The walk from 
Aandalsnaes to (27 Kil.) Flalmark and the drive back (3 hrs.) form a pleasant 
day's outing. Those who are short of time may turn at Horgheim (p. 190). 

Or, we may take steamer (Com. 339) to Alfarnces, walk or drive to 
Thorvik, and cross to Aandalsnces (comp. p. 192). — Passes between the 
Romsdal and the Eikisdal, aee pp. 189, 191. 

The vessel steers S., affording a fine view of the mountains, 
backed, at the head of the Tresfjord, by the Laupare (p. 183), with 
a large snow-field in the depression. In 1 hr. we reach — 

Vestnaes [Hot. Vestnces, 5 min. from the pier, R. 1V2-2, B. or 
S. It/.), D. 2 kr., very fair), with its church, on the W. side of the 
entrance to the Tresfjord, a deep bay set in wooded hills and bare 

188 R. 27.— Map, p. 186. AANDALSNjES. Moldefjord. 

rocky peaks. The road to Sadiolt begins here (p. 186). A steamer 
ascends the Tresfjord (Com. 341) twice a week, to Viken and Sylte 
(whence a road up the Kcersejmsdal leads to Vagsvik on the Stor- 
ijord, 17 Kil.; p. 183), returning by Dougstad and Vikebugt. 

We steer E., past Ojermundnas, with an agricultural school 
on a hill. Fine view of the snow-clad Ystinder. To the left is the 
island of Scekken, on which lies Vestad (called at once or twice 
weekly), where we have a fine glimpse up the Langfjord, with the 
Skaala (p. 192). On the right, the populous Vaagestrand, with its 
white church, and the pier of Rcestadbygd (called at once or twice 

The view ahead is very picturesque. To the right of the wooded 
Oksen (2674 ft.), in the distance, appear the furrowed Vengetinder; 
then the Store Troldtind, with its large snow-field, Kongen, and 
Dronningen (p. 190). Some of the steamers enter a small bay at the 
foot of the Oksen and call at Nordvik, whence a road, passing 
the church of Ejd, crosses to the Rtfdvenfjord (p. 192). 

The view becomes still grander. On the S. bank rise the Trold- 
stole (3714 ft.), notably St. Olafs-Stol, with a 'Botn' enclosed by 
two hills. Some steamers call at Void, with its new timber church, 
at the mouth of the fertile Maandal, backed by the Troldtind and 
Nonstind with their snow-fields. 

We pass the mouth of the *Indfjord, with its superb mountain- 
background (fsterdalsfjeldene, p. 182); on the E. it is bounded 
by the Skolten (3438 ft.), with a waterfall. Fine view of the Smer- 
bottenfjeld (3744 ft.) to the N.; to the S. rise the Romsdal Mts.: 
the Vengetinder, the sharply-cut Kalskraafjeld (p. 190), looking 
small in the distance, with its glacier, and the fissured Romsdals- 
horn (p. 190). These mountains average nearly double the height 
of those of Wales and Westmorland. 

Veblungsnses (Romsdal Hot., good), at the foot of the Scetnes- 
fjeld (3900 ft.), S. of the influx of the Rauma into the Romsdals- 
fjord, is a much less important entrance to the Romsdal than Aau- 
dalsnaes, but carriages generally meet the steamers. To the B. of 
the village (5 min.) is the church of Oryten, an octagonal timber 
building. Just beyond it the road forks : the branch to the left, 
crossing (1/2 hr.) a long bridge, leads to the Romsdal ; that to the 
right leads past the houses of Scetnas and a military camp to 
Isterdal (p. 182). 

The steamer passes the broad month of the Rauma, affording 
a superb view of the Romsdal, and steers round the promontory on 
its N. side, where we hawe a glimpse of the Isfjord, to — 

Aandalsnses. — Hotels (apt to be unpleasantly crowded): ! Uk.-Hot. 
Bellevue, on a height, 5 min. from the pier, with baths anrl fine open views, 
Engl, spoken ; E. 2-27 2 , B., or S. I1/2, D- 'i l h kr. — Hot. Rojisdalshokn, nearer 
the pier, good, but plainer, R.,B. orS. l'/ 2 , D. (2-3 p.m.) 2 kr. — 'Park Hotll 
(formerly H. Hjalgenfes), on the Romsdal road, 3 /.(hr. from the pier (p. 190), 
k. or U. '-"/■.., B. or S. !'/»• pens. 5-7 kr. ; Hot. Halsa, fee p. 190. 

Molde fjord. ROMSDAL. Map, p. 186. — 27. R. 189 

Conveyances await the steamboats. The fares on Ihe cards shown by 
(be driver include the return; thus, to Horgheim (p. 190) and back, stoi- 
kjserre for 1 pers. 5, for 2 pers. 7, carr. and pair 19 kr. ; comp. also p. 88. 

Guides. Mathias Soggemoen and Erik Nordhagen of Gryten (p. 188). 

Aandalsncss, usually called Nms or Nes, on the picturesque, moun- 
tain-girt Isfjord (steamer several times weekly), to the N. of the mouth 
of the Rauma, is the chief approach to the Romsdal and well suited 
for some stay. The nearest height is the Mjelvafjeld, the front spur 
of which is also called Nasaxlen. Farther off is the Storhest. To the 
right of the Nssaxel we look up the Romsdal with the Vengetinder, 
Romsdalshorn, and Troldtinder; to the right of these we see the 
Isterdal (p. 182) and the Ssetnesfjeld; to the W. rise the Troldstole 
(p. 188) and the Blaatind (3560 ft.); to the N. the heights of the 
Blaafjeld; to the E., in the distance, the Gjuratind and other 
Eikisdal peaks. 

Excursions. To the Romsdal, see below. — By road on the S. bank 
of the Isfjord, in view of the mountains in the background of the fjord 
the Strandheia (2592 ft.), Bredvikheia (2^38 ft.), Stortungen (3445 ft.), to (5 KiK) 
Sten, terminus of the Romsdal steamers; or we may turn back halfway. — 
To the "Isterdal, as far as the Isterfos, or up the SUgane to the Stegafjeld 
(p. 182). — Row to Thorvik (p. 192; boat-skyds; 2 hra. there and back; 
bargain advisable), and take a walk on the beautiful coast-road. 

From Aandalsn«s to J^veraas on the Eikisdalsvand, a drive of H/ 4 
and a walk of 6-7 hrs., trying in part, especially in wet weather. Skyds to 
Grefvdal (15 Kil., pay for 17), on the S. bank of the Isfjord, past ,Stoi (see 
above), to the E. end of the fjord; then across the Isa-Elv or Hens-Elv, on 
the right bank of which (left) lies the church of Hen. Hilly road up the 
well-cultivated Grjsivdal, past gaards Kavli and Unheim. To the right a 
line view of the Vengedal, the Vengetinder, and (to the right of these) 
the Romsdalshorn. In front are the abrupt Moanebba and the Saelemebba. 
The road ends (drive of li/ 4 hr. from Nses) at gaard — 

Grevdal, whose owner (Ed. Grefvda!) acts as guide (to the Meringdals- 
Ssetre 4-5 kr.). Quarters also at gaard Morstel, on the opposite bank. — 
Seen from Gr0vdal, the valley appears closed by the Nyheitind (5217 ft), 
with its large snow-fle)d, and S.W. of it the Gjuratind (5702 ft.; summit 
not visible). The ascent of the Gjuratind (and back), 9-10 hrs., is described 
as difficult (especially at the end), but most interesting. 

From Grovdal we walk, crossing two bridges, to O/2 hr ) the Grev- 
dals-Scelre, where the ascent gets steeper. The path, at first on the left 
bank, crosses (l'/ 4 hr.) to the right bank by a bridge. Farther on (red and 
white marks) it turns to the left and mounts to the pass of the Rendeh- 
skar (about 3 hrs. from Gr0vdal). Descent over snow and 'Ur\ passing 
to the left (W.) above the Svartevand, overlooked by the rocky Jffesten. 
Then another steep descent. About 1 hr. from the pass we come in sight 
of the Eikisdalsvand, with left and right the Gogsizrre (p. 193) and the 
Vikesakisen (p. 193). At the Meringdals-Scetre, I1/2 hr. from the R0nd0ls- 
skar, the path becomes more distinct. J&veraas is constantly in sight. 
In 20 min. we cross the stream to the left, at a point indicated by 'varder', 
and soon reach the landing-place of the small boat, for which we shout 
'hoio botf from above. 

tfveraas, see p. 193. 

The *Bomsdal , or valley of the Rauma (p. 89), is one of the 
most famous in Norway. The road from Naes descends to the right 
bank of the river and (2 Kil.) unites with that from Veblungsnjes 
(p. 188; 3 Kil.). It then ascends the smiling, park -like valley 
(alders, birches, ashes), flanked with high mountains. 

190 B.27. — Map,p.lS6. ROMSDAL. Moldefjord. 

On a height to the right, about 4 Kil. from Nses and nearly 
surrounded hy the Rauma, is the Park Hotel (see p. 188). Farther 
on, to the left, is gaard Aak, owned by an Englishman. To the right, 
beyond the stream, opens the Isterdal, -with its peaks : left, Bispen 
('the Bishop') and Sestrene ('the Sisters'; 3094ft.); right, Kongen 
('the King' ; 5013 ft.). A little farther on is Hot.Halsa (R. 172-2, 
B. or S. 172 kr., good), beyond which a road to the right crosses 
the Rauma to gaard Sogge (comp. p. 183). On our road lie gaards 
Hole and Venge ; opposite is gaard Fiva, in a birch-grove. On the 
E. side of the valley, but soon lost to sight, are the picturesque 
Vengetinder (5958 ft.), and the *Romsdalsriorn (5104 ft.), usually 
called Hornet, which dominates the whole landscape. 

The Ascent of the Romsdalshokn (one day), made by C. Hall in 1881, 
is not very difficult, but dangerous, and after snow impossible. We ascend 
the Ve.nge.dal (here drivable), and climb from the W. side. — The ascent 
of the highest Vengetind (and back , 8-10 hrs. ; first made by Wm . C. Slingsby 
in 1881) from the Venge-Smler is less difficult. The Mj0lnik, which Mr. 
Slingsby (1885) calls one of the steepest mountains in Europe, is best scaled 
from Indre Dale/a (good quarters) in the Erstadal, a side -valley of the 
Vengedal, a drive of 3 hrs. from Nses. Ascent, and back, 14-15 hrs. 

On the W. side of the valley rise the *Xroldtinder ('witch-pin- 
nacles' ; 6010 ft.). Part of the crest is known as 'Brudefelget', or 
the bridal train. The highest peak may be ascended by the small 
glacier visible between Naes and Aak (difficult; C. Hall, 1882). The 
road leads close by the foaming Rauma. At one place, much ex- 
posed to avalanches in winter, the road is carried through the 
broad bed of the river by an embankment. 

14 Kil. Horgheim (pron. horyem ; tolerable inn) lies on an old 
moraine. The finest scenery of theRomsdal ends here; the floor of the 
valley is marshy. The slopes are strewn with remains of avalanches. 

We pass gaards Mirebe and Treene, and, on the other side of 
the valley, Bedningen, Alnces, and Btmmem. Near Remmem (right) 
is a waterfall, and beyond gaard Monge (left) is the beautiful 
Mongefos, descending from the Mongegjura (4232 ft.). Above, 
not visible from the road, rises the Kalskraafjeld (5892 ft. ; ascend- 
ed from Flatmark). Splendid view of the Troldtinder and the 
Semletind (5770 ft.) behind us. The Toad and the Rauma thread 
their way through a chaos of rocks formed by a great landslip. Be- 
yond the church of Kors, not visible from the road, we reach — 

12 Kil. Flatmark (Inn, fair, D. 2 kr.), in a fertile and smiling 
part of the valley. Opposite rises the Skiriaxltn (3747 ft.). 

Scenery still fine, though less grand. On each side are water- 
falls, bereft of their might in dry seasons : on the left the Stygge- 
fondfos, Gravdefos, Skogefos ; on the right the Dentefos. To the 
S., above Ormejm, rises the Middagshoug. The Rauma is here 
dammed up into a lake. The road now ascends rapidly. To the 
right is the *Vmrmofos, leaping nearly 1000 ft. from the W. side, 
majestic after rain and spring-thaws (best viewed from a rock op- 
posite the fall, on the right bank of the Rauma). 

Mold* fjord. STUEFLAATEN. Map, p. 186. — 27. R. 191 

11 Kil. Ormejm (Inn, good; view of the Vcermofos from the 
back) is beautifully situated high above the Rauma. To the S. 
rises the Alterhm, with its peak Storhatten (5940 ft.; ascent past 
the Vserrnofos in 4 hrs. ; two-thirds ridable; horse 4, guide 4 kr.). 

From Ormejm to Reitan on the Eikisdalsvand, see p. 194. 

"Visitors to the Romsdal from Veblungsnses or Aandalsnaes usu- 
ally turn at Ormejm or even at Flatmark. About 4 Kil. above Or- 
mejm a finger-post indicates the way to the *Slettafos: we cross 
a bridge and ascend to the right by a rough path to a spot below 
overhanging rocks, which magnify the roar of the fall. The rocky 
sides of the gully contain remains of glacier cauldrons. 

The road runs high above the Rauma, which, often lost to view, 
receives several tributaries, notably the Vlvaa on the right, the dis- 
charge of the Ulvedalsvand. We ascend the once dreaded Bjerne- 
klev ('bear's cliff') in windings. 

10 Kil. (pay for 11) Stueflaaten or Stuefloten (2051 ft.; *Inn, 
R. 1V2-2, B. or S. I1/2, D. 2kr.). Fine view from the Toppen (2 hrs.). 

From Stuefloten a fjeld-path ascends by the Bevra, and leads paat the 
high-lying gaard Bjorlien, the three Beivervand Lakes, and the Gravervand, 
to Finswl and the Eikisdalsvand (p. 193; 10 hrs., with guide). 

To the Norddalsfjokd, W. : road up the Ulvaa to the Tunge- Soeler 
(quarters), at the E. end of the Ulvedalsvand; across fjeld, and down 
the Muldals-Elv to gaard Muldal (quarters), above the Tafjord (p. 183). 

The shortest way from the Romsdal to Jotunheim leads from Melmen, 
next station beyond Stuefloten, to Skeaker (R0jshejm; p. 67) in 2 days. 

Road through the Oudbrandsdal, see pp.90, 89. As far as Dom- 
aas it is monotonous and tiring. 

b. Excursion to the Eikisdal. 

Steamer (Com. 339, 345) five times weekly, in S'/a- 6 hrs., to Neste. 
— Road thence to 0veraas on the Eikisdalsvand 8 Kil. (skyds, see p. xix). — 
Motok - Boat on the Eikisdalsvand to Rejtan - Utigaard at its head (five 
times weekly in 2 hrs. ; fare 1 kr. ; special trips, 1-5 pers. 10 kr., 6-10 pers. 
15 kr., there and back; or by boat-skyds in 3-3'/2 hrs. (with two rowers 
5.64, with three rowers 7.20 kr. ; return-fare double). The excursion takes 
three days, one night being spent at Neste and another at Overaas (or at 
J?veraas and N0ste, aceording as the steamer leaves Molde in the forenoon 
or afternoon. Instead of returning to Molde we may drive from J0veraas to 
Ejdsvaag and Ejdseren on the Sundal3fjord, whence steamers ply twice 
weekly to Sundalsaren and to Christianssund. — The pass to Orevdal and 
the Romsdalsfjord, described at p. 190, is recommended to walkers. 

The steamboat steers E. from Molde. On the left is the Fane- 
strand (p. 187). On the right is the Boise, with a loftily situated 
church, at the E. end of the island, and the station of Bolsences, 
where the steamers call on Sundays. Turning S., we pass, on the 
left, the headlands of Dvergsnces and Gjednces and the station of 
Vaagsater in its bay (where the steamers touch on Sundays only), 
and steer round the Sernesje. On the right are the islands of Sak- 
ken (p. 188) and Vee ('holy island'), with its church. The Molde 
steamers (Com. 339) call at Nasjestranden , the Christianssund 
stea:.:3rs (Com. 348) at Havnevik. 

192 £.27. — Map, p. 186. EJDSVAAG. Moldcfjord. 

Both steamers cross the mouth of the Langfjord, passing the 
small, peculiarly shaped island of Hestholm (S.E. of the Yea), and 
affording a fine view of the Romsdal Mts., of Oltestad and Alfarnas, 
and of the Redoenfjord in front. 

From Alfakn^s (skyds-stat.) io Aandalsn^s (Romsdal). The hilly 
road, skirting the R0dvenfjord, leads through beautiful scenery. Opposite 
we see the church of Ejd (p. 188) and the Oksen (p. 188); in the distance 
rise the Troldstole (p. 188). At (9 Kil.) gaard Lccrejm (Inn) the road forks, 
right to Nordvik, and left to Thorvik. The latter ascends the Lmremsllivene, 
at the top of which we get a striking view of the Gjersmlvaln, a lake set 
in a wooded basin; of the Skjolten (p. 188); to the left of it the pointed 
Vengetinder (p. 188); to the right the Ssetnsesfjeld, Isterfjelde, and Ind- 
fjord Mts. The road descends, leading round the basin, ascends again 
through a defile, and, leaving the hill of Klungences to the right, runs 
through pine-woods to — 

14 Kil. Thorvik, on the Eomsdalsfjord. The station for boats, as well 
as horses, lies high above the fjord, but we may drive down to the shore. — 
A new road on the bank leads to Hen (p. 189; 10-11 Kil.). 

. From Thorvik by boat-skyds to (4 Kil.) Veblungsnces, or to (6 Kil.) 
Aandalsna'S, see p. 183. 

The steamer next enters the Langfjord, 30 Kil. long, 3 Kil. 
broad, on the N. bank of which (with stat. Aarsei) towers the Skaala 
(3284 ft.; the 'skaala' or 'bowl' not visible from this side). On the 
S. bank, most of which is well tilled, are the stations of Holm and 
Mittet. On the N. bank Banvik and Tjelde. On the S. bank Visdal 
or Vistdal, with a church, on a creek from which the Vistdal runs 
inland. Many boat-houses (Nest) on the shore. In the background 
we see old coast-lines, high above the water, and the Vistdalsfjelde. 
The boat steers past the mouth of the Ejrisfjord to — 

Ejdsvaag (Hot. Sverdrup, good, 5 min. from the pier), at the 
E. end of the fjord, which is shallow here and at low tide covered 
with sea-weed. The church is 10 min. E. of the inn. Boat-skyds 
from Ejdsvaag to (14 Kil.) N«rste with two rowers 3 kr. 92, with 

t n rpp T Vt hi) ff 

A road crossing the stream that falls into the lake by the church of 
' Eidsvaag soon divides : to the left, across the Tillerejd, to (8 Kil.) Eidseren 
(p. 197); to the right, on the bank of the fjord, passing the parsonage of 
(5 Kil.) Nwsset, where the novelist Bjtfrnson spent part of his youth. This 
road, now very hilly, with views ot the Ejrisfjord, goes on to gaards Ytre 
and Indre Bogge (see below), and to Bredvik, and then skirts the steep 
bank of the fjord. Lastly we either cross the Eikisdals-Elv to Ncrste (2U Kil. 
from Eidsvaag) or go straight on to £Tveraas (p. 193). 

The steamer turns back from Eidsvaag for a short distance and 
turns S. into the *Ejrisfjord, which extends 10 Kil. to the S.E. 
To the left, in the distance, is the Storglanebba; before us rises the 
imposing Skjorta (5620 ft.) or Hvitkua ('white cow'); then, to the 
right of it, the abrupt Gogsere; lastly, in the background, the 
Sjodela and the Meringdalsnasbba (p. 193), with their large snow- 
fields. We call at Bygge or Bogge on the E. bank, and soon reach — 
N«ste, or Nauste, or Ejrisfjordseren (Eikisdal Hot. & Skyds-stat., 
good; Engl. spoken), a little "W. of the mouth of the Eikisdals-Elv. 
The white villa to the E. of the river is owned by an Englishman. 

Moldefjord. EIKISDAL. Map, p. 186. — 27. R. 193 

From Nerste a fjeld-pass, diverging to the right at the Ejrisfjord-Kirke 
(see below), leads between the Eesthaug (3626 ft.) on the N. and the Uglehaug 
on the S., and down the Hornedal to Orevdal (p. 189; 8-9 hrs.). 

The Road to 0veraas (suitable for walking; li/ 2 hr.) ascends 
the fertile Siradal, watered by the Eikisdals-Elv, and flanked with 
high mountains. To the left is the Skjorta, soon concealed by the 
Qogsere or Qokseira (4324 ft.); to the right, in the background, 
the Meringdalsnaebba and the Sjerdela (see below). We pass (V 2 hr.) 
the Eirisfjord or Sira-Kirke, lying a little to the left. Beyond it, by 
the school -house, our road forks, both branches leading to the 
Eikisdalsvand. That to the right emerges by gaard Aasen. We take 
the hilly road to the left, cross the broad river, and skirt the Gogsere. 
The top of the old moraine, separating the Eikisdalsvand from the 
Siradal and broken by the river only, commands a fine view of the 
valley and the fjord behind us. On the S. side of the moraine, 
1 hr. beyond the church, are the gaards of — 

8 Kil. (from Neste) 0veraas [Inn, plain, but very fair), 5 min. 
from the N. end of the Eikisdalsvand. 

Fbom 0VEEAAS to Gr0vdal, see p. 189. We row across the outlet of 
the lake, follow the sceter-path on the left bank, then cross the stream and 
ascend past the Meringdals-Ssetre, noting the red and white marks (guide 

Fbom 0vebaas to 0ksendalen (p. 197), 7-8 hrs., with guide. We 
at first follow the N.E. bank of the lake, then ascend a saeter-path E. to 
the Ljosebotn- Swter, near the Ljosebotnvand. The route, now steeper 
crosses two snow-fields and then descends rapidly to Branstad, where it 
joins the 0ksendal road. 

The *Eikisdalsvand (197 ft. ; motor and small boats, p. 191) 
fills a rocky cleft about 18 Kil. long. On both sides tower snow 
and ice-clad mountains enlivened with waterfalls. Even at the 
beginning of August the snow-fields reach almost to the lake. At 
places, however, the slopes are clothed with pines and other trees. 
Hazel-nuts abound, and are sold as 'Romsdalsnadder'. Towards 
noon the lake is usually like a mirror, reflecting Fjeld and Fos in 
a curious double picture. The few dwellings on its banks are con- 
stantly menaced by the rocks above. 

On leaving 0veraas, we see at first only a small part of the lake. 
To the left are the precipices of the Oogsere and the Aashammer. To 
the right, gaard Meringdal, with the Meringdalsnabba and Sjedela 
(5610 ft.) above. We soon turn a corner and see the whole lake. 
On the left is the Fletatind (5424 ft.). To the right the Nyhoitind 
(p. 189) peers above the Sj0d»la. To the left, the waterfall of 
Tongjem; then, the two gaards of Viken (whence a fjeld-path leads 
to the Lilledal, p. 198), with the Vikesakisen (5970 ft.) above them. 
On the W. side are the ASvelsbrce and the imposing peak of the 
Ojuratind (p. 189). Above gaard Hoem lie the snow-fields of the 
Hoemfjeld, overtopped by the Hoemtind. Farther on, to the right, 
is the Rangaatind (5224 ft.) , to the left the Aagottind (5217 ft.) 
and the Bjerktind (4354 ft.). 

Baedeker's Nnrwnv anil Sw«rlen nth P.ilit 10 

194 £.27. — Map, p.186. EIKISDAL. 

Even before passing the Rangaatind, we observe to the right, 
in the distance, at the head of the lake, the *Maradalsfos, a superb 
fall of the Mardela, descending from an upland dale some 2500 ft. 
above the sea, plunging 650 ft. down a sheer cliff, rebounding in 
spray from the rock below, and re-appearing in two arms to form 
a second great fall lower down. (An excursion from Rejtan to the 
fall, and back, takes 3 hrs. ; the lower fall only is accessible.) 
Farther on is another and perhaps larger fall, leaping on the N. side 
of the Maradalsfos into the same abyss. 

The lake now trends S.E., and gaard Eejtan comes in sight. 
Above the gaard is a beautiful veil-like waterfall, with the Berfjeld 
(4065 ft.) beyond. 

Gaard Rejtan {H. Eejtan's Inn, very fair) lies 6 min. from 
the pier, near the mouth of the Aura-Elv or Eira-Elv. Farther up 
(6 min.) are the gaards of Vtigaard (guide to be had) and Opigaard 
(tolerable quarters). — Pretty walk up the valley to (20 min.) the 
Eikisdal Chapel (351 ft.), where service is held four times in 
summer. Farther on are several mills, below, to the left, driven 
by a stream springing direct from the earth. Near the bridge over 
the Aura is a salmon-fishery. 

The road leads up the valley, passing pretty gaards, to Finsset (11 Kil. 
from Rejtan ; Elverhui Rut, very fair). Path thence (1 hr. ; guide desirable, 
1 kr.) to the Aurestnpe or Aurstaupa, the falls of the Aura, issuing from 
the Aursj0. We may then ascend the Aura (with guide), following the 
'Varder', to the tourist-hut on the Aursjtf (p. 198). 

From Eejtan we may ascend by a difficult fjefd-path, passing to the 
W. of the Evelsfonn, the Eangaatinder, the Hoemsfjeld, and the Gjuratind, 
to Orevdal (p. 189; 10-11 hrs.). 

Fhom Rejtan to Oemeom, in the Komsdal (p. 191), 8-10 hrs. (guide 
necessary). The ascent to the fjeld is rather steep, especially for the first 
3 hrs., following a brook and passing a waterfall opposite Rejtan. We 
ascend between the Gjeitside and the Berfjeld to the Sandgrovskar. At the 
top of the fjeld we cross snow-fields, with the Sandgvovhegda and the 
Sandgrovvande left and right. Descent easier. No sister until within 
•/4 hr. of Ormejm (p. 191). 

28. From Molde to Trondhjem. 

Most travellers go from Molde to Trondhjem by steamer, either 
direct, or by Battenfjordseren (p. 196), to avoid the exposed 
passage between Bud and Christianssund (p. 196). The land- 
routes (pp. 197, 199), notably the S. end of the Sundalsfjord and 
the Sundal (p. 198), offer many attractions; but those who have 
seen the Romsdal and the Nordfjord must not expect anything 

a. Direct Sea Route. 

34 8.M. Steamboat (Com. 220, 224b, 225a, 227a, 124) daily in about 
12 hrs. (13.60, 8.50 kr.). Passengers subject to sea-sickness should start in 
the evening in order to make the passage to Christianssund in the night. — 
The figures below show the distances from Molde to Christianssund, thence 
to Bejan, and from Bejan to Trondhjem (comp. p. 107). 

CHRISTIANSSUND. 28. Route. 195 

Molde, see p. 186.— Soon after starting we steer N. into the Jul- 
sund. The islands Ottere and Gorsten lie on the left; the Julaxel 
(1810 ft.), on a headland, and the pyramidal Gjendemsfjeld(2080 ft.) 
on the right. Leaving the Moefyr to the left, the vessel rounds the 
cape of Bud or Bod, connected with Molde by a local steamer and 
by a road, and stands out to sea, unprotected by islands till it 
reaches Christianssund. Beyond the Bodfjeld we soon sight the 
headland Stemshesten (2230 ft.), the S. boundary of Nordmare, and 
later the lofty Tustere (see below). To the left lies the islet of Fuglen 
('bird island'), with a beacon; on the right are several gaards at the 
base of the Stemshest {Stemme, Hanas, etc.). Fine view of the 
snow-mountains of the Romsdal. We next pass the lights of Kvid- 
holmsfyr and Hestskjcersfyr (a white building) on the right, and 
steer between the Kirkeland (right) and the Inland (left) to — 

12S.M. Christianssund. — "Geand Hotel, in the Torv, rebuilt 
after a Ore in Dec. 1S07; M/Jlebup's Hot., behind the former; Nils Knut- 
soh s Villa, opposite, E. 2, B. or S. 17.,, D. 2 kr., commended; Lossics's 
Hot., near the pier, plain. — British Vice-Consul, J. Pare ius. 

Christianssund (pop. 12,000), the capital of the district of Nord- 
mere, arapidly growingtown and important fish-maiket, was founded 
in 1742. It lies on four islands, which enclose the harbour : Kirke- 
landet, S.W., with the chief church and the hotels; Inlandet, E.; 
Nordlandet, N.E., with a church and fine woods; and Skorpen,' W .] 
with the bare drying-places for the 'klipfisk', which are packed in 
voger' of 39 lbs. and exported chiefly to Spain. Steam-launches 
ply between the islands. 

From the harbour we ascend the street to the market (Torvet) 
adorned with a statue of President Christie (p. 133; a native of 
Christianssund); we then go to the right to the Parish Church, 
with its pretty promenades, follow the Langvei to the N., and out- 
side the town reach the Vaardetaarn, a splendid point of view, 
25 min. from the harbour. In y 4 M. more we come to the large 
basin of the water-works, to which all the rain-water that falls on 
the rocky hill is led. — Off Christianssund, 15 Kil. N.W., is the 
island of Grip, with a fishing population of 200. 

Local Steamees abound. Thus, to the Sundal (Com. 352), see p 197- 
to Surendal-Todal (Com. 353), see p. 200; to Molde and the RomsdallCom. 345) 
twice a week. v ' 

Beyond Christianssund the larger vessels at first keep to the 
open sea. To the left in the distance is the lighthouse of Grip (see 

mal^r)' T ° the lIght ' the islands Twtere (2923 ft.) and Stabben 
(29b0 ft.), between which are seen the distant snow-mountains of 
the Sundal and the Eikisdal. We now steer within the island- 
belt. To the left, the Ede; beyond it, the low island of Smelen; 
right, the Ertvaage. Scenery now featureless. Farther on, through 
the Ramsefjord, we look out to the open sea. We next steer into 
the strait of Trondhjemsleden, between the mainland and the large 
island of Hitteren, where deer occur, with the station of Havnen. 


196 Route 28. HJELSET. From Molde 

15 S.M. Bejau, on the flat S.W. point of the large peninsula 
of Fosen. This region, 0rlandet, is well tilled. Numerous houses 
and gaards. 

We next see the church of 0rlandet to the left, the tower of 
the old mansion of Bstraat in the distance, and N.E. the long ex- 
panse of the Skjernfjord. Rounding the Agdenes, a cape on the 
right, we now steer S.E. into the Trondhjem Fjord, the entrance 
to which is guarded by batteries. Those on the N. side are at 
Brettingnes. The currents here are very strong, especially at half- 
tide. With a N.W. wind the sea is rough. On the right is the 
little port of Selven, where travellers hound for the N. diiect change 
into a steamer coming from Trondhjem (comp. Com. 226a). The 
hills on the hanks are low, the foreland on the E. side is well 
cultivated, and here we see the smiling bay of Rissen and the ruined 
nunnery of Rein. On the right, the church of Lensvik; left, Red- 
berg, or Rauberg, and the church of Stadsbygden. We next pass 
the broad mouth of the Orkedalsfjord (p. 200), on the E. side of 
which rises the Graakallen (p. 205). By Trollabrug (p. 205) we 
obtain our first view of — 

7 S.M. Trondhjem, see p. 200. 

b. By Land to Battenfjordstfren and thence by Sea, 
via Christianssund. 

Road to Battenfjordseren (38 Kil.) : Motor-car in IV4-IV2 hr., fare 7 kr. ; 
horse-carr. in 4>/2-5 hrs. (stolkjserre for 1 pers. 7, for 2 pers. 10 kr ; 
caleschvogn for 2, 3, or 4 pers. 16, 18, 20 kr.; bargain advisable). Start 
early to enioy the scenery. The inn at Battenfjordftfren is very fair, but 
best to go at once on board the Steamer (Com. 3ol; six times weekly, 
arriving at Battenfjord S 0ren about 9 p.m.) as » "'"'■'VI'd "a ir ) 
steamers are small, but the berths (oOtf.) and food (B. or S. life D I kr.) 
are good. The passage to Trondhjem takes 13 hrs. (fare 10.60 kr., for 
two members of a family 16 kr.). 

The road from Molde skirts the Fanefjord. Beyond the sana- 
torium of Legrovik (p. 187) the handsome gaard Aare lies on the 
right, and a road to the Aaredal (p. 187) diverges to the left. We 
next pass Rebak, the large church and the parsonage of Boise, and 
Strande. Fine view of the fjord, on the S. side of which is the 
conspicuous Skaala (p. 192). Passing Lensat and Mjelve, we soon 
rGjjiCli ... 

19 Kil. HjeUet (tolerable quarters), which is also a steamboat- 
station (Com. 333, 362). — Road further up the Fanefjord, see p.199. 

The Battenfjord road, diverging to the left, ascends past 
several gaards, with occasional views. To the right is a road to 
Ejde (p. 199). We then cross the high plateau of the Rauheia. 
Beyond a small lake (about 11/4 ar.'s drive from Hjelset) the road 
begins its winding descent. To the left are the Fursat-Sater and 
the small Hot. Furscet. Pleasant view of the fertilevalley. After a 
drive of 1 l j\ hr. more we reach — 

to Trondhjem. 0KSENDALEN. Map, p. 186. — 28. R. 197 

19 Kil. Battenfjordsaren {Hot. Nordmer, by the pier, R. 2, B. 
or S. l 1 /^, D. 2 kr.), prettily situated at the S. end of the Batten- 
fjord or Botnfjord. 

The voyage down the Battenfjord to Christianssund (p. 195) 
takes iy 2 hr. At the mouth of the fjord, W., lies the large gaard 
Gimnces. We then pass between the islands Avere, with the Mek- 
nokken (1690ft.), and-FVecte. At Christianssund we lie to forl^hr-i 
time enough in fine weather for a walk to the Vaardetaarn (p. 195). 

The rest of the voyage avoids the open sea wholly or in part. In 
the former case we steer S. of the large islands Tustere, Stabben, 
and Ertvaage(jp. 195), calling at Laurvik (Aure) and Vighals(Vikan); 
in the latter we keep N. of these islands, following the route of the 
large steamers to Ede, Magere, Boresund, and Storfosen. On Stor- 
fosen is a large dairy-farm (180 cows), which supplies Christians- 
sund with milk. 

Bejan, where the two water-ways unite, and the entrance to the 
Trondhjem Fjord, see p. 198. The voyage from Christianssund to 
Trondhjem (p. 200) takes 10-10'/ 2 hrs. 

c. By Land through the Sundal. 

This route is best combined with a visit to the Kikisdal (p. 191): 
returning thence, we go E. from Ejdsvaag (p. 192) to Ejdseren and take 
the Sondal Steameb (Com. 351; good restaur, on board; thrice weekly, in 
2'/4 hrs.) or boat-skyds (4 hrs.) to Sundalseren ; or else we cross the fjeld 
from 0veraas (p. 193) to 0kiendalen, and there take steamer or boat-skyds 
to Sundalseren (in all 1 day). — From Sundalseren a road with fast stations 
leads by Aune to (135 Kil.) Steren, on the Trondhjem railway (p. 96; 2 days). 

The Sundal steamer comes from Christianssund (p. 195). The 
route is at first uninteresting. Stations : Kristvik, Endreset, Kvctr- 
nas, Gimnces (see above) ; then, beyond the mouth of the Batten- 
fjord, Torvig, Berge,0degaard, Hotm, Flemmen, &nASandvig(Gjul), 
where the Sundalsfjord begins. We touch also at Koksvik i Thing- 
void (p. 200; see Map, p. 186) and Angvik (p. 199), and reach 
(6 hrs. from Christianssund) — 

Ejdsaren (Skyds-station; three beds), where the road from Ejds- 
vaag ends (p. 192). Boat-skyds to (17 Kil.) 0ksendalseren with 
two rowers 4.76, with three 6.80 kr. ; to (23 Kil.) Sundalseren 6.44, 
9.20 kr. ; to (14 Kil.) Koksvik (p. 200) 3.92, 5.60 kr. 

Beyond stations Fjeseide and Jordul we enjoy a freer *View of 
the head of the fjord, to the S., with its girdle of snow-capped 
mountains. The steamer first steers into the bay of — 

0ksendalen or 0ksendalseren (Virum's Hotel), at the mouth of 
the valley of that name, with two high mountains at its head. A 
road ascends the valley to Branstad (14 Kil. ; p. 193; fjeld-path to 
the Eikisdalsvand). Boat-skyds from iJksendalen to (11 Kil.) Sun- 
dalseren with two rowers 3.08, with three 4.40 kr. 

The next station is Opdel or Opdal, on the E- bank of the fjord, 
the starting-point for a visit tq the InderdaJ, 

198 Route 28. — Map, p. 186. SUNDAL. From Molde 

From Opdal (slow station) a road ascends the Virumdal to Dalsbe and 
(14 Kil.) Nedredal or Nerdal (quarters ; fjeld-route to Todals0ren, see p. 200). 
We then walk up the "Inderdal to the tourist-hut of Inderdal (bed 75, 
B. 40, D. 80, S. 50 0.). where guides for fjeld-ascents are to be had. The 
finest points are the Skarfjeld (6070 ft.), the pointed Dalataarn (4902 ft.), 
and behind it the Taamfjeld (6103 ft.). — From Inderdal across the fjeld 
to Storfale in the Sundal (see below), 5-6 hrs. 

The Sundalsfjord becomes grander. To the left rise the snow- 
capped Evelsfonnhei (5042 ft.) and the pointed Hofsnibba (5144 ft.), 
with the Fonnenibba to its left ; in front towers the Kalken (6181 ft.), 
separating the Sundal from the Lilledal. In 2^4 hrs. from Ejdsaren 
the steamboat reaches — 

Sundals-aren (Inn # Skyds-slat., tolerable), at the mouth of the 
Sundals-Elv, dominated on the N. by the Hofsnibba. 

From Sundalsflren we row in »/ 2 hr. to gaard Trcedal, at the entrance 
of the grand * Lilledal, which a road ascends to (9 Kil.) gaard Lilledalen 
(quarters at Ole Dalen's). Thence we ascend (for a short way very steep) 
to (5 hrs.) the Holbu-Sseter, on the Holbuvand (2585 ft.), where the hut of 
the Christianssund Tourist Society offers food and four beds. A marked 
path leads hence past the Osvand (2733 ft.), Langvcmd (2743 ft.), Sandvand 
(2756 ft. ; with the Sandvaslaagen-Sater), and Torbucand (2844 ft.), and up 
the hill, to the N. end of the Aursje (3494 ft.; 10 Kil. long), on the W. 
side of which are the three Alf-Saters and a summer 'pension'. Skirting 
the E. bank, we reach, 5 hrs. from the Holbuvand, the large and well- 
equipped Aursjtf- or Lesje-Hytte (20 beds). In 2>/2 hrs. more we arrive 
at the Gaulbu-Sater on the Gautsje; then past the Ylemvand, and at places 
skirting the Jora, the outflow of these lakes, we descend to (2'/2 hrs.) 
Holaaker, in the Gudbrandsdal (p. 89). 

The lower part of the * Sundal almost rivals the Romsdal in 
grandeur. The scenery is most impressive when approached from 
the Dovrefjeld (R. 11). 

The road ascends on the right bank of the river, passing the 
Sundalskirke, and crosses an old moraine, overgrown with birches. 
To the left are the picturesque Vinjefosser, formed by the discharge 
of the Evelsfonn. We cross this brook and then the Sundals-Elv. To 
the left, behind us, is gaard Elvershei, belonging to an Englishman; 
to the right is the snow and glacier-clad Kaldfonna (6060 ft.), also 
conspicuous farther on. The road ascends by an old moraine to a 
higher zone of the valley, crosses the stream issuing from the Oredal 
(right), and leads to the right close under the steep slope of the 
Hoaasnibba. At four points here the traveller is urged by his skyds- 
gut to drive quickly to avoid avalanches ('Kjer till'). Beyond gaard 
Tyfte, the road returns to the right bank. Looking back, on and 
beyond the' bridge, we have a fine view of the snow-fields of the 
Evelsfonn (see above). In l'/2"2 hrs. from Sundalseren we reach 
gaard — 

19 Kil. Storfale (Inn, very fair, R., B., & S. 3 kr.), on a hill to 
the left. Waterfalls descend on both sides of the valley. 

The Inderdal (see above) may be reached hence in 5-6 hrs. (with guide). 

The serrated mountain that becomes more conspicuous as we 
advance is the Romfogskjcerringen. We ascend a rock-barrier, closing 
the lower part of the valley; view of the Evelsfonn behind. The 

to Trondjhem. SUNDAL. 28. Route. 199 

road crosses the Sundals-Elv and passes the little red Eomfogs- 
Kirke. To the left, by gaard Musgjerd, are the long Otheimfos and 
the jagged ridge culminating in the Skretind (3852 ft.). The road 
re-crosses the river by the Otheim-Bro, passes the gaards of Oravem, 
and skirts the steep S. slope of the Skretind. Opposite opens the 
Oredal. — In 2-272 h rs - from Storfale we reach — 

17 Kil. Gjera (good inn). — A few kilometres farther on, near 
the boundary of the Romsdals-Amt and the S. Trondhjems-Amt, 
the road becomes so steep that most travellers walk. To the right 
is the deep gorge of the Sundals-Elv, or Driva, as it is called in 
its upper course. The good road ends here, and is continued by a 
very hilly one of the old type. 

10 Kil. (pay for 14, but not in opp. direction) Sliper (1804 ft.; 
poor inn). The next part of the road, under the Sliperhovd (3435 ft.), 
is also pleasanter for walking than for driving. On the E. side of the 
Sliperhovd opens the valley of the Vindela, an affluent of the Driva, 
which the road crosses at a saw-mill. On the left bank, visible in 
the distance, is the church of Lenset, commanded by the Vindals- 
kinn (4744 ft.). Around are numerous gaards. The road passes the 
thriving gaard Gravaune, skirts the S. spur of the Vindalskinn, and 
runs through underwood. We soon come in sight of the long valleys 
and heights of the Dovrefjeld. We cross the Festa, with its falls 
both above and below the bridge (2014 ft.). To the left, behind us, 
rises the Horn (5226 ft.), with a large snow-field. 

15 Kil. (pay for 21, in opp. direction 18) Aalbu (1740 ft. ; good 
inn), at the S. base of the Derremshovd (2871 ft.), is a walk of 4 hrs. 
from Sliper, a drive of 2'/2-3 hrs. 

A broad track, diverging S. at Aalbu, crosses the Driva, skirts (being 
at places a path only) the H. and E. sides of the Svarthovd (3127 ft.). 
crosses the Driva again, and reaches (about 2 hrs.) the Dovrefjeld road 
(p. 91) about halfway between Aune and Rise. 

The road, still hilly, passes the Opdals-Kirke (2070 ft.), a timber 
building of the 17th cent., with a conspicuous spire, at the foot of 
the 0rsnipen (4521 ft.). 

11 Kil. (pay for 13) Aune (p. 91), on the great Dovrefjeld road, 
about l 3 /4-2 hrs'. drive from Aalbu. 

d. By Land via Angvik and Orkedal. 

This route traverses the Nordmare, a district much admired by the 
Norwegians. It is best comhined with a visit to the Eikisdalsvand by 
going on from Ejdseren (p. 197) by steamer (Com. 351) or boat-skyds to 
Koksvik i Thingvold, whence Orkedalsjaren is reached in two days. 

From Molde to (19 Kil.) Hjelset, see p. 196. The road follows 
the Fanefjord, past gaard Ejde, to — 

t 8 Kil. Ncbs. Beyond the church of Kteve, at the E. end of the 
fjord, the road to Tjelde (18 Kil. ; p. 192) diverges to the right. 
Straight on, past gaard Istad, we reach — 

11 Kil. Heggejm or Heggem and (11 Kil.) Angvik, a station of 

200 Route 28. ORKEDALS0REN. 

the Sundal steamer (p. 198). Then by boat-skyds across the Sundals- 
fjord to (6 Kil.) — 

Koksvik i Thingvold (Inn, good and moderate), with an old 
church, another station of the Sundal steamer. — Then land-skyds 
to (7 Kil.) Belsat, and boat-skyds to (7 Kil.) Stangvik, a station 
of the Christianssund and Todal steamer. Land-skyds again to 
(15 Kil.) Aasen, near the steamboat-station of Surendalseren. 

The steamer from Christianssund to Surendals0ren and on to Surendal 
and Todalseren (Com. 353) plies thrice a week. Cart-road from Todals0ren 
up the valley of the Todals Ely to gaard Kaarvatn (good quarters). Then 
in 5 hrs. to the Inderdals-Hytte (p. 198), and in 8 hrs. to the Troldheims- 
Hytle (see below), or in 5 hrs. to the Nedredal (guide 4 kr.), see p. 198. 

From Aasen we drive to (10 Kil.) Haandstad (74 ft.) and to 
(15 Kil.) Kvammen. In the Foldal, which opens S., is the (10 hrs.) 
Troldheim Tourist Hut, for excursions in this interesting region. 

17 Kil. Bindalen (469 ft.; quarters), with a church. 

17 Kil. Oarberg i Meldalen, the first place in Sflndre Trondhjems- 
Amt. The road reaches the Orkla, whose valley a road ascends to 
Kalstad i Meldalen and Bjerkaker (p. 92). We descend on the left 
bank of the river to the village of — 

19 Kil. Svorkmo (good inn), a station of the electric railway 
from Lekken (p. 92 ; 5 Kil.) to Orkedalsaren, by which we complete 
our journey (Com. 37). Stat. Fandrom, 7 Kil. E. of which is the 
large sanatorium of Lisbetsater (3114 ft.). 

20 Kil. Orkedalsaren (Riaris Inn) , at the influx of the Orkla into 
the Orkedals- Fjord, an arm of the Trondhjem Fjord. Large factory of 
wooden wares. The terminus is at (21 Kil.) Thamshavn (new hotel), 
with its saw-mills and laTge quays for the copper from Lekken. 
Steamer (Com. 368) from Thamshavn to Trondhjem daily, in 2^2 nr s., 
down the Orkedalsfjord and past the mouth of the Quloun. 

29. Trondhjem and its Fjord. 

Arrival. The Railway Station (PI. D, E, 1) lies N. of the town, by the 
harbour. The large Steamers are berthed at the W. quay of the Nedre 
Elvehavn. Carriages, hotel-omnibuses, and porters ('Bybud') with hand- 
carts ('Triller') await trains and steamers. — Bergenske and Hordenfjeldske 
Steamboat Office (PI. 1; E, 2), KJ0bmands-Gade 52, near the Brat0r-Bro. 

Hotels. "Britannia (PI. a ; D, 3), Dronningens-Gade, a large house 
with hot-air, electric light, garden, and baths, R. 2V2-10, B. 1, D. (at 2) 3 kr,; 
"Angleterre (PI. b; D, E, 2), Nordre-Gade, with baths, R. 2V2-4, B. I 1 /*, 

D. 3 kr. ; "Grand Hot. (PI. c; E, 2), Krambod-Gade, R. 2V2-6, B. 2, D. 3, 
S. 2 kr. — Soandinavie (PI. d; E, 2), rebuilt after a fire in 1908. — Strem't 
Private Hotel, Nordre Gade 24 ; Fru Matzow't Peneion, Munke-Gade 17, by the 
market; Bospiiset, B. 70 0., D. 1 kr., S. 80 0. — " Fjeldsaiter Turist-Hotel 
(p. 205; iy 2 hr.'s drive, 1 pers. 3, 2 pers. 5 kr., carr. and pair 12 kr.), with 
baths, etc., R. 3, B. 1, D. 21/a, S. H/z kr. 

Cafes: "Frimurerloge (p. 202 ; dining-room on 1st floor), Kongens-Gade, 

E. of Frue-Kirke; Britannia Cafi, in the hotel; City Caft, at Hot. Angleterre 
(see above); Orand-Gafi, at the Theatre (PI. 7; dining-room on 1st floor, D. 
from 1 kr.). — Confectioner: Halm, Nordre-Gade 4, opp. post-office. — 

History. TRONDHJEM. 29. Route. 201 

Tivoli (formerly Bjorlen; PI. A, 2), in the Hen suburb, with concerts and 
variety-shows (adm. 25-50 0.). 

, n „9! a 5j ln the Torv: P er drive in the town and suburbs, 1, 2, 3, 4 persons. 
40, 60, 80 0., or lkr. ; outside the town 70e., 1, 1.20, 1.40 kr. ; per hour 1.20 
1.50, 1.80, or 2.10 kr.; carr. and pair, and also night-fares (10-8), one-half 
more. Luggage up to 65 lbs. free (130 lbs. in two-horse cabs). 

Tramway (10 0.) : from Lademoen, on the E. (PI. F, 2), by the Bakke- 
Bro and Kongens-Gade, to the suburb of Hen, on the W. (Tivoli- PI A 2) 

Tourist Offices. T. Bennett dc Sons, F. Beyer, and Th. Cook Jc Son, all in 
the Dronningens-Gade. 

Post and Telegraph (PI. D, 3), Nordre Gade, by the Fruekirke. 

Banks (open till 1 only). Norges Bank, corner of Kongens-Gade and Kj#b- 
mands-Gade ; Privatbank, S/zrndre Gade 14 ; Jfordenfjeldske Credit-Bank next 
Hot. Britannia; Trcndnjems-Handelsbank, S0ndre Gade 13. ' 

Engl. Ch. Service, Hospitals-Kirke (PI. 5), Kongens-Gade. 

BritishVice-Consul,J/r.i?.^;ei(fi6erj;(cornerofStrand-G. andS0ndre-G.) 
— XT. S. A. Commercial Agent, Mr. Clam Berg. 

Baths. Warm and vapour, Dronningens-Gade la (men 12.30-8, Wed. 
5-8; ladies 10-12, Wed. 10-5 ; li/akr.). — Sea-Baths (men 12-2 and 6-8 o'clock), 
W. of the railway-station, 20 0. (ferry 5 0.). 

Booksellers (photographs, maps, etc.) : A. Brun, Kongens-Gade, corner 
of Nordre Gade, opp. post-office; A. Holbwk -Eriksen, Olaf- Tryggveaspns- 
Gade 17 ; A. Stabel, corner of Nordre-G. and Dronningens-Gade. 

Shops. Furs, Eider-down, etc.: N.J.Bruun, Olaf-Tryggvess0ns-Gade 37, 
one of the best shops of the kind in Norway ; eider-down 20-24 kr. per lb ; 
eider-down quilts 80-200 kr.; bear-skina 120-450 kr. — Carved wood, souve- 
nirs, embroidery, etc., at the depot of the Norsk Husflids Tenner ('Friends 
of Norw. Home Industry'), Nordre Gade 14. — Ornaments, silver ware in 
the old-Norse style, small copies of the figures in the cathedral, etc., at 
H. Mailer's, Dronningens-Gade 16, corner of Nordre Gade; chased work 
also at SmejdaTs, Nordre Gade 14. — Wine, cognac, preserved meat, etc. ; 
M. H. Lundgreen, Kj«bmands-Gade 46. — Photographs, etc. : Janssen <* Co., 
Nordre Gade 9 ; J. L. Nerlien, Dronningens-Gade 12. 

l Det er saa fagert i Trondhjem at hvile\ 
('It is so fair in Trondhjem to dwell'.) 

Refrain of Old Song. 
Trondhjem, or Throndhjem (pron. tronj em), German Drontheim, 
capital of the Stift or province of that name, and seat of a bishop, 
with 38,200 inhab., lies on a peninsula formed by the Trondhjems- 
Fjord and the river Nid, in 63°30' N. lat., (same as the S. coast of 
Iceland). In summer the climate is like that of the S. of England, 
in winter like that of Dresden. The river is rarely frozen over, 
the fjord never. Hence the rich vegetation. Many of the townspeople 
are wealthy, and they have long been noted for their kindly dis- 
position. The district is called Trendelagen, its inhabitants Trender. 
Around rise picturesque hills : E. the Blasevoldbakke, ending in 
the spur of Ladehammeren ; 8.W. the Bagliaas ; W. the Ojeitfjeld. 
Histoei. Till the middle of the 16th cent, the town was called 
Nidaros ('mouth of the river Nid'). Like Upsala in Sweden, Trondhjem 
is the 'heart of the country'. Here, on Brat0ren, the Norwegian kings 
were elected and crowned. Here met the famous 0rething. In 996 Olaf 
Tryggvessen founded a palace here, and a church dedicated to St. Clement 
St. Olaf, the chief founder of the town (1016), continued the work, and 
after his death at the battle of Stiklestad (1030) a new impulse was given : 
for his remains were placed in a reliquary on the bigh-altar of St. Clement's 
C'mrch, where they attracted hosts of pilgrims. The St. Olaf cult made 
Trondhjem one of the largest and richest towns in Norway, and gave rise 
to the erection of the cathedral, nine Other churches, and five monasteries. 

202 Route 29. TRONDHJEM. Cathedral. 

But civil wars, pestilence , sieges, and fires brought disaster, and the 
pilgrimages were ended by the Reformation. The reliquary of the saint 
was carried off, his remains were buried in some unknown spot, and 
most of the churches and monasteries were swept away. — The town has 
been entirely or partially burned down no less than fifteen times. In 1769 
the population numbered 7500, in 1815 about 10,000, in 1835 about 12,900, 
in 1875 it reached 22,500, and since then 38,200. Trade is brisk, but much 
inferior to that of Bergen. The chief exports are copper from Rtfraas 
(p. 95), dried and salted fish, and train-oil. The shipbuilding yards, a 
foundry, engine-works, and several factories may also be mentioned. 

The Harbour is about 120 acres in area. The oldest part is 
the 0vre Eloehavn (PL E, 2, 3), flanked with timber-built ware- 
houses, behind which runs the Kjebmands-Gade, with the merchants' 
offices. Adjoining the 0vre is N. the Nedre Elvehavn (PI. F, lj, and 
W. the Kanalhavn (38 ft. deep in the middle). The Ydre Havn, or 
outer harbour (PI. E, 1) is protected by a breakwater. 

In the centre of the town is the Market Place (Torvet), where 
the Munke-Gade and Kongens-Gade cross. In the former, a little 
N., is the Sliftsgaard (PI. D, 2, 3), the residence of the 'Stifts- 
amtmand' (governor of the province), used as a royal palace during 
coronation festivities. In the Kongens-Gade is the Fruekirke. 
Beyond it is the 'Park', with a small bronze statue (by Bissen) of 
the famous Admiral Tordenskjold (p. 14), born at Trondhjem in 
1691. Opposite (E.) are the handsome new Masonic Lodge (Fri- 
murerloge; PI. 2; D, 3 ; cafe, see p. '200) and (N.) the Savings Bank 
(PI. 6; D, 3), which contains the Kunstforening (entrance from 
Apothekerveiten ; daily 12-2, adm. 25 e. ; Sun. free; "Wed., 12-2, 
25 ».) ; then the Fisheries Museum (entrance from the Sandre-Gade ; 
daily 12-2). — In the Dronningens- Gade is the Nordenfjeldske 
Museum of Industrial Art (PL 3; E, 3). 

The Munke-Gade, in which the new red building of the Tech- 
nical School is conspicuous to the left, leads S. to the N. transept 
of the cathedral. The entrance for visitors is in the chapter-house 
(K on the Plan), to the N. of the choir. 

The "Cathedral (Pl.D, 4), in plan and in execution the grandest 
church in Scandinavia, was founded by King Olaf Kyrre over the 
tomb of St. Olaf (comp. p. 201), and was enlarged after the erection 
of Trondhjem into an archbishopric in 1151. Eystein (1161-88), 
the third archbishop, who owing to a quarrel with King Sverrir 
(p. xlii) fled to England and remained there three years, afterwards 
returned and built the present transept on the site of the former 
nave (see Ground Plan C), which already had a tower in the centre, 
and the *Chapter House (PL K), both in the late-Eomanesque style 
under English influence. To these Eystein's successor added the 
*Choir (PL B), terminating in an exquisite octagonal apse (PL A), 
which covered the revered relics of St. Olaf, the chief treasure 
of the church. We find here developed, with the aid of favourable 
material (bluish saponite or soapstone, Norwegian 'klaebersten' 
from quarries to the E. of Trondhjem, and marble from the quarries 



29. Route. 203 

of Almenningen, p. 212), all the decorative splendour of early Gothic, 
mingled with Romanesque features, with traces of elahorate class- 
ical treatment, and with indications of exuberant imagination. 
During a fourth building period, 1248-1300, was added the grand 
Nave (PI. D), also Gothic, but still more under English influence. 
The cathedral has been repeatedly injured by Are, in 1328 so seriously 
that the choir had to be almost entirely rebuilt. In 1531 a terrible 
Are destroyed both town and cathedral. The adoption of the Re- 
formation in 1537 limited the restoration to the most urgent repairs. 
In 1708 and 1719 the church was again injured by Are, and down 
to 1869 the part W. of the transept was a ruin. Since then it has 
been undergoing judicious restoration : a great work which is justly 

Ground Plan of the Cathedral: Romanesque parts black, Gothic 
parts shaded.' 

regarded as a point of national honour. The able architect C. Christie 
(d. 1906) used all the old parts and carefully supplemented them 
with new ones. The chapter-house, the choir with its octagonal apse 
and rich S. portal (Kongeindgangen, royal entrance), and the gTeat 
central tower with its four corner-turrets in the English style, are 
completed. The work is now progressing under the architect Hr. 
Ryford; its completion in 1914 is hoped for, but will probably 
take longer. The funds are provided by the state, by the Trondhjem 
Savings Bank, and by private contributions (about 100,000 kr. per 

The Interior is open 12-1.30 and 6-7.30 p.m.; Sun. 1-2.30 only (donation 
to funds expected). — We enter the Romanesque Chapter House (PI. K; 
comp. p. 202) and pass through it to the E. end of the church with its 
domed Octagon (PI. A), executed in rich Gothic style. The silver reli- 
quary of St. Olaf once preserved here, was removed to Copenhagen at the 
Reformation. From the ambulatory a side-door leads to St. Olaft Spring 
(PI, o), which probably determined the site of the church. A staircase 
(clpsed during the public hours of admission) ascends to the friforivin 

204 Route 29. TRONDHJEM. Walks. 

and Clerestory, which afford a good view of the church. The apse is ad- 
joined by the E. Nave (PI. B), which is partitioned off from the Transept 
(PI. C) and used for Sunday service. The white marble columns contrast 
effectively with the greyish blue of the saponite walls. The light-coloured 
stained-glass windows were executed in England. Above the chancel arch 
is a figure of Christ. — The sacristan opens the passage to the Romanesque 
Teansept (PI. C). The stained glass in the S. chapel is from Cologne. — 
We may also visit the unfinished Nave (PI. D). 

In the 11th and 12th cent, the cathedral was the royal burial-place, 
and several kings were afterwards crowned here. By the constitution of 
Norway (1814) the kings must be crowned here, and this was done in the 
case of Charles XIV. John in 1818, Charles XV. in 1860, Oscar II. in 1873, 
and Haakon, VII. in 1906. — Important works on the cathedral have been 
published by P. A. Munch. Schirmer (Norwegian), and Minutoli (German). 
A short illustrated description by 0. Krefting, in English, was published 
in 1905 by Brun (p. 201; iy 2 kr.). 

To the E. and S.E. of the cathedral is the Churchyard, many of 
the graves in -which, in Norwegian fashion, are adorned with fresh 
flowers every Saturday. On its N. side is a bust of Thomas Angell 
(1692-1767), founder of the adjacent ladies' home. To the S.W. 
of the cathedral is the old Kongs-Oaard (Pi. D, 4), once the arch- 
bishop's residence, and now an artillery arsenal. 

The Academy of Science (del kgl. norske Videnskabers Selskab), 
Erling Skakkes Gade 47 (Pi. 9 ; C, 3), founded in 1760, once had 
Scheming, Suhm, Gunnerus, and other scholars among its members. 
It has a library of 70,000 vols., large natural history collections 
(especially northern animals and minerals), and antiquities and 
coins from Trondhjems-Stift (open 12-2 on Sun., Tues., Wed., 
and Frid. ; in July and Aug. daily, and Sun. 5-6; adm. free on Sun. 
and Wed.; at other times, 25.0.). The small 'Stavekirke' of the 
14th cent., in the court at the back, was brought from Holtaalen in 
1884, and has had the W. wall of the church of Aalen added to it. 

Walks. — To the East we may cross the upper bridge over the 
Nid (the Bybro; PI. D, E, 3) to the suburb of Baklandet, and ascend 
(lastly by a path to the left) to (10 min.) the grounds by the 
fortress of *Kristiansten (236 ft.), erected in the 17th cent. , which 
afford a picturesque view of the town and environs, especially by 
morning-light. — Passing through the suburb of Baklandet, where 
there are large engine-works and a shipbuilding-yard, we may go 
N.E., across the Meraker railway (p. 206), by Lademoen, to the 
(Y2 hr.) headland of Ladehammeren. 

On the West the town was formerly enclosed by fortifications. 
On their site rises the modern Ilenskirke (PI. B, 2), built of blue 
quartz-sandstone. Beyond is the suburb of Hen (12 min. from the 
Torv; tramway, see p. 201), with a Roman Catholic church (PI. A, 2) 
and a hospital. On the fjord are extensive timber-yards. 

A picturesque *View of Trondhjem (best by evening-light), 
with, the winding Nid in the foreground, the hills to the E., and 
the extensive fjord, is obtained from Aasveien (PI. A, 3, 4), a 
road ascending the hill to the S. of Hen and passing several villas: 

Excursions. TRONDHJEM. 29. Route. 205 

from the tramway-terminus we take the second street to the left, 
leading in about i/ 4 hr. to a bench. The rocky hill above was once 
crowned with a castle of King Sverre (Sverresborg). 

The highest hill near Trondhjem is the Graakallen (1831 ft.), 
ascended in about 2hrs.: from the tramway-terminus at Jlen we 
mount the steep Stenbjergbakken street (PI. A, 2, 3) straight on, 
turning to the S. at the top ; after 25 min. we follow a road to the 
right, leading to (li/ 4 hr.) the Fjeldsceter Hot. $ Restaur. (1477 ft. ; 
p. 200); 10 min. further is the small restaur. Skistue (D. li/ 4 kr., 
good). A footpath leads in */ 4 hr. more to the top, crowned with 
a vane and a refuge-hut. The view embraces a great part of the 
Trondhjem Fjord; E. the Sterdal (p. 206) as far as the mountains 
on the Swedish frontier (Sylarne, p. 376); S. the Guldal (p. 96) 
and the vast fjeld, over which tower the Snehaetta and the Trold- 
heim Mts. ; to the W. is the sea. 

On the slope of the spurs of the Gjeitfjeld, visible from lien, 
are several old coast -lines, 528 and 580 ft. above the sea, cor- 
responding with others on the hills on the E. side of the fjord. 
A path, branching from the Trollabrug road, ascends to them past 
the Skytterhus (rifle-range). — The road to the (5 Kil.) Trollabrug 
iron-foundry also offers a fine view of the fjord. 

In the fjord, to theN., lies the fortified island of Munkholmen 
(motor-boat in 10 min. ; 25 ». ; adm. free ; a soldier acts as guide), 
the site of a Benedictine monastery, founded in 1028, of which 
part of a round tower is the only relic. Count Peter Griffenfeldt 
(p. lxxiv), the minister of Christian V., was confined here from 
1680 to 1698. Some interesting old Norwegian buildings are pre- 
served here. The view from the outer walls is attractive. 

The excursion to the falls of the Nid near gaard Leren, 8 Kil. 
S. of Trondhjem, is best made by carriage (skyds for 1 pers. 6, 
horse carr. for 2 pers. 8, caleschvogn 12, landau 14 kr.; 1 / 2 -i kr. 
extra for every hour beyond four). The road leads through lien 
and up the left bank of the river. Or we may go by train to Sels- 
bcek (p. 96). The road from the station descends in 5 min. to the 
Trondhjem high-road. Here we turn to the right, and after fifty 
paces diverge to the left. In 10 min. we come to a finger-post 'til 
Fossestuen', where the road to the left leads in 10 min. more to Fosse- 
stuen, a good restaurant opposite the bed of the Lille Lerfos, which 
has been turned off and no longer exists, and to (20 min.) the Store 
Lerfos, 105 ft. high, the right side of which is still fine, though 
three-fourths of the water are diverted by the electric works, which 
supply Trondhjem with light and the tramway with power. (Three 
turbines of 1000 II. P. each; admittance only by permission ob- 
tained at the Trondhjem office.) 

A pleasant Steamboat Teip (Com. 374) may be taken on the 
Inner Trondhjem Fjord, flanked with low hills. The E. bank is 
well cultivated at places. The chief stations are Holmbergel, on the 

206 R.29. — Map,p.20d. MERAKER. Excursions from 

Frosten peninsula, W. of which in the little Tutere (with ruins of 
the Cistercian monastery of Tautra, founded 1207) ; then LekMk, 
on the W. bank, and Hokstad on the large Tttere, with sulphur- 
mines. Levanger (p. 207) is reached in 4-5 hrs. — Other steamers 
pass Levanger, steer direct to Stenkjctr (p. 207), and then by Fosnces 
(p. 208) to Hjeldnoisset at the head of the fjord. 

An Excursion to the S*lbo-Sj0 takes two days. 1st Day, by rail 
to Heimdal (p. 96); walk to Teigen, or drive (skyds-station at rail. stat. 
Heimdal) to Brettun (17 Kil.. pay for 21), both at the W. end of the Saslbo- 
Sj0 or Selbu-Sje (525 ft.; 443 ft. deep), a lake, 29 Kil. long, on which a 
steamboat plies five times weekly in summer (Com. 510). On the S.E. 
bank of the lake, near the church ot Scelbo, at the mouth of the Nid which 
descends from the Tydal, lie Marienborg and the Sailbo Sanatorium, where 
we spend the night. — 2nd Day, row (7 Kil.) or drive (15 Kil.) to Setsaas 
on the N. bank, and drive by a picturesque route, by (7 Kil.) Fuglem and 
(12 Kil.) Viken, to (12 Kil.) Hommelvik on the Meraker railway (see below). 

From Trondhjem to Storlien (Ostersund, Stockholm). 

106 Kil. Railway (Merakerbane) in 4>/2 hrs. ; two trains daily (fares 
5.30, 3.50 kr.). To Hell several trains daily in I1/2 hr. — To Stockholm, 
748 Kil., two trains daily in 24-25 hrs. (fares 23.10, 15.50kr.). 

The train crosses the Nid ; to the right is the suburb of Bak- 
landet; then, left, the church of Lade. Beyond (3 Kil.) Leangen is 
the lunatic asylum of Botvold, on the left. We skirt the fjord, 
here called Strindenfjord, and farther on, St jerdals fjord. 7 Kil. 
Banheim; 15 Kil. Maloik. 

23 Kil. Hommelvik, with brisk timber- trade. (Road to Lake 
Saelbo, see above; line view from a hill on the road, 1 hr. inland.) 
Short tunnel. 

32 Kil. Hell, junction of the Levanger line (see below), lies at 
the mouth of the Stjerdals-Elv, which is crossed by a bridge. — 
The line ascends the left bank of the Stjerdals-Elv. The green 
valley is flanked with birch and fir-woods. 42 Kil. Hegre, near the 
mouth of the Forra , descending from the N.E. ; 57 Kil. Floren. 
Waterfalls on both sides. At (72 Kil.) Gudaaen (276 ft.) we cross 
the Reinaa. Tunnel. Then an ascent, through pretty scenery, and 
across the Stjerdals-Elv to — 

81 Kil. Meraker (719 ft. ; Rail. Rest.; custom-house for trav- 
ellers coming from Sweden), a pleasant little town, the last in 
Norway. Fine view from the station. Near it is an old copper- 
mine. — The line ascends rapidly. Beautiful pine-wood. The vege- 
tation becomes scanty. The Areskutan (p. 384) and other Swedish 
snow-mountains appear in the distance. We cross the Swedish 
frontier (1824 ft.), where many timber galleries protect the line 
against snow-drifts. 

106 Kil. Storlien (Rail. Rest. ; see p. 386). The line is now 
Swedish (R. 58). 

Trondhjem. STENK.LER. Map, p. 204. — 29. R. 207 

From Trondhjem, by Sunnan, Snaasenvand, and Fiskumfos, to 


Railway from Trondhjem to (137 Kil.) Sunnan in about 4 hrs. (farc8 
6.85, 4.25 kr.). — Steamer (Com. 514, 515) to Sem daily in 41/2-5 hrs. (fare 
2.10 kr.). — Road from Sem to Fiskvm 56 Kil., and thence to Namsos 
71 Kil. (fast stations). — This is a fine route, though the Fiskumfos is 
not in full force after mid- July; if the Snaasenvand steamer suits it can 
be done in 3 days. Or we may go direct from Stenkjaer to Namsos in 
one day. To Stenkjaer by steamer, see p. 206. 

From Trondhjem to (32 Kil.) Hell, see p. 206. The railway to 
Levanger crosses the Stjordals-Elv, passes (35 Kil.) Stjerdalen, 
skins the fjord, and then turns inland. 42 Kil. Skatval. View of 
the Aasenfjord to the left ; in the foreground is the little island of 
Stenviksholm , with a ruined castle. 51 Kil. Langstein; 62 Kil. 
Aasen, on the Hammervand; 70 Kil. Ronylan; 76 Kil. Skogn. Fer- 
tile country. 

84 Kil. Levanger (Backlund's Hot., good), a prettily situated 
little town with 1750 inhab., a training-college, and several fac- 
tories, suffered seriously from fires in 1846, 1877, and 1897, but 
has been rebuilt. 

92 Kil. Rinnan; 96 Kil. Vardalen or Vcerdalseren, on the left 
bank of the Vardals-ELv, which we cross. [By gaard Stikkstad and 
the church of Verdal, 4 Kil. inland, a column erected in 1805 recalls 
the death of St. Olaf at the battle of 29th July 1030. Comp. p. xli.] 

A road with fast stations ascends the Verdal, which was devastated in 
1893 by huge volumes of water forcing their way up from the strata below 
the surface. 8 Kil. Skjerdalen; 11 Kil. Gamau; 19 Kil. Sulituen (good sta- 
tion); 2'2 Kil. (pay for 33) Skalstugan (good quarters), the first Swedish 
station (comp. p. 375). From here we may walk (with guide) to the Skalije 
(1930 ft.), cross the lake by boat, and ascend the fjeld to a Lapp Camp (comp. 
p. 253), to be found here in summer (3-4 hrs. from Skalstugan). 

106 Kil. Salberg, with church on the right; 113 Kil. Sparbuen, 
also with a church, on the Borgenfjord, which separates the penin- 
sula of Indere from the mainland. 119 Kil. Vist. The train ap- 
proaches the Beitstad- Fjord, the inmost arm of Trondhjem Fjord. 

137 Kil. StenkjEer (Thorbjemsen'sHot. ; Grand.-H. ; pop. 2000), 
rebuilt after a fire in 1900, has a pleasant site at the mouth of the 
By-Elv, which descends from the Snaasenvand aDd is crossed here 
by a bridge. 

From Stenkj^r to Namsos (p. 213), 86 Kil., by skyds-road: 15 Kil. 
(pay for 17) ilslvik (good quarters), on the inmost bay of the Beitstadfjord 
(see above). Then past gaard Fosnws (p. 206) across the watershed (300ft.) to 
the Namsenfjord. 15 Kil. Elden (2H2 ft.); 18 Kil. Redhammer (good quarters; 
steamer-station, Com. 381); 16 Kil. Bangmnd (22 Kil. from Namsos by 
water); 11 Kil. Spillum. From Spillum 3 Kil. more to the Stremhylla 
Ferry; then row across the fjord (4 Kil.) or drive (8 Kil.) to Namsos. 

The train leaves the fjord and ascends on the N. bank of the 
By-Elv. 131 Kil. Byfossen, between the Reinsvand and the Fossum- 
vand, through which the By-Elv flows. 

137 Kil. Sunnan (good quarters at H. M. Bremer s), the ter- 
minus of the railway, lies at the S.W. end of the Snaasenvand 

208 R. 29.— Map, p. 204,. FISKUMFOS. 

(78 ft.; 46 Kil. long; 443 ft. deep) a beautiful lake enclosed by 
wooded and rocky hills. On the N. bank runs a road with poor 
stations. By steamboat (p. 207), the pier of which is at gaard Nest- 
volden, beyond the bridge, i 1 /^ hrs. to — 

Sem (good quarters). From Sem we drive round the E. end of 
the lake, and ascend the Snaasenheia by a beautiful, but hilly road. 
Beyond the highest point (804 ft.) the new road diverges to the 
right and descends into the pretty valley of the Sandela, which, 
at the bridge, forms the fine Formofos. We descend on the right 
bank of the stream, skirting the E. slope of the Ojeitfjeld (2580 ft.). 

27 Kil. (pay for 33) Formo (Formo Hot.). Running near the 
winding Sandeda, the road next reaches the Namsen-Elv, crosses it 
(about IV2 Kil. above the mouth of the Sandela), and joins the 
Namsos and Fiskum road, 5 Kil. E. of Vie (see below); to the left 
is the church of Grong (see below). We follow this road, E., on 
the right bank of the Namsen-Elv, to — 

12 Kil. Fossland (197ft.). The road, hewn in the rock in many 
places, crosses the mouth of the Gartlands-Elv, and ascends the 
marshy slope of the Aurstadfjeld (1355 ft.), passing the gaards of 
Gartland (owned by Mr. Merthyr Guest) and Aurstad, where we 
enjoy a superb view. We now descend to the farm-buildings (good 
quarters) on the Fiskumfos, a great fall of the Namsen-Elv, 105 ft. 
high (not unlike the Rhine-Fall at Schaffhausen), but dwindling 
in August. The little house below the dairy affords a good view of 
the fall. About 1 Kil. farther, 17 Kil. from Fossland, is the station 
of Fiskem or Fiskum (Hot.). 

From Fiskum to Namsos, down the wooded and populous Nam- 
dal (about 8000inhab.), a long day's journey (9-10 hrs., excl. stop- 
pages). The scenery is fine at places. 

To Fossland, and then to the end of the road coming from the 
Snaasenvand, and past the church of Orong, see above. 

1 1 Kil. (from Fossland) Vie, a great resort of English anglers, 
the Namsen-Elv being one of the best salmon-rivers in Europe. The 
fishings are let. Nearly 1 Kil. farther is gaard her (good quarters) at 
the foot of the Holoklumpen (1368 ft.). The road skirts the river and 
the Spanfjeld (1559 ft.), and passes the old church of Bauem. 

17 Kil. Haugum, in Rauemsletten, a fairly well-tilled district. 

About 2 Kil. E. of Haugum a skyds-road branches N., by Flasnws (good 
quarters) and the E. bank of the Eidsvand, to (11 Kil.) Qalgeften and (14 Kil. 
Merkved ; then past Heland church to (17 Kil.) Flol, and down the Rosen- 
dals-Elv to (17 Kil.) Kongtmo, at the head of the inner Foldenfjord (p. 216). 

The road traverses the marshy Tramyr. 

11 Kil. Hun, near the church of Skage. We descend on the left 
bank of the Reinbjer-Elv, cross it near its influx into the Namsen- 
Elv, and follow this broad stream, at the foot of the Aalbergfjeld. 

15 Kil. Namsos (p. 213). 




General Remarks 210 

30. From Trondhjem to Bode 212 

Foldenfjord, Bindalsfjord, Velfjord 213 214 

Rasvand. 0xtinder , ' 215 

Dunderlandsdal, Beierendal, Saltdal, Junkersdal . '. 216 217 
Excursions from Bode- : Beierenfjord, Saltenfjord and 
Skjerstadfjord, Sulitelma. Landegode 219-221 

31. The Lofoten Islands . 222 

Vesteraalen 295 

32. From Bode to Troms». Narvik 226 

Foldenfjord, Hellemofjord 227 

From Maalsnces to the Rostavand and to Stfveien . . . 230 

33. From Tromse to the North Cape 232 

The Ulfsjord 233 

Excursions in the Lyngen District 234 

Altenfjord. From the Altenfjord toVadsP by Karasjok '. 235 

34. From the North Cape to Vads» 239 

35. Syd-Varanger 242 

36. From the Altenfjord to Haparanda in Sweden . . . 243 

Apart from the British tourist -steamers (enquire of Messrs. 
Th. Cook & Son, or other tourists' agents) and others from Hamburg 
etc., those of the united companies Bergenske and Nordenfjeldske 
Dampskibs-Selskab (p. xviii) are the most important plying to the 
Nordland. In summer they send tourist -steamers from Trond- 
hjem twice a week to the North Cape (Com. 225b), besides mail- 
steamers once a week throughout the year to Hammerfest, to Vadse, 
and to Syd-Varanger (Com. 226 ; Lines II, III, I) ; also fast steamers 
once or twice a week to Tromsa (Com. 227a, b). The Vesteraalens 
Dampskibs-Selskab (Com. 229) also maintains a fast service between 
Trondhjem and Hammerfest, besides tourist-vessels once a week 
between Narvik and Trondhjem and between Narvik and the Lofoten 
Islands (comp. p. 222). 

The Beegbn and Nokdenfjeld Toubjst Steamers usually ply as 
follows : — Dep. Trondhjem Tues. and Thurs. evening; at Svartisen 
"Wed. and Frid. evening ; Thurs. and Sat. a splendid voyage through 
the Lofoten Islands; arr. same afternoon at Tromse (halt of 3 hrs.) ; 
Frid. and Sun. morning arr. at Hammerfest, and same evening at 
the North, Cape (p. 238). Dep. North Cape Sat. and Mon. morning; 
arr. in the evening at the Lyngenfjord; arr. at Tromse Sun. and 
Tues. morning, and at the Lofoten (Raftsund) in the evening ; at 
Torghatten Mon. and Wed. evening, and at Trondhjem Tues. and 
Thurs. morning. The whole trip from Trondhjem to the North Cape 
and back thus takes less than a week. These tourist-steamers are 

Baedekeb's Norway and Sweden. 9th Edit. 14 


comfortably fitted up ; they afford the easiest and speediest access 
to the sights of the Nordland; but the company is sometimes noisy, 
and the life on board, as in a large hotel, is apt to pall. 

The Fares in the Tourist Steamers for the whole voyage, including food , 
are as follows : — berth in a cabin containing one or two berths, 250-300 kr. 
(about 137. 18 to 16/. 17*.), according to position; cabin-fare, with berth 
in the general gentlemen s or ladies' cabin, 220 kr. (12J. 4». 3d.). Single 
tickets, but not return- tickets, are issued for sections of the voyage, if 
there is room. Time-tables should be procured from the agents in good 
time, and berths paid for in advance, unless the passenger be prepared 
to sleep in the general cabin. 

The Mail Steamers call at numerous stations and take l 1 /4-3 
days for the voyage from Trondhjem to Bode, 2-5 days to Tromse, 
and 372-6 days to Hammer f tit . Thence through the Magerasund 
(p. 239 ; or, if the passengers desire, round the North Cape) to Vadse, 
21/2 da y s more. The whole voyage from Trondhjem to Vadsa and 
back takes about 17 days. The mail-steamers are little inferior in 
comfort to the tourist-steamers, and as they make frequent stop- 
pages of one or more days, they give time for excursions on shore. 
On the other hand they sometimes stop longest at the least inter- 
esting places, especially on the return-voyages after the end of July, 
when the loading of enormous cargoes of herring is apt to cause a 

delay of 24 hrs. or more. * 

The Fares in the Mail Steamers are reckoned by mileage, the first 
cabin costing 40 0. per Norwegian sea-mile. The fare from Trondhjem 
to Bodn (76 sea-miles) thus amounts to 30.40 kr., to Tromse (125 S.M.) 50 kr., 
to Bammerfeit (155 S.M.) 62 kr., toVarde (171 S.M.) 80kr.,toFads<j(210S.M.) 
84 kr Return-tickets ('Tur og Retur') are valid for six months, and are 
available for the 'Vesteraalen' (p. 209), hut not for the tourist-steamers. 
The voyage may not be broken. — Charges for food, see p. xviu. 

Each steamer carries a small Post Office, which also transmits tele- 
grams. Passengers may receive telegrams at Trondhjem, Namtos (p. 216 -not 
touched at by ttie tourist-steamers), Henningsvcer (p. 224), Ledtngen (p. ASS), 
Hantad (p. 228), Tromse (p. 230), or Sammer/est (p. 236). These should be 

directed to the addressee as 'Passager (name of steamer), Dampskibs- 

kontor . . . .(name of station)'. The captain, mates, and post-office offi- 
cials generally apeak English. 

One drawback to the Nordland voyage is the difficulty of getting 
sleep. As there is scarcely an uninteresting point on the whole 
voyage, and as it is always day in the height of summer, the trav- 
eller is naturally anxious to see everything ; to obviate over-fatigue 
and exhaustion he should endeavour to sleep for at least 4-6 hrs. 
after midnight and an hour or two after dinner. As nearly the 
whole voyage is within the island-belt ('indenskjars'), sea-sickness 
is rare. Two pilots (Lodser) are always on board to navigate the 
vessel at difficult points. 

The fare for going ashore in one of the 'Ranenbaade' (p. 21b) 
that swarm round the steamer on entering a harbour is 10-20 0. 
(better ask for the 'taxt' or tariff). — The steamer sounds its siren 
or whistle when ready to start. 

The physical features of the Nordland are profoundly interest- 
ing. Weather, winds, fogs, the play of light and shade, the purity 



of the air, are all peculiar to the country. The combination of 
mountain, glacier, and ocean scenery is unrivalled. Even the 
Alpine tourist will be at fault here in estimating distances. Perhaps 
the trip from Tacoma and Victoria to Sitka, along the coast of Alaska, 
offers the closest analogy within reach of the ordinary tourist (see 
Baedeker's United States or Baedekers Canada). The wealth of 
animal life is here extraordinary. The sea teems with cod, herrings 
skate, and other fish. Narwhals 6-12 ft. long, dolphins leaping 
from the water, porpoises, and other denizens of the ocean are seen 
(best from the bows of the vessel) disporting themselves in every 
direction, but whiales are rarely visible. At certain places nestle 
swarms of eider ducks, whose swimming and diving powers are 
remarkable, enabling them to dive twenty fathoms or more for the 
little crabs and other Crustacea on which they live. Every where the 
air is full of sea-gulls, which are often robbed of their prey by the 
skua (Lestris parasitica, pomarina, cataractes), which, unable to 
fish for itself, compels them to drop their booty. 

The most striking scenery extends from the Arctic Circle 
(Hestmande, p. 217) to the Lofoten Islands (E. 31) and the S. end 
of Hinde (LeAingeii; p. 228); and beyond Troms» the Lyngenfjord 
(p. 233) is of surpassing grandeur. Beyond Hammerfest the scenery 
becomes severe and forbidding. At the North Cape Europe ends, 
and the Arctic regions begin. — The best points for passengers 
by the mail-steamers to break their journey are: Bode, for ex- 
cursions to the Saltfjord (p. 220; chiefly interesting at new and full 
moon) and the Sulitelma (p. 221); Svolvar or Digermulen, for the 
Lofoten Islands (p. 222), or for the ascent of Digermulkollen by 
midnight-light (one of the finest points of the journey in clear 
weather); Trowse, for the Ulfsfjord and Lyngenfjord (p. 233); and 
Hammerfest, for the ascent of Tyven (p. 237). 

Inns are to he found at all the larger places; elsewhere travellers 
are generally well received by the 'Landhandlere'. 

The best Season for a cruise to the North Cape is between 
20th June and 15th August. Before mid-June the mountains are 
still covered with snow, and the vegetation in the valleys is back- 
ward; after mid- August the nights become longer. The success 
of the journey depends of course on the weather, which may dis- 
appoint at any season: 

The Midnight Sun visible within the Arctic Circle (66° 32' 30") 
is seen as follows : — 


North Cape 

For the first time. 



30th May 
18th - 
13th - 
11th - 

1st June 
19th May 
14th - 
12th - 


3rd June 
20th Slay 
16th - 
13th - 

For the last time. 




8th July 
22nd - 

27th - 
30th - 

10th July 
24th - 
28th - 
31st - 


12th July 
25th - ' 
29th - 

1st Aug. 

212 Route 30. STOKSUND. 

Passengers by the tourist-steamers have several opportunities 
of seeing the midnight sun: at the Vaagsfjord beyond Harstadhavn 
(p. 228); off the Fuglo (p. 233); from the North Cape (p. 238); 
and on leaving the Lyngenfjord, also looking towards the Fugle. 
Passengers by the mail-boats who make excursions inland also have 
opportunities of seeing it (pp. 218, 225, 228, 237), but from the 
boat itself it is generally shut out by the islands. A perfectly clear 
horizon is rare. The sublimity of the spectacle has been described 
by Carlyle, Bayard Taylor, and many others. 

Midnattssolen pa bergen salt The midnight sun on .the mountains lay 

Blodrbd till alt thada; And blood-red was its hue; 

Bit var ej dag, del var ej nail, It was not night, it was not day, 

Del vdgde emellan bada. But wavered 'twixt the two. (Tegne'r.) 

The Maps in the Handbook (four sections ; marks indicate where 
they join; see p.x), though of small scale (1 : 1,500,000), show the 
usual courses of the steamboats and will suffice for most travellers. 
Detail has been subordinated to clearness. The course of the mail- 
steamers is indicated by , that of the tourist - steamers 

by — • — • — . Other interesting routes are marked . 

Distances are given in Norwegian sea-miles from the starting-point 

of each route. 

The best of the larger maps are NisseiCs and B. Geelmuyden's Lomme 
(pocket)-.A«<M overNorge, theXordland maps of which are very clear (3 50 kr.). 

Travellers by mail-steamer should get the latest Communicationer. 

30. From Trondhjem to Bod». 

76 S.M. (about 310 Engl. M.; p. vi). The actual course of the steamers 
is much longer, varving according to the stations called at. The distances 
given below are from Trondhjem. The Mail Steamers to *»»"<>» take 
13-15 hrs. (fare 12.40 kr.); to Bode 42-44 hrs. (on some voyages 48-5<!hrs.-, 
fare 30 40 kr.). The express-steamer 'Vestekaalen', touching at Selven, 
Rf»rvik, Br0n#, and Sandnaestfen, reaches Bode in 28 hrs. The Tooeist 
Boats do not touch at Bod0. 

The voyage from Trondhjem to (7SM.)Bejan, see p. 196. — The 
vessel steers due N. On the left is the large red lighthouse of 
Kjeungen ('the kid'); on the right stretches the large peninsula of 
Fosen (p. 196), lying between the open sea and the fjord of Trond- 
hjem. To the W. are the islands of Stor Fosen and the Tarv-0er. 
12 S.M. Valdersund, opposite the Valsei. The Nordlandsjagte, 
rigged with square -sail ('Raaseil') and topsail ('Skvasrseil' or 
'Topseil'), are sometimes seen here on their way to Bergen with 
cargoes of dried fish, but they are gradually being superseded by 

15 S.M. Stoksund. To the N. are the Hardbakhul, near gaard 
Hardbak, and three other caves ; W. the Linese and Stoke. 

17 S.M. Sydkroge. To the N.W. lies the island of Almenningen, 
whose quarries famished the marble for Trondhjem cathedral (see 


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NAMSOS. SO.BouU. 213 

p. 202). Fish spread out on the rocks to dry begin to appear. In 
winter they are hung on 'Hjelder', or wooden frames. Eider-ducks 
abound. — Besaker, on the mainland, lies opposite the small Bete. 

21 S. M. Sandviksbjerget, opposite the Ramse. The black and 
■white rings on the rocks ('Terneringe'), like targets, mark the 
position of iron stanchions for mooring vessels. The supervision 
of these rings ('Ringvaesen'), of lighthouses, and of pilotage ('Fyr- 
vsesen', 'Lodsvaesen'), is under government. Numerous lights are 
of course required in the 'Skjsergaard'. 

We next cross the open Folden, prolonged N.E. by the Folden- 
fjord. The sea is often rough here. 

25 S.M. Bjerei. The mail-steamer now turns S.E. into the Namsen- 
fjord, separated from the Redsund on the N.E. by the long winding 
island, of Ottere. The scenery improves as we ascend the fjord. 
Namsos only comes in sight after we have rounded the long Marranes. 

31 S.M. Namsos (Grand Hot.; British Vice-Consul, J. Sommer- 
sMeld), a town of 2300inhab., on the N. bank of the Namsen-Eli', 
at the mouth of the Namdal (p. 208), founded in 1845, was rebuilt 
after destructive fires in 1872 and 1897. It has a large timber- 
trade and several saw-mills. From the Church, on a hill in the 
middle of the town, we follow the Stor-Gade, cross the meadows 
to the left, and ascend steps in the rock to (!/2 hr.) the hut on the 
Bjerumklampen (360 ft.; view). 

Small steamers ply from Namsos to the Indre Foldinfjord (Com. 381; 
last station, Kongsmo, p. 208) ; also to Ihe War0,Vigten, and Leko (Com. 383; 
see below); and ci. to Redhammer and Trondhjem (Com. 3(6). 

We now pass through the strait of Lokkaren and the pretty 
Serviksund, on the W. and N. sides of the Ottere, to Foslandsosen, 
on that island. Then through the very narrow Redsund and across 
the partly exposed Foldenfjord, where the mail-steamer touches at 
Appelvar, a small island with a fish-cannery. We steer through a 
maze of islets, past the Ncere on the right. 

32 S.M. Rervik (Anzjan's Hotel, good ; telegr. stat., comp. p. 210), 
on the island of Indre Vigten, adjoined on the W. by Mellem and 
Ytre Vigten, with the Sulafjeld (607 ft.) and Drugstind (525 ft.). 

Next stations Risvcer and Fjeldvik or Fjelvik. 

To the left is the island of Lek«r or Leka; a rock rising on its S. 
headland resembles a giantess. On the Leke lies the hamlet of Skei, 
with its white church, where some steamers call. 

36 S.M. Qutvik; behind rise the two Heilhorne. On the right 
opens the many -branched Bindalsfjord (which the mail-boats 
ascend once a week to Terraak), the boundary between Nordre 
Trondhjems Amt and Helgeland, the Haiogaland of early Norse 
history, extending N. to the headland of Kunnen (p. 218). 

A local steamer (Com. 390); starting from Br0n0 (see below), plies up 
the Bindalsfjord twice a week. Once a fortnight it goes to Thosbotn, at 
the K. end of the narrow Thosenfjord. From Guard Thosdal (469 ft.) we 
may go, with guide, to Borttkarmo (397 ft.) in the Sveningdal, and to 

214 R.30. — Map,p.212. BR0N0. From Trondhjem 

Mosjeen on the Yefsenfjord (p. 216) in l'/2-2 days. The ascent from Gaard 
Thosdal is extremely steep; on the E. side the troublesome Gaasvas- Elv 
has to he forded. 

The mountains become more varied in form. To the N., about 
5 S.M. distant (2 hrs. by steamer), soon appears the island of 
Torgen, with its curious hill called *Torghatten ('market-hat' ; 
824 ft.), resembling a hat floating on the sea. The mail-boat rarely 
touches here; the stations nearest the island are Vennesund, Vik, 
and Semnces. The tourist-steamers on the return-route land pass- 
engers at the E. side of the island. A marshy and stony path 
(strong boots advisable) ascends halfway up the hill to (30-40 min.) 
the 'Hul' ('Hullet', 'the hole'), a huge natural tunnel 407 ft. above 
the sea. Its height at the E. entrance, where masses of de'bris 
are piled up far into the interior, is about 65ft., at the W. end 
246 ft., and in the middle 204 ft. ; total length 535 ft.; breadth 
36-56 ft. The sides are mostly flat, and nearly perpendicular, 
and look at places as if artificially chiselled. The view of the sea 
with its countless islands and rocks, seen through this gigantic 
telescope, is very striking. The natives sell milk, lemonade 
('Brus'), and 'Multebser' (p. xxxviii). The excursion takes i l /i-2 hrs. 

As the steamer proceeds we see through the hole in Torghatten 
from N.E. to S.W. — We pass the Kvale and steer through the 
Brenesund to the important station of — 

42 S.M. Brerne [BreneHot., Torghatten Hot., both good; telegr. 
stat.), residence of the pastor and the doctor. The telegraph is of 
great use to the fishermen. At Br»ne, or even at Bejan or Rervik, 
herring-fleets are often seen, the smaller boats being for fishing, 
the larger for the cargoes. On the arrival of a Sildstim, or shoal of 
herrings, the herring-fleet is wired for, and is towed by steamers 
to the scene of action; and after it are sent supplies of salt and 
barrels by steamers chartered for the purpose. (Farther N. the 
chief herring-fishery stations are Selsavik, Bode, Ledingen, Har- 
stadhavn, Gibostad, and Tromser.) On the shore are seen the cot- 
tages of the 'Strandsiddere', who live almost exclusively by fishing, 
while the inland dwellers are called 'Opsiddere'. 

From Br0n0 a local steamer plies up the grandVelfjord to Naevemoet, oppo- 
site the Storberja, the innermost bay of the fjord, and to Hommelste, by 
the church of Naustvik. In the Tidingsdal or Tettingsdal, the S. continuation 
of the fjord, the ground suddenly rises, 3 A hr. from its mouth, in a terrace 
of 460 ft., over which falls the Tidingsdaltfos in a leap of 272 ft. — To the 
N. of the Velfjord branch the deep and wild Oksfjord and the Storfjord. 

All the steamers pass the mouth of the Velfjord, on the S. side 
of which rises the Mosaksel (1713 ft.), and on the N. the pictur- 
esque Heiholmstinder with the Andalshat (3310 ft.). To the W. lies 
the large island of Vcegen or Vega, rising to about 2630 ft., on which 
lies Rme. The mail-boats either call at Rere or steer through a 
narrow strait between the Havne and the mainland, on which is the 
station of Forvik. 

to Bode. THJ0T0. Map,p.212. — 30.R. 215 

The tourist-steamers pass between the islands of Vsegen and 
Havner, in full view of the imposing Seven Sisters (see below). To 
the E. towers the conspicuous Finknafjeld (4330 ft.]. On the right is 
the Rede, a red 'gabbro' rock, where some of the post-steamers call. 

47 S.M. Thj«t« or Tjetta (Jergemeris Hotel), a small island, 
once the property of Haarek of Thjete, a well-known character in 
old Norse history, lies at the mouth of the beautiful Vef sen fjord, 
which runs inland, E. of the island of Alsten, and is served twice 
weekly by the mail-steamers. The banks of the inner fjord are finely 
wooded. We steer into the narrow S.E. bay, called Vefsenbunden, 
and stop at Mosjeen (Haugan's Hot.), with 1400 inhab. and the 
large steam saw-mills of Halseneen, Drevjebruget, and others. 

From Mos.J0en a road leads N.E. by (11 Kil.) Haukland, on the Fustvand 
(122 ft.), and (20 Kil.) Angermo, near the Luktvand (446 ft.), and lastly in 
windings down to (14 Kil.) Elsfjord (p. 216) on the Ranenfjord. 

Another road leads S. by (16 Kil.) Fokstad, (14 Kil.) Laksfors, (13 Kil.) 
Fillingsfors (quarters), (14 Kil.) Klgvimoen, and (11 Kil.) Gryteselven to 
(12 KL1.) Hatfjeldalen, with church and parsonage, whence a good bridle- 
path ascends to (13 Kil.) Skjaavik on the Rasvand (1227 ft. ; area 73 sq. M. ; 
depth 820 ft.). Then row over the lake to (4-5 hrs.) the Tustervand, a 
bay connected with the R0svand by a narrow channel, out of which flows 
the llesaa. Down this stream, partly by boat, we reach in one day 
Korgen and ltesaaeren (quarters at Kibsgaard's), near the influx of the 
river into the Seir/jord, a S. branch of the Ranenfjord (p. 216). From 
R0saa0ren a road leads N. to (30 Kil.) Hemnses (p. 216; to which a small 
local steamer occasionally plies). — Korgen is the starting-point for the 
0xtinder, which rise to the S , and are reached through the Leirskardal 
(quarters at Kr. Feldafs). A tourist-hut on the N. slope, by the Kjendsvand 
(1706 ft.), is projected. The chief peaks are the Oxskolle (6273 ft.) and the 
Keiser Wilhelmt Tind (6256 ft. ; so named by K. Bing, who scaled it for the 
first time in 1900). — A tj eld-pass crosses W. from Korgen to (4-5 hrs.) 
the Luktvand (see above). 

The tourist-steamers and some of the mail-boats steer through 
the 'Skjaergaard', "W. of the Thjete and the large island of Alsten 
(pop. 1600), on which rise the finely shaped hills called the *Syv 
S*stre ('seven sisters'; 2630-3500 ft.). We count six only, but 
one has a double crest. The highest of the sisters is the Stortind 
(3500 ft.). At the S. end of the island is the church of Alstahoug, 
where Peter Bass (p. lvi) was pastor in 1689-1708. On the 
Haugnces, near the church, is the so-called Kongsgrav ('king's 
grave'). The mail-steamers call at Sevik (Jensen's Hot.); also, on 
the N. side of the island, at Sandnceseen (Sannaeseen's Hot.; Syv 
Sestre,R., S., each l^kr., tolerable; Jakobsen'sHot. ; local steamer 
to the islands of Lovunden and Threnen, see p. 217; Com. 397), 
near which are the old church of Stamnms and the district-prison. 
From Sandnaeseen we may ascend the N. peak of the Seven Sisters, 
passing (6 Kil.) gaard Botnet. 

The courses of the steamers passing E. and W. of the island 
of Alsten unite at Sandnaeseen. Farther on we pass on the E. side 
of the Dynneese, or Denna, of which the Denmand (2644 ft.) is 
the highest point. At Bjern, on the Dynnasse, the greatest of the 
Nordland fairs takes place on 2nd July. These fairs were originally 

216 B.30. — Map,p.2l2. MO. From Trondhjem 

called Ledingsberge (or Lensberge), as the people used to pay their 
taxes (hiding) there. 

53 S.M. Kobberdal, on the island of Lekta, with hatcheries of 
eider-ducks. The birds build their nests in nooks artificially made 
for the purpose. As they are then very tame, a number of their 
eggs are taken, and the eider-down they leave in the nests is after- 
wards collected. 

To the E. opens the *Kanenfjord, which the tourist-steamers 
do not enter. This fjord is the most richly timbered in the Nord- 
land - from its pines are made almost all the boats, houses, and 
coffins between this point and Vadse. The 'Ranenbaade', with their 
high bows and sterns, recalling the Venetian gondolas, are con- 
sidered typical national craft, and are often used as pleasure-boats. 

The Ranenfjord is visited twice weekly by the mail-boats (lines II 
and III), and several times a week by local steamers (Com. 395; 
from Sandnsesaen, see p. 215). Stations Utskarpen, on the N. bank, 
and Elsfjord, both served by the local boats only; then Hemnczs 
or Hemnesberget, in a picturesque site, with its church on a hill, 
and a group of huts for the use of church-goers arriving over- 
night. Then — 

65 Kil. Mo (Sestr. Johansen's Hot., R. 2, D. 1 % S. 1 kr. , good), 
a busy trading-place, at the mouth of the Dunderlandselv. The 
large shipbuilding - yard of Lars Meyer here turns out 700-800 
'ranenbaade' annually. The iron-ore of the Dunderlandsdal is 
shipped at Mo. The mines, owned by a British company, 20 Kil. 
up the valley, employ 600 hands (no admittance). About halfway 
up is the Renfos, which supplies power. — On the N. side of the 
fjord, about 5 Kil. from Mo, are the pyrites-mines of Bosmo, which 
employ 200 hands ; the ore-washing works are on the shore. 

The limestone strata of the Dunderlandsdal contain many Stalactite 
Cavekns ('Drypstenshuller'), as the Risagrottoet on the Langvand (154 it), 
near Hammernces, li Kil. N. ; the Laphul, near GaardBjm-naa^ioV- 
posite to it another by Guard Grenlim, both in the valley of the ««™««- 
Blv. The feeders of the Dunderlands-Elv often disappear in such caverns 
and re -appear lower down, as the Stilvama, near Gaard Storfosnet, 
about 15 Kil. from Mo. A little to the N. of it is the forest-girt # rtvand 
at the foot of the Vrtfjeld (see below). Further up to the W.W. is tne 
Eiteraa, which drives mills close to its efflux. Near this are the 
Tyvshul ('thieves' grotto') and the 'wind-cave', where the rush ot sud- 
terranean water is heard. 

From Bisellaanass, or Bjwldaanaes, in the Dunderlandsdal (55 Kil. from 
Mo), we may visit the Stormdalsfos and the marble grotto at "s toot, 
near the Brediksfield. We may also ascend the 0rtfjeld (47dlft. ; across 
the Stormdalshei) , or the Bredekfjeld (4462 ft.), which commands a 
splendid view of Svartisen and the Lofoten Islands. — From Bjseldaanfes 
it is a day's ride up the Bjceldaadal, across a pass (2806 ft.), and down 
the 0m-e and Nedre Toldaadal, to Toldaa in the Beierendal; then Dy 
Oosbakke (pass to the Saltdal, see p. 221) to Storjord (45 Kil all -, quarters 
at the under-forester's). From Storjord to Soleen (p. 21H) 14 Kil. more. 
From BjieldaanEes to Almindingen in the Saltdal is a long day s Jour n ev 
(16-17 hrs.), on which scarcely a soul is ever met. We either ascend the 
Bjseldaadal (by the telegraph-wires), or the Gubbelaadal, Randal, and 

to Bode. VIKHOLMEN. Jtf<zp, p. 2i 2. — 30. R. 217 

Lenesdal, which last forma the upper end of the Saltdal. Below the 
junction of the Saltdal and (E.) the Junkerdal lies Oaard Berghulnces; 
thence to Almindingen and Rognan, see p. 221; or we may ascend the 
Junkerdal, passing through the grand rocky gorge of JunkerdaU-Ur, be- 
tween the Kjernfjeld (E.) and the Solvaagfjeld (5152 ft. ; W.), to the 
Junkerdals - Oaard (14 Kil. ; quarters). Through the upper Junkerdal, 
called Graddis, a bridle-path, much frequented in winter, with several 
'Fjeldstuer', leads to Sweden. Many Lapp settlements on the Duhder- 
landsdal and Saltdal hills. 

A road leads from Mo to the Swedish frontier (40 Kil.). It ascends 
on the right bank of the Tveraa, by Brennaasen and Ildgruben, and winds 
up the 'Ildgrublier' to Redvatn (1601 ft.; good quarters; 25 Kil. from Mo). 
It then leads past the Tvaervatn (1623 ft.) and the Umtkarvatn (2054 ft.), its 
highest point, to Umbugten (good quarters), on the Umavand (1742 ft.), a 
lake 40 Kil. long, abounding with Gsh, with a fine view of the ffxtinder 
(p. 215). 

55S.M. VifeftoZmen (Olsen's Hotel), prettily situated, about 6 Kil. 
N.E. of the mouth of the Ranenfjord, where the mail-boats rejoin 
the course of the tourist-steamers. We now steer between the is- 
lands of Huglen, Hannase (seat of the 'Sflrenskriver', or district 
judge), and Tombe or Tomma (3005 ft. ; so called from two rocks 
resembling thumbs). To the E. are seen the S.W. spurs of the 
Svartisen, and to the W., where we have a glimpse of the open sea, 
the curiously shaped islands of Lovunden (2031 ft.) and Tranen 
or Threnen (2064 ft.). Though still 30 and 45 Kil. distant, these 
islands seem quite near in clear weather. They are the haunt of 
dense flocks of loons or divers (' Lund e fugle', Mormon arcticusj, 
whose eggs, about 2% by 1% inches, are esteemed in the Nord- 
land. Their nests, made in clefts of the rock, difficult of access, are 
annually plundered. The young birds are pickled. Local steamer 
once a week from Sandnaeseen (p. 215; Com. 397). 

The abruptness of Lovunden, the top of which appears to overhang 
the water, has given rise to the saying — 

'£«.' hvordan han luder den gamle Lovund." 
('See how it overhangs, the ancient Lovund 1 .) 

"We steer through the Stegfjord, the strait between (left) the 
Lure, with its pyramidal hill (2261 ft.), and (right) Alderen. 

We soon sight the *Hestmanda> (1864 ft.), one of the most 
striking of these islands, resembling a 'horseman' with a cloak 
falling over his horse. The hill may be ascended without a guide. 
The view embraces the whole archipelago, and the long Svartisen 
to the E. The Arctic Circle (66° 32' 30") runs through the Hest- 
manda, the crossing of which is announced by cannon-shots. 

59 S.M. Indre Kvare, a lonely place, whence we may visit the 
Melfjord, the Lut», Lovunden, Threnen, and the Hestmand. 

Dominating the landscape for miles, on our right, rises *Svart- 
isen, an enormous expanse of snow and ice, about 50 Kil. long 
and over 30 Kil. broad , covering a plateau about 3950 ft. high 
(comp. pp. 120 and 157), from which protrude a few knolls ('Nuter', 
'Klumper', 'Knolde'), while numerous glaciers descend from it to 
the fjords. 

2 IS R.30. — Map,p.212. BOD0. Excursions 

Stations Selsevik and (right) the Rangsunde , beyond which 
opens the Melfjord, with grand mountains. 

62 S.M. Rede ('red island'), with the Red.el.even (1444 ft. ; easy 
to ascend), a hill resembling a lion looking W. — To the right 
open the Tjongsfjord and Skars fjord, with their branches the 
Bjerangsfjord and the Holandsfjord, which extend close up to 
Svartisen. All these fjords are very narrow, being at places 

onnn 300 ydS ' across ' while their rock y walls attain a height of over 
3000 ft. The tourist -steamers enter the Holandsfjord and land 
passengers between gaards Reindalsvik and Enna. A bad path 
crossing several brooks, runs thence to (20 min.) the lower margin' 
of the Fondalsbrce, an arm of Svartisen, the general view of which 
h ° Z 6 ma4 « S grander f rom the steamboat. To the S. rises the Reindats- 
tind (291b ft.), which is said to afford the best survey of Svartisen 
The midnight sun (p. 212) is visible here for a fortnight before 
1st July. We steer past the Omnese or Aamne (right) to the — 

64 S.M. Orene, a smiling island, where we have a most strik- 
ing view of Svartisen, now nearer to us. We look into the Olom- 
fjord, which cuts deep into the mainland, and steer through a 
narrow strait between the Mele (left) and the Skjerpa (right) towards 
Kunnen. Far N. we sight the Lofoten Islands for the first time. — 
The steamer sometimes stops at 0ma>s and Stedt. 

The headland of *Kunnen or Rotknaet (1965 ft.), the N.W. 
spur of the Svartisen plateau, the boundary between Helgeland 
and Salten, forms a climatic landmark like Stadtland in the Sand- 
more (p. 160). There is here a 'Havseie' ('sea-glimpse'), or open- 
ing in the island-belt, where we sight the open sea and some- 
times feel its motion. To the W. the Stedtfyr is visible, to the N. 
the Fugla (see below), and in the distance the Landegode (p. 221). 
The Toubist Steamees leave the mainland and cross the Vest- 
fjord, affording a splendid view of the Lofoten Islands (p. 222). 

The Mail Steamees pass (left) the Fugle (2514 ft.), the Fleina, 
and the Ameer, and (right) the church of Gildeskaal and the large 
island of Sandhorn, with a mountain 3261 ft. high (beyond which 
lies the Beierenfjord, p. 219). We then cross the mouth of the 
Saltfjord (p. 219), at the E. end of which, in clear weather, are 
seen the snow-fields of the Sulitelma (p. 221), and soon reach the 
rocky harbour of — 

76 S.M. Bod«. — Gkand Hotel, by the market-place, 3 min. from 
the pier, R. or D. 2, B. H/ 4 , S. li/s kr., good, with fine view from the 
tower. — Bode og Omegns TurUlforening gives information as to excursions. 

Bode, in N. lat. 67° 17', a thriving town, with 5000 inhab., 
is the seat of the Amtmand, or provincial governor, of the Nord- 
land. Among the modern buildings still linger a few old cottages 
roofed with turf. The large timber church in the Gothic style dates 
from 1886. The midnight sun is seen here from about 1st June to 
12th July (comp. p. 212). 

frwnBode. BEIERENFJORD. Map, p.212. —30. R. 219 

The ascent of the Lebsaas, or Lebsfjeld (1142 ft.), a hill to the 
N.E., repays. From the N. end of the Stor-Gade we follow the 
broad road past the foot of the hill. At (50 min.) the parting of 
the ways, by the second reservoir of the water- works, a hoard shows 
the way to the tourist-hut, whence a well-marked path leads In 
3 / 4 hr. more to the 'Keiservarde', a memorial of the visit of Emp. 
"William II. The top commands, N.W., the Lofoten Islands; E. the 
snow-mountains around the Sulitelma and the Olmajalos (p. 221); 
S.E. the Bersvatnstinder; and S. the Sandhorn, with the Svartisen. 
We may also visit the Junker fjeld (929 ft.; fine view) and the 
Vaagevand (390 ft.), with its club-hut, each l'/2h r - f rom Bode. 

About 3 Kil. S.E. of Bode is the Bodegaard, with a church and 
parsonage, where Louis Philippe, duke of Orleans, afterwards king, 
when travelling as a refugee under the name of Muller, was enter- 
tained on his voyage to the North Cape in 1796. The road crosses 
a moor, now drained and cultivated. To the left is a lunatic asylum 
('Renvik Sindssyge-Asyl'). The drainage-works revealed, under 
the peat, a layer of broken shells, about 20 inches thick, on a foun- 
dation of dark-grey clay interspersed with crystals of quartz, point- 
ing to the geologically recent subsidence of the sea from this point. 
The erratic syenite blocks, amidst the slate -rock of which the 
peninsula of Bode is composed, are also interesting. 

Excursions from BoDe. The well-wooded country around affords 
a welcome contrast to the bare, desolate scenery of the Nordland. 

(1) To the Beierenfjord. A local steamer (Com,. 406) plies up 
this fjord (there and back, 8 hrs.) twice a week. Crossing the 
mouth of the Saltenfjord and passing an '^Eg- og- Duun - Vaer' 
(breeding place of eider-ducks) and the island of Sandhorn (p. 218), 
we call at llesnats, at the mouth of the Beierenfjord, an inlet flank- 
ed with grand mountains, narrowing, beyond Kjelling, to a defile 
by gaard Eggesvik. On the bank are several glacier 'cauldrons'. 
The last station is Tvervik. 

From Tvervik we may row to (3 Kil.) Sole en (good quarters at Land- 
handler Jentoft's), whence we may ascend the Emtind (4610 ft.; with 
guide; view of vast mountain -solitudes towards Sweden; S. the Svar- 
tisen ; W. the sea, dotted with islands, and the distant Lofoten Islands). 
Or row to Arttad (skyds-station), with its fine waterfall. The road up 
the picturesque valley leads past Beierens Kirke (near gaard Mold j or d), 
to Storjord, Oosbakke, and (ahout 20 Kil.) Toldaa (p. 216). 

(Com. 407) 3 or 4 times a week (according to FJod or Fjaere, high or 
low tide) to Skjerstad, Fuske, and Rognan, at the S. end of the Skjerstad- 
f.jord, and thence hack to Bod#. — To visit the Saltstrom we land at 
Str/jm and await the return of the steamer. The scene is most impressive 
when the tide is coming in, but to see it we have to spend a day at 
Str0m. To avoid this a good plan is to drive from Bod0 to Kvaloaag 
(17 Kil.; I1/2 hr.) and thence take sailing-boat to Str0m (I-IV2 hr. ; wired 
for from the Bod0 Turistforening, p. 218). 

The Saltfjord, between the peninsula of Bode and the islands 
Streme and Knaplunde, is connected with its E. prolongation, 


ZZU R.30. — Map,p.212. SALTFJORD. Exe 

the Skjerstadfjord, by three narrow straits only : the Saltstrem, 
between the two islands, 165 yds. wide; the Sundstrem, 66 yds. 
wide, between the Strome and the mainland; and the Godestrem 
on the N.E. side of the Knaplunde-. Through these channels the 
great basin of the Skjerstadfjord, over 100 sq. M. in area, with its 
millions of tons of water, is emptied or filled four times daily. 
The current is strongest at spring-tides (new and full moon), and 
the outflow is greatest in spring when the melting snow swells 
the streams falling into the fjord. The difference between the in- 
side and outside levels of the water at high or at low tide is some- 
times 3V 2 ft. or more. The navigation of these straits is only 
feasible for an hour at half-tide. Fishing very productive here. 

The steamer rounds the S.W. point of the Bode peninsula 
steers across the Saltfjord to the E. end of Stremeen, and calls at 
Strem (quarters at Landhandler Furre's). The best point for view- 
ing the *Saltstr»m is i/ 4 hr. from the house. On the Knaplunde, 
° PP ?q™' * column (Kongestetten) recalls the visit of King Oscar II. 
in 1873. Those who spend a day at Strom may cross S. to the 
mainland and ascend the nearest of the Bersvastinder (3438 ft • 
5-6 hrs. ; fatiguing). v ' ' 

After passing through the Saltstrem, the steamer turns E. into 
the Skjerstadfjord, which with its various arms runs 45 Kil in- 
land. The first station is — 

Skjerstad, the capital of this region, with a church and 6300 in- 
hab., at the entrance to the Misvce.rfjord, which the steamer ascends 
twice a week. Opposite, to the W., is the old gaard of Lences, with 
an ancient burial-place. The steamer then steers to — 

Venset. About 5-6 Kil. farther is 0inesgavlen, a headland of 
conglomerate (a formation also found on the Kjatnas, 14 Kil. S.). 
The steamer now ascends the N. arm of the fjord to 

Fuske or Fauske (slow skyds-station), whence a road leads by 
the Fuskeeid to (15 Kil.) Dybvik on the S. Foldenfjord (p. 226). 
Then, 8 hrs. from Bode, we reach — 

Fineidet (Fru H. Lundquist's Hot.), the port for the copper- 
ore mined on the Sulitelma and for the beautiful white marble 
quarried near Fuske. 

■ v ] |? CD . I V iI0 . N T ° THE Sulitelma. Passing an extensive moraine, we cross 
7'™ (»? about 10 min.), which separates the fjord from the lake 
ot Jfedre Vand. bmall Steamers (530. ; through-fare to Furulund li/ 2 kr.) 
?(1/! B i». 8teer throv 'g l1 the Qjemgamutrem into the *>vre Vand to 
(l l /4 hr.) Sjenstaa or Skjenstuen, in a basin at the head of the latter 'The 
district is known as Vattenbygdm. — From Sjernstaa the narrow-gauge 
Sulitelma Eailwai runs through a rocky ravine in bold windings above 
the brawling Langvaes-Elv, with views of the Galmifos and the distant Suli- 
telma. In 1/2 hr. we reach Hellarmo, at the foot of the Langvand (410 ft ) 
where we embark in another small Steamer (60 0.). Fine scenery on the 
Langvand; grand waterfalls, notably the Rupsi Joki ('red water- left) 

Furulund, the steamboat-terminus (I'/shr), is the seat of the Swedish 
Sulitelma Mining Co., which yields about 200,000 tons of Conner ore M „„,iw 
and employs 1500-2000 hands; handsome offices and dwellings. Tourists 

from Bode. LANDEGODE. Map, p. 212. — 31.11. 221 

may dine at the 'Dampkjakken', or restaurant for the unmarried officials, 
and usually get a bed there also (but enquire at Bod0). In the company's 

store ('Handelsforretning') provisions, rugs, etc., may be purchased. 

A row to the (1 hr.) Rupsi Joki (p. 220) is interesting. 

From Furulund we may walk by Fagermo, with its great buddling- 
works, to (1 hr.) Fagerli (good plain quarters at Ole Serensm's, an excellent 
guide), at the E. end of the Langvand, with the copper smelting-works. 
Near it the Balmi Joki forms a fine fall, yielding electric power for Furulund. 
For guides apply, if need be, to the director of the mines at Furulund. 

The ascent of the "Sulitelma (Lapp ' SulluiCielbma\ 'festival mountain') 
from Fagerli takes 8-10 hrs. (and back) and is neither very fatiguing nor 
dangerous. In 11/2-2 hrs. we reach the plateau of Baukabakken (2185 ft.), with 
a fine view of the Langvand, the Svartisen, and the Sulitelma group; 2 hrs. 
more bring us to the foot (about 3280 ft.) of Stcrtoppen (6178 ft ), the north- 
western-most of the three peaks of the Sulitelma, which stretches from 
N W. to S.E. After a steep climb of l'/s-2 hrs. over loose stones we reach 
Vardetop, the W. horn of the Stortop (about 490 ft. lower than the latter), 
and enjoy a grand outlook over a wild mountain region, with many glaciers 
(Jwkna) and lakes. The Stortop, which rises opposite, can hardly be 
ascended from this side; the first ascent was made in 1888 from the Sala- 
Jaikna. which is wedged in between the peaks and descends S.E. into the 
Leurodal (see below). The enormous masses of snow on the mountain have 
forced the glaciers to descend 600-700 ft. below the snow-line. To the K. 
of the Sulitelma group is the Olmajalos (5347 ft.), with the Olmajalos- 
Jcekna and the Lina-Jwkna. 

From Fagerli we may also ascend the Rapisvari (3172 ft.; 2 hrs), 
with a fine view of the Langvand and the Sulitelma; or we may ascend 
by the Balmi Joki to the (2'/4 hrs.) Lommijaur, a lake at the S. base of 
the Sulitelma, and follow its bank to the height (2789 ft.; 2y 2 hrs.) between 
it and the Leurodal, or Lairodal, where we have a characteristic view 
of the Sulitelma, Sala-Jaekna, and Lommijaur. We are here close to the 
Swedish border; to Kvickjock, see p. 389. — A fine pass crosses from 
Fagerli to Rognan (see below; IV2 day; guide advisable, 8 kr.). On the 
first day a well marked path ascends the Storfjeld (about 3770 ft.) to the 
tourist-hut on the Vasbotnfjeld (poor quarters). On the second day we 
row down the Vatbotnvand and walk by its effluent to JEvinggaard or 
Rokland, whence a road descends the Saltdal to (13 Kil.) Rognan. 

From Fineidet we steer into the S. arm of the fjord to — 

Rognan (Sperck's Hot.), the last station (stay of 1 hr.), at the 

end of the fjord, on the left bank of the Saltdals-Elv. On the right 

bank is Saltdals-Kirke. 

From Rognan we may drive up the Saltdal, partly through pine-woods, 

past Sundby, Almindingen, and Ncevernan, to Rvsaanoet (good quarters) ; 

thence to Oosbakke in the Beierendal in one day, or to Bjsellaanses in two 

days (comp. p. 217; horse 10, guide 6 kr. per day). 

(3) From Boda to Bjerne, in the island of Landegode, 12 Kil. 
N., the Foldenfjord steamer (Com. 404; p. 226) plies once weekly. 
On other days -we row (2-3 hrs.; 3-4 rowers), and land near gaards 
Kvig and Sandvig, to ascend the Kvigtind (2595 ft. ; with guide; 
2-2!/ 2 hrs.), which affords a grand view of the whole Lofoten chain 
(N.W.), of the Sulitelma Mts, (E.), and of the Hestmand and 
Threnen (S.). 


31. The Lofoten Islands. 

The Bergen-Nordenfjeld Tourist Steamers steer N. across the Vest- 
fjord, in view of the Lofoten Islands, and on their way back put in at 
the Raflsund (p. 225). The mail-steamers of that company pjy from Bod0 
to Ledingen (p. 228) by different routes. The line Com. 226, I, follows 
the coast to Grate (p. 227), crosses to (5-6 hrs.) Svolucer (p. 221), and goes 
on to Ledingen in 3-5 hrs. more, calling at various stations. — Line Com. 
226, II, skirts the mainland longer and is described separately (R. 32). — 
Line Com. 226, 111, goes direct from Bodp to the Lofoten Islands (Moskenas, 
p. 223), calls at Henningsvcer, Kabelvaag (p. 224), and other stations, and 
reaches Svolvair in 12 hrs. from Bod/af, and Ledingen (p. 228) in 8 hrs. 
more. — The 'Hurtigrute' ('quick route' ; Com. 227) goes direct from Bod0 
to Svolvair. 

The Vesteraalen Steamers (p. 215) ply either direct (Com. 229) to 
Svolvar, or (Com. 230) wilh intermediate stations. The company issues 
Turife Keturbilleter' for two months; the voyage may then be broken at 
intermediate stations, or continued by local steamer. The tourist-route 
of this company between Narvik and Trondhjem (p. 223) runs through the 

Local Steamers (Com. 411, 442, 413) from Suohwr, in three alternate 
lines, serve the E. and W. coast of the Lofoten and Vesteraalen Islands. 

A Visit of about a week to the Lofoten Islands is full of interest. 
Good quarters are to be had at Svolvcer, Kabehaag, Digermulen, etc. ; but 
one must be prepared for rough walking, and for food and sleep at hours 
regulated, not by the clock, but by the time-tables of the steamers and 
the length of the excursions. For long expeditions tents and tinned 
foods are useful. The name L6foten, 'the lynx-foot', is of the singular 
number in Norwegian. 

The broad *Vestfjord, entirely open towards the S.W., separates 
the Lofoten arid Vesteraalen Islands from the mainland, and presents 
some of the grandest scenery in Norway. The tourist -steamers 
traverse it from end to end; the mail-steamers cross it at various 
points. In both cases we enjoy a superb view of the long, .jagged 
**Lofoten Chain ('Lofotvieggen' or Lofoten wall). The light is best 
in the forenoon. Weird, but less imposing, is the midnight light, 
which utterly pales the moon. Most effective of all is a gabs or a 

. The Lofoten Islands, the S.W. prolongation of the Vesteraalen 
group, consist of a mountain-chain cleft by countless creeks and 
straits, extending 150-200 Kil. S.W. into the Atlantic, and have 
not inaptly been likened to a gigantic backbone, tapering away to 
the smaller vertebrae of the tail at the S. end. The four large 
islands (Moskenase, Flakstade, Vestvaage, BstvaageJ and a number 
of smaller ones lie so close together that no opening in the chain 
is visible from a distance. They are flanked with thousands of 
rocky islets ('Holme', 'Skjaer', or 'Flese', from Icel. flesjar). The 
rock is for the most part gabbro, gneiss, and granite. The peaks 
are Alpine in form, with crater-like summits, partly covered with 
snow, and partly with glossy green moss and grass 1 . Good harbours 
('Vaage') abound, where large vessels, dwarfed to nut-shells, lie 
close to rocks several thousand feet high. At places the land is flat 
with lakes, swamps, meadows, and a few arable fields. The »rowth 

LOFOTEN ISLANDS. Map,p.212. — 31. R. 223 

of trees is scanty, yet the winters are so mild that sheep remain 
in the open air. 

The famous Lofoten Fishery is carried on from mid January to mid- 
April in the Vestfjord, when the cod (Gadus coUarius; Norw. Tortk or Skrej) 
come from the depths of the Atlantic to spawn on the coast between Aale- 
sund and Troms0. So dense are the shoals f'tftfmer'.) as they move in 
serried lines, 100-160 ft. deep, that the lead, when thrown, actually rests 
on the todies of the tish (Fiskebjerg). The fishing banks round which they 
swarm lie at a depth of 30 to 110 fathoms. At this season about 40,000 
fishermen in some 91)00 boats flock to the islands, and distribute~them- 
selves over 36 banks (Fiskevoer). The larger boats (about 1/3 of the number), 
each manned by 6 men, fish with nets ('Gam'), 27-33 yds long, with meshes 
of 3-31/2 in., which are sunk and made fast in the evening, and drawn 
up in the morning The smaller boats, with crews of 3-5 men, fish with 
lines ('Lin'), 1600-2700 yards Jong, and armed with 1200-1500 hooks, which 
are worked by day and even by night. The old-fashioned hand-lines 
('Dybsagn), with double-hooks ('Pilk'), are also used. A catch of 300-400 
cod for a net boat or 200 for a line-boat is considered a good day's work, 
but the yield is sometimes double these numbers. The daily wages of 
the net-fisherman average 1.52 kr., those of the line-fisherman 1.68 kr., 
while the hand-line crews receive 1.31 kr. , in addition to their keep. 
The annual yield is worth 5 7 million kroner. As the fishermen are paid 
in cash, the Norwegian banks send large sums of money to the islands 
every February. 

On shore the fish are opened ('opvirkef ) and cleaned, or split entirely 
open ('Klipfisk' or 'Klepfisk' from 'klippef, split open), salted, and spread 
out on the rocks to dry. They are then collected in heaps under small 
round wooden covers, known as 'hats', or are tied tail to tail and hung 
( spserret) on wooden frames ('Hjelder'). They hang until June and are 
then mostly dispatched to Bergen. The heads are dried by fire, pulverized, 
and converted into 'fish-guano'. On outlying islands the cods'-heads are 
boiled with sea-weed('Tarre', Alaria esculenta) and used as fodder for cattle 
The roe is used by anglers as bait. From the liver cod-liver oil is made. 

Most of the fishermen sleep in temporary huts ('Rorboder') erected for 
them. In the middle is the fire-place ('Komfur'), where they cook their 
'Supamjrta' and 'Okjysta'. Each crew is called a 'Lag', who choose their 
own 'Hovedsmand' or captain. The proceedings are usually orderly and 
peaceable, especially as spirits are not procurable. A travelling chaplain 
( Stiftskaplan') performs service on Sundays. At the close of the winter- 
fishery ('Gaatfisket') most of the fishermen go N. to Finmarken for the 
'Vaarfiske' ('summer fishery') or 'Loddefiske'. 

The fishery is often attended with lamentable loss of life. When a 
westerly gale springs up, preventing their return to the islands, the open 
boats are driven across the Vestfjord towards the mainland, often cap- 
sizing on the way. 

The south-westmost of the larger islands is the Moskensese 
(80 sq. M.), on which lies Aa, the first station of the mail-boats 
of Line III; then Moskenas with its church; lastly Reine (good 
inn), at the mouth of the Kirkefjord. The S. end of the island is 
called Lofotodden, past which runs the famous Malstrem orMosken- 
strem, a strong current often dangerous to fishing-boats. Farther 
S. is the islet of Mosken; then the Vcere, with church and parsonage • 
and the flat and populous island of Rest. Still farther S. is Skcm- 
vcer, with the last lighthouse and the Nykerne, hills peopled chiefly 
by gulls and guillemots. 

The Sundstrem separates the Moskenoeser from the Flakstad* 
(40 sq. M.), on which lie the stations Sund, Nufsfjord, and Napp, 

224 R.31. — Map,p.2l2. LOFOTEN ISLANDS. 

on the Nappstrem, the two last served by the local boats only. On 
the "W. side of the island is the church of Flakstad. Near Sund is 
the Kvalvig ('-whale-creek'), a natural trap for whales, which used 
to enter the creek at high tide and could not get out again. 

Beyond the Napstrem is the large Vestvaage (157 sq. M.). On 
a small island at the S. end is Balstad (Foshoug's Hot.), a fishing- 
port, backed by the Skotstind (2214 ft.); then Mortsund, at the 
mouth of the Buksncesfjord, and Lelcnes, on its innermost branch ; 
lastly Stamsund (Stamsund's Hot.), all mail-boat stations. The 
local boats also call at Gravdal, by the church of Buksnas, at lire, 
E. of the great headland Urebjerget (1100 ft.), and Valberg. Good 
Toads connect the villages on the Vestvaager. Among the hills on 
the island the Himmeltinder (3166 ft.) are conspicuous. 

The Gimsestrem, flanked with finely shaped mountains, sepa- 
rates the Vestvaager from the 0stvaag# [209 sq. M.), the largest 
of the Lofoten Islands. On an islet off the S.W. point of the 0st- 
vaag» lies Henningsvser (Jensen's Hot), a station of the mail- 
steamers, a great fishery centre, and the usual residence of the naval 
officer who superintends it. Near it is a guano - factory. Above 
towers the Vaagekalle (3091 ft.). Off the island lie the rocky islets 
Flesene, Grundskallen, and Vestvcer, all noted fishing-grounds. On 
the S. coast of the 0stvaag« is the station of — - 

Kabelvaag (Jespersen's Hot, good), the largest fishing-port in 
the Lofoten Islands, with the hamlets of Storvaagen and Kirkevaagen. 
Hans Egede, the missionary of Greenland, was pastor here in 1705- 
18. The present church of Vaagen was built in 1898. A road leads 
from Kabelvaag through fine rocky scenery to (1 hr.) the fishermen's 
huts of dsan, opposite Svolvser, to which we may ferry in l /i hr. 
(25 ».). 

Svolvaer (Hot. Lofoten, good; British Vice-Consul, J. Berg), on 
a peninsula on the S. coast of the 0stvaag», another busy fishing- 
harbour, is the most important steamboat-station on the Lofoten 
Islands, and the starting-point of the Lofoten and Vesteraalen 
local steamers (p. 222). One of the 'Rorboder' (p. 223) may be in- 
spected here. Here, too, is another guano-factOTy. On the islet of 
Svine, opposite the pier (ferry there and back 40 0.), is the studio 
of the late painter Gunnar Berg (d. 1894), containing a few of his 
paintings and sketches (adm. free on application). His tomb is in 
the islet of Gunnarholm, to which a bridge leads from the Svin». 
To the N. rises the Blaatind (1959 ft.), ascended in 3 hrs. (there 
arid back 5 hTS.), a splendid point of view, from which the midnight 
sun is visible between 28th May and 14th July. The following 
ascents are more toilsome : to the E. of the 0stnoesfjord, which cuts 
deep into the 0stvaag» to the N. of Svolvaer, the Bulten (3484 ft. ; 
very difficult), and further N. the Gjeitgaljarlind (3557 ft.) and the 
Higrafstinder (3810 ft.), the two last of which descend abruptly to 
the Troldvand. — Opposite S vol veer, E., are the islands of Skrooen, 

LOFOTEN ISLANDS. Maps, pp. i'12, -Ji'H. -31. ft. 225 

a mail-boat station, with its lighthouse, Lille Molla, and Store 
Molla, with a pier for the local boats at Brettesnas and a large 
English guano-factory. 

To the N. of Store Molla opens the Raftsund, separating the 
0stvaag» from the Hinder, or Hinne, which belongs to the Vester- 
aalen group. The Hinder, with its many branches, is the largest of 
all the Norwegian islands (864 sq. M.). At its S.W. end lies Diger- 
mulen (Eilertsen's Hot., 5 kr. per day; motor-boat may be hired 
for the Trolfjord or other excursions), a station of the Vesteraalen 
steamers (Com. 413, 410; see below). The tourist -steamers do 
not call here. Passengers by the local boats should not omit to 
ascend the **Digermulkoll (1148 ft), which affords perhaps the 
most magnificent view in the whole Nordland, and has become 
better known since the visits of Emp. William II. Ascent, rather 
fatiguing, l'/ 2 hr.; at the top are two 'varder' and a refuge-hut (no 
rfmts.), the key of which should be brought from Digermulen. We 
overlook the picturesque Raftsund, E. of which, in the foreground , 
rises the Snefjeld, connected with the Digermulkoll; left of the 
Snefjeld are the distant hills of the Lange; and more to the left 
are the mountains named below. To the S.W. we survey the whole 
Vestfjord with the open sea beyond, and to the E. the mountains on 
the mainland. — A still more extensive view is obtained from the 
Snefjeld (2100 ft.), ascended from the Digermulkoll in 2 hrs. 
(descent to the shore l 3 /4 hr.). 

The *Raftsund, the grandest of the Lofoten straits, is flanked 
with huge mountains furrowed with ravines. All the tourist- 
steamers pass through it. To the left, on the Ostvaaga, we observe 
the Korsncestind and the Rerhoptind (3088 ft.). The scene is grandest 
at Leksund, whence we see, towering at the head of the narrow 
**Trold fjord, the Higraastinder (see above), thickly clad with snow, 
and the Troldtinder (3248ft., 3261 ft.). In calm weather the steamer 
enters the Troldfjord, enclosed by abrupt rocks with snow-filled 
gorges. [A most interesting excursion (6 hrs. there and back) may 
be taken from Digermulen (see above) by motor-boat to the Trold- 
fjord, and then on foot, by a marshy path, to the (1 hr.) Troldvand 
(548 ft.; over 3 Kil. long), a mountain-lake usually frozen, from 
which the Troldtinder rise almost sheer]. Beyond this point the 
Raftsund is bounded on the W. by the Svartsundtind(Mb8 ft.), the 
Faldfjeld (3078 ft.), and the Ilsanastind (3281 ft.), and on the E. 
by the Brubrektinder (2142 ft.). 

The Vestebaalen Gboup comprises also, besides the Hinder, the con- 
siderable islands of Langizr and Andtf. One of the local Vesteraalen steamers 
(p. 222; Com. 413) navigates the Raftsund. One of its stations is Melbo 
(Nielsen's Hot.), on the pleasant Hadselfl or XJlfe, at the E. end of which 
is Sadsel church. It then steers N.W. to Skagen on the langtf, an island 
with numerous fjords, peninsulas, and isthmuses, which forms the chief 
member of the W. Vesteraalen group and together with the Skogsg contains 
Aye parishes ('^6^11^6^). We then steer back, cross the Vesteraals- 
fjord to Vik, also on the I.angu, and pass through the Beresund to — 
Baedekek's Norway and Sweden. 9th Edit. \q 

226 i?..32.~-jtf,ip,p.226'. FOLDENFJORD. 

Slokmarknoes (Frederiksen"s Hot., good), where a fair is held in June, 
on the Hadseler. Thence across the Sortlandsund to Kvitnas on the Hind«(. 
The Meisadel (4154 ft.), the highest mountain in the Hindis' and in the whole 
Lofoten and Vesteraalen group, is conspicuous all the way. Its glacier is 
said to be the saddle of a virgin giantess fleeing from wicked persecutors. 
Thence to the N. between the Langjzr and the Hind0, to Sortland. Scenery 
grand, yet smiling. 

At Sortland (quarters at G. Ellingsen's), on the Sortlandsund, we may 
land and wait for the boat returning next day. Meanwhile we may 
ascend one of the hills behind the village (l'/2-2 hrs.). — The next 
station is — 

Bisehavn (Landhandler), on the And0, an island interesting to geo- 
logists. From its extensive swamps, on which the 'Multebser' (Rubus 
chamsemorus) abounds, suddenly rise hills to a height of 1970 ft. Under- 
lying the sandstone and clay-slate rock is a thick vein of coal, extending 
under the sea. The steamer turns here and steers to Skjoldehavn (Land- 
handler), on the And0, where a local steamer from Harstadhavn also calls 
once a week (p. 228). 

Opposite Skjoldehavn, beyond the Gavlfjord, lies Alfsvaag (Land- 
handler) on the Lang/J. The steamer then goes on to Langenwt, at the 
N. end of the Lang0, and returns on the W. side. 

Beyond Svolvser (p. 224) the mail -steamers call at stations 
varying on the different voyages, and at Ledingen join the route 
described below. 

32. From BotLa to Troms0. 

49 S. M. (comp. p. 209). — The distances given below are from Bod?. 
The route is that of the Mail Steamers of Line II from Bod0 to Ledingen. 
They also cross to Svolvser on the Lofoten Islands, but the rest of their 
course skirts the mainland. From Ledingen to Tromse the course of the 
mail- steamers almost coincides with that of the tourist- steamers. The 
mail - steamers take 9-10 hrs. from Bod# to Svolvcer, 7-8 hrs. more to Le- 
dingen, 3 hrs. thence to Harstadhavn, and 10-12 hrs. from Harstadhavn to 
Tromse; the quick boats perform these voyages in 6V2, 4, 3, and 7J/2 hrs. 

Bode, see p. 218. The steamer heads W. from the pier, and 
then steers to the right through the strait between the small island 
that protects the harbour and the larger Hjcerte. On the left opens 
the Vestfjord (p. 222). Farther on, to the left, rises the mountain- 
ous island, of Landegode (p. 221). 

4 S.M. Kjarringe, S. of the Foldenfjord, in a grand site. The 
lower part of the mountains has often been worn smooth by glacier- 
action, while their summits are serrated like the Aiguilles of Mont 
Blanc. At the S. entrance of the fjord rises the Strandtind (2336 ft.; 
sketched by Prof. Forbes in his 'Norway'), with its crater-like peak. 
At the head of the Foldenfjord rise other huge mountains, one of 
which, the Troldtind (first ascended by C. Hall in 1889), recalls the 


The Foldenfjord divides into the Nordf olden and Serf olden branches, 
to which a Local Steamer plies from Bod0 in 12-15 hours. Stations: 
Bjerne (p. 221), Ejosrringe (see above), Nordf olden on the N. arm of the fjord, 
Mersviksbotten on the Mersviksfjord, its extreme branch ; then Resvik (quarters 
at the Landhandler's), on the S0rfolden, Engan on the Leirfjord, a branch 
of the SerrfoldeD, and Dybvik at the end of the fjord, whence a road through 
wild scenery crosses the hills to Fuske (p. 220). 

NARVIK. Map,p.22S. — 32.R. 227 

We next pass through the Gissund, a very narrow strait, the 
bottom of which is often seen through the green water, to — 

10 S. M. Gr-ert*. The mail-steamers of Line I now steer across 
the Vestfjord to Kabelvaag (see p. 224). Those of Line II pass be- 
tween Engelvar (W.) and the Skotsfjord, with the Skotstinder 
(2451 ft.; E.), and steer E. into the Flagsund, between the main- 
land and the Engele, on the W. side of which is seen the church 
of Stegen. 

12 S.M. Bogei. We next round the E. end of the Engele, and 
cross the mouth of the beautiful Sagfjord to — 

14 S.M. Skutvik, on theHammere, which culminates in the pointed 
Hammeretind (2028 ft.). Then, to the right, is the abrupt Tilihorn 
(1936 ft.; first ascended by 0. Hall in 1889). Next through the 
0xmnd, between the Lund/a and the Hammerer, and out into the 
Vestfjord, in full view of the superb Lofoten chain (p. 222). 

14 S. M. Kabelvaag and Svolvcer, see p. 224. 

The mail-boats of Line II now cross back (E.) to the mainland. 

18 S. M. Trane i Hammer, on a many - branched peninsula. — 
Line I calls at Kjeeen, on the S. bank of the Hinds', to which 
Line III plies from Svolvaer, by Skraaven, Bisvar, Halvardseen, Hus- 
ford, and Vaaje. — The next station of Line II beyond Trane is — ■ 

2l S. M. Korsnas, at the entrance of the Tysfjord, on which a 
local steamer plies to Kjebsvig. The chief arms of the Tysfjord are 
the narrow Hellemofjord, with the Botnfjord (extending to within 
12 Kil. of the Swedish frontier), the Grundfjord, the Manfjord, and 
the picturesque Stedfjord, above which rises the Stedtind, a curious 
fiat-topped mountain, with sheer left side, well seen from Ledingen. 
From Musken, near the head of theHellemofjord, a route leads by Kraakrno 
(good quarters), between the 4th and 5th of the seven Sagvande, to Tem- 
mernces on the Sagfjord; another to Hopen on the Nordfolden (p. 226). — 
From Kraakrno we may ascend the huge Kraakmotind, or go by boat up 
the 5th, 6th, and 7th Sagvand (the boat being dragged across the isthmuses) 
to the great primseval forest on the 7th lake. From Kraakrno to T0m- 
mernses on the Sagfjord (17 Kil.) we row down the four lower Sagvande. 
Near the fjord is a waterfall 50 ft. high. — Another route crosses the pic- 
turesque Dragseid from Drag on the Tysfjord to the Sagfjord, not far from 
the steamboat-stations Boge and Trane (see above). 

The steamers of Line I run from Kje»en, and those of Line II 
from Korsnas, into the Ofotenfjord, the geological continuation of 
the Vestfjord. The church of Evenes or Ofoten and the houses of 
Liland lie to the left. The fjord expands: N.E. opens the Bogen, 
a broad bay ; S. are the bay of Balangen, the banks of which are in- 
habited by Lapps, and the Skjommenfjord (p. 228). 

31 Kil. Narvik lies on a peninsula bounded on the S. by the 
Beisfjord and on the N. by the Rombaksfjord, between which rises 
the Beisfjordtetta (4751 ft.). The town [Grand Hot., R. 2-2i/ 2 , B. 
or S. I1/4, D. 2 kr. ; Hot. Fenix; both good, 5 min. from the rail, 
stat., 20 min. from the quay) was founded in 1902 as a sea-port, 
always free from ice, for the Swedish iron-ore (pp. 392, 393 ; annu- 


228 Route 32. L0DINGEN. From Bode 

ally nearly 1^4 million tons), and as the terminus of the Lapland 
Railway. It now has 4500 inhab., large quays, and many shops. The 
station is at the N. end of the town, 25 min. from the pier. To the 
W. of the station is a good point of view marked by a flagstaff. — 
Excursion by rail to the frontier, or even to Abisko, interesting, 

comp. p. 392. 

Two Toueist Routes of the Vesteraalen Steamboat Co. (p. 209) start 
from Narvik: Mondays by Tromsja to the North Cape, then by Hammerfest 
to the Lyngenfjord, and back by Tronisjj to the Lofoten Islands (Digermulen, 
Raftsund), and past Torghalten to Throndhjem (6 days ; 200-250 kr., incl. 
f 00 d) . _ Fridays to the Lofoten Islands (Digermulen, Raftsund, Svolvaer) 
and back (2 days; 50 kr., incl. food). — The Saltens Steamboat Co. also 
sends a boat once a week for a circular voyage to the Lofoten Islands 
(Com. 410; 15-18 kr.). 

Narvik is also a station of the Bod0-Lofoten-Ofoten steamers (Com. 409), 
which twice weekly steam up the Skjommenfjord; at the head of the fjord 
is Elvegaard (Landhandler), with the church of Skjommen, at the mouth of 
the Elvegaards-Elv. A road leads up the right bank of the river to the 
gaards of Bokhl (13 Kil.). Then by a rough bridle-path on the left bank in 
4-5 hrs. to a poor refuge-hut ('Gamme'), whence in 7 hrs. we may reach 
the copper-mines of Sjangeli in Sweden (quarters at the Formand's). Grand 
but toilsome passes lead thence in 8-10 hrs. to Vassijaur or Abisko on the 
Lapland Railway (p. 392). — The W. arm of the Skjommenfjord is said 
to be still finer. At its head, to the W., above Skjombotn, towers the 
Frostisen (4731ft.), with its vast glaciers. The mountain -slopes, rising 
abruptly 4000 ft. from the water, have been worn smooth by ice-avalanches. 

The next station to the N. of the Ofotenfjord is — 

22 S.M. Ljfrdingen, at which all the mail-steamers and many of 
the local boats touch, an important telegraph-station (comp. p. 210), 
with a church and parsonage, picturesquely situated on a peninsula 
of the Hinde, which is here separated from the Tjalle and the main- 
land by the Tjcellsund. 

The next stage is less interesting. We steer past the E. side 
of the Hind0, through the Tjallsund, which afterwards expands 
into the Vaagsfjord. 

26 S. M. Sandtorv, on the Hinde, the first station in Tromse-Amt. 

28 S.M. Grcesholmen, also on the Hind». 

30 S. M. Harstad or Harstadhavn (Hot. Nordstjernen; Orand 
Hot.) is a pleasant, thriving place on a height at the N.E. end of 
the Hinde. The steamers land at the quay. A drive may be taken to 
a neighbouring Lapp Encampment (comp. p. 231), and on the return 
a visit may be paid to the old church of Throndences (2 Kil. N. of 
Harstad), once the northmost in Christendom. The drivers charge 
3-4 kr. for each person. As there are vehicles enough, the travellers 
should decline to be crowded. 

Harstad is also a station of the Troms0-Amt steamers (Com. 416, 417) 
to Risehavn (p. 22G) in the Vesteraalen group. 

To the N. we see the jagged peaks of the Oryte, and in the dis- 
tance the Senjehest (984 ft.), the S. headland of Senjen (p. 229). The 
tourist -steamers steer N.E. across the Vaagsfjord. The midnight 
sun is visible here till mid-July (p. 212). Between the Gryta and 
the Senjehest appears the distant Vesteraalen island Ande- (p. 226). 



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to Tromse. MALANGENFJORD. 32. Route. 229 

To the E. tower the abrupt Aarbodstind and Faxtind (see below). — 
The mail-steamers turn E. from Harstad to the Rolde and into the 
Asta fjord to — 

32 S. M. Havnvilc, on the Rold». The church of lbestad, like 
that of ThrondenEes, is of stone, and vaulted,while the other churches 
in Tromse-Stift are of timber. To the S.E., on the mainland, 
towers the Messetind (3317 ft.), and S. of it the SkavlikoUen (3304 ft.) • 
both may be climbed, with guide, the former from the Gratangen- 
fjord, the latter from the Qravfjord. 

We steam through the grand *Salangenfjord and Mj*sund, be- 
tween the Andorje and the mainland. The tourist-steamers pass 
this way on their return-voyage. On the mainland lie the stations 
of Lavangnces and Seveien (Com. 416). Immediately "W. of the Mj«- 
sund rises the huge Aarbodstind (3855 ft.), with a large glacier and 
a waterfall, and to the E. the pointed Faxtind (4003 ft.). 

The scenery is still more impressive at — 

35 S.M. KastncBshavn; all these mountains, notably the pinnacle 
of the Faxtind, are seen at once, and the W. horizon is bounded 
by the Ande Mts. and others. To the W. the Dyre and Dyresund. 

38 S. M. Kleven, on the island of Senjen (641 sq. M.). Quantities 
of 'Kveiter' (halibut, p. 211) are caught here, some of them 6-10 ft. 
long, and dried in the open air. The fat fins are called 'rav', the flesh 
oftheback 'rakling'. A single fish sometimes more than fills a barrel. 
To the S.E. rise the sncrw-cU&Ghirragas- Tjokko, oxlstinder (4864 ft.)! 
— The next station is Finsnas, on the mainland, pleasantly situated 
on the Finfjord, whence a road leads N., past the Finfjordvand to 
Guldhav in the Maalselv-Dal (p. 230). 

42 S. M. Gibostad (telegr., comp. p. 210), also in Senjen. Our 
course lies between that island and the mainland. The shores are 
green, wooded, and fairly well peopled, and this pleasing scenery 
is backed by snow-mountains. Opposite us, on the mainland, are 
the white church and the parsonage of Lenvik; to the left rise the 
jagged peaks at the N. end of Senjen ; in front appears the Lille 
Blaamand on the KvaLe (p. 230). 

The tourist-steamers and the mail-boats of Lines II and III 
eross the Malangenfjord, the N. frontier of Norway in the middle 
ages, enclosed by high mountains. To the S. rise the snowy heights 
of the Maalselvdal ; to the E. are the snow-peaks on the Lyngen- 
fjord. The mail- steamers of Line I and several local boats from 
Tromse enter the fjord (Com. 419). To the right is the church of 
Rosfjord. The chief station in the Malangerfjord is 

47 S. M. Maalsnaes (Pederseris Hot.), on a tongue of land, where 
the fjord divides into several arms. This is the starting-point for 
excursions to the Maalselvdal and Bardudal, inhabited chiefly by 
colonists from the 0sterdal and the Gudbrandsdal, who began to 
settle here in 1796. 

230 B. 32. — Map, p. 22S. TROMS0. From Bode 

From Maalsn^s to the Rostavand. We drive (fast stations to Bak- 
kehaug) past Hollmndemms , where the Dutch attempted to settle in the 
17th cent, against the will of the Hanseatic merchants (p. 138). This is 
alluded to by Peter Dass (p. lvi) : — 

'■Men der denne Handel lidt Icenge paastod, 

Da blev det de Bergemke Kjebmand imod, 

Hollcenderne maatte sig palclce.' 

('But the business had soon to be closed, 

For the merchants of Bergen opposed, 

And the Dutchmen were forced to begone'.) 
The first station in this fine valley is (14 Kil.) Ouldhau. The road then 
leads past the church of Maaltelven to (11 Kil.) Moen (good quarters). The 
grand mountains facing us are the crater-like Ohirragas Tjokko, or istinder 
(p. 229). A good point of view is Lille Mauket (1970 ft.), near Moen. 

Passing several small stations, and then (18 Kil.) Bakkehaug and (12 Kil.) 
Neergaard, with its church, we arrive at ffvevby, near the confluence of 
the Maals-Elv and the Jagmok-Blv. (Through the valley of the latter a route 
leads to the Lyngenfjord; p. 233.) Above the Rostavand rises the huge 
Host afj eld (5118 ft.). To ascend it we ride to gaard Kongslid (good quar- 
ters), and then mount through a small valley on the E. side. Wild rein- 
deer occur here. Opposite the Rostafjeld rise S.E. the Likkavarre (4890 ft.) ; 
S.W. the Ruten (4396 ft.) and Alapen (4954 ft.); and E., quite near, the 

From Maalsn/Es to S0VEIEN. To Moen, see above. The next station 
is (17 Kil.) Sundli, in the Bardudal. Before reaching it we diverge to the 
left to Fosmoen and the copious Bardufos; to the left rise the Istinder 
(p. 229), the W. peak of which may be ascended. — 23 Kil. Saetermoen. 
Beyond this the road in the Bardudal is uninteresting. It leads past 
Viken to the Altevand (1664 ft.), where N. rises the Kistefjeld (5653 ft.) 
and S. the Rokomborre (5348 ft.). — Our road crosses W. the hill Kob- 
oeryggen to (10 Kil.) Brandvold, leads past the Nedre Vand to Vashoved, 
and lastly to (17 Kil.) Seveien (p. 229). 

Fkom the Maalselvdal to the Balsfjord. Of several routes the easiest 
(with guide; 1 day's walk) is from Olsborg, a little N. of Moen, to Storsten- 
nms (good quarters at the Landhandler's ; not to be confounded with the 
houses near Troms«f, p. 232), from which we row in i'/a hr. (4 kr.) to 
Havnnces (good quarters), near the S.E. end of the fjord. Here we may 
either take the Balsfjord steamer, passing on the E. bank mountains 5000 ft. 
high, to Troms0; or from Nordkjos, at the head of the fjord, we may 
walk by 0vregaard, through wood and pasture, to the Lapp settlement of 
Mcelen; then across two rivers (ask for horse at Mselen) to Hatteng, at the 
S. end of the Lyngenfjord (p. 233), 6-7 hrs. from Havnnses. 

Leaving the Malangenfjord, we pass tie great Bensjordtind 
(4084 ft.), with its snow-flelds, on the right, and the large is- 
land Kvale on the left , where in the foreground rises the rocky 
and snow- clad Lille Blaamand (2625 ft.). On the S. coast of the 
island, between Buvik and Mjelde, several old coast-lines (p. xxxii) 
may be traced. The Blaamand itself (3429 ft.), the highest hill in 
the island, becomes visible in the distance farther on. We steer 
into the Tromsesund, about 550 yds. broad. Behind us the Bens- 
jordtind is in sight till we enter the harbour of Tromse. To the N. 
we see the snow-clad Skulgam tinder on the Ringvadse; to theE. we 
look into the Tromsdal, with the Tromsdalstind in the background. 
The current in the Tromsesund changes with the tide. 

49 S.M. TromS0. — Grand Hotel, near the quay, R. 2, B. or S. l'/z, 
D. 2 kr., very fair; Hegbom's Hot., further N. — Confectioner, Wohn>ias, 
Skipper-Gade 16. — Fors, Gold and Silver Ornaments, etc., at Glaus 

to Tromse. TROMS0. Map, p.228. —32.R. 231 

Andersen's, near the pier. — Lapp Costdmes, etc., at Figenschaifs, near 
the quay. — Gloves at Tli. KratochvWs (information of every kind). — 
BbiTish Vice-Consul, U. Aagaard. 

The Local Steamees, well fitted up, of the 'Tronistf-Amts-Dampskibs- 
Selskab', ply to the Ulfsfjord, Lyngenfjord, Reisenfjord, and Kvenangsfjovd; 
also to Harstad, the BaUfjord, Ofotenfjord, etc. (Com. 416-21), thus offering 
numerous excursions. 

Tromse, a town of 8000 inhab., the seat of an Amtmand and a 
bishop, with a training-college, and several churches and schools, 
lies on the island of that name,' in 69° 38' N. latitude. It was 
raised to the rank of a town in 1794, and is now a busy place, ex- 
porting large quantities of dried and smoked herrings and other 
flsh, train-oil, fur, etc., and trading largely with Russia. Many 
vessels for the capture of seals and walruses are also fitted up here. 

In the market-place ('Torvet') are the Town Hall and the Rom. 
Cath. Church. In the S. part of the town is the large timber-built 
Prot. Church. On a hill outside the town is the handsome Museum 
('Musaeet'; adm. 50 ».; Sun. 12-1 free), completed in 1894, with 
admirably arranged natural history and ethnographical collections. 
— The vegetation here is wonderfully rich. Mountain-ashes, wild 
cherry-trees, birches, etc., attain great size and luxuriance. 

On the hill above the town is a birch-grove, adjoined by the 
public grounds of Alfheim, where all Troms» assembles in the even- 
ing. Numerous villas. We ascend by the Sparebank, and turn to 
the left at the parting of the ways. The right branch leads to the 
Praestevand, a small lake which supplies the town with water. — 
The road to the Charlottenlund also affords a pretty walk : ascend 
from the Torv, follow the road to the right above the Town Hall, 
and ascend to the left. 

An Excursion to the Lapp Camp in the Tromsdal (3-4 hrs., 
there and back) is not within the programme of the tourist-steamers. 
Motor-launch (10 e.) across the strait to Storstennms, at the en- 
trance to the Tromsdal. The path up the valley cannot be mistaken 
( 3 /4 hr.). The ground is rough and marshy at places. We pass 
through a birch-wood on the S. bank of the brawling glacier-stream, 
and at length reach a broad basin, with the Tromstind forming 
the E. background. 

The Lapp Camp contains a colony of several Lapp families 
from Swedish Lapplandt. Their dwellings, called 'Darfe Ooattek' 

+ By the treaties of 1751, 1905 and 1909 the Swedish Lapps are en- 
titled to migrate to the Norwegian coast in summer, and the Norwegian 
Lapps to Sweden in winter. These migrations often lead to disputes with 
the permanent inhabitants. The number of Lapps in Norway is estimated 
at 21,000, of whom 1700 only are still nomadic. Sweden and Russia con- 
tain about 12,000 more. The Lapps now intermarry freely with Nor- 
wegians and Finns. In Norway they are often called Finner, while the 
Finns are named Kvcener, from the 'Ian' of Kajana in Finland. 

Among works on the Lapps may be mentioned : Milford's 'Norway and 
her Laplanders', 1842; Everest't 'Journey through Norway, Lapland, etc.', 
1829; G. von Diiben's 'Om Lappland och Lapparne 1 , Stockholm, 1873; Friis's 

232 R.32.— Map,p.228. FL0IFJELD. 

or i Oammer\ are stone or clay huts, with openings at the top for 
the exit of smoke, and in summer they have canvas-tents stretched 
on birch-poles. The Lapps offer fur-boots ( Skal-Komager, or Shatter), 
spoons of reindeer-horn, and other articles for sale. They possess 
a herd of 2000-3000 reindeer, which graze on the adjoining hills. 
The peculiar crackling of the animal's hoofs recalls the sound 
produced by an electric battery. The reindeer are caught by a kind 
of lasso thrown over their horns. They are milked twice a week 
only. The rich and rather strong milk, the Lapp's chief article of 
diet, is diluted with water before use. 'The milk is strong and 
thick, as if beaten up with eggs' (Scheffer's Lapponica, 1675). The 
cheese made of it is reserved for winter. — On the way back from 
the Tromsdal we obtain a beautiful *View of Tromsfl, with its green 
hills, and the snow-mountains of the Kvale (p. 230) and the Ring- 
vads0 (see below) beyond. 

The Fljaifjeld (2600 ft. ; about 2'/ 2 hrs., guide advisable), a moss-clad 
rocky Mil, rising from the sea opposite Troms0, on the S. side of the en- 
trance to (he Tromsdal, is an excellent point of view. The path diverges 
from the Tromsdal route to the right, a few minutes from Storstennfes, 
beyond the houses. It soon becomes steep , and ends halfway up ; we 
then ascend over meadows (rich polar flora) and loose stones, and partly 
over snow. The top 13 marked by an iron vane. With caution, we may 
descend direct (no path) to the Lapp camp (see above). 

The Tromadalstind (4065 ft.; 3-4 hrs.; guide from Tromser, 10-12 kr., 
may be dispensed with by experts) may be ascended from the Lapp camp. 
We walk to the (1 hr.) head of the valley, which ends in a great basin 
like those in the Pyrenees ; then ascend the steep slope to the left, at 
first over turf, then over snow. Herds of reindeer sometimes graze here. 
To reach the crest of the hill we have to scale a very steep snow- field. 
The final ascent, over snow and detritus, is easier. The top, marked by 
a varde, commands the magnificent scenery of the Ulfsfjord and the gla- 
cier-chain on the Lyngenfjord ; to the W. stretches the Arctic Ocean beyond 
Troms0 and the Kvaljzr. On the E. side the mountain falls almost sheer to 
a valley extending from the Ulfsfjord to the Balsfjord. 

33. From Tromsa to the North Cape. 

46 S.M. Distances from Troms0 are prefixed to the chief stations. 
From Tromstf to Hammerfest the Bergen and Nordenfjeld Mail Steamer takes 
16-18 hrs., the Vesteraalen Express Boat 11 hrs. only. — The Bergen 
and Nordenfjeld Tourist Steamers leave Troms0 in the evening, reach the 
Fugle* about midnight, and Hammerfest next morning, and are off the North 
Cape in the evening; those of the Vesteraalen Co. start from Tromsjzf in 
the morning and arrive at the North Cape late in the evening. 

We steer N. through the Tromsesund, and N.E. through the 
Gretsund. To the left lies the mountainous Ringvadse (with a 
glacier and a lake formed by a moraine) ; then the Reine, at the S.W. 
end of which lies Finkroken. The steamers sometimes pass through 
the Langfjord, between the Ringvadse and the Reine. On the main- 

'En Sommer i Finmarken', Kristiania, 1871 ; Friis's 'Lappisk Mythologi 
og Lappiske Eventyr', Kristiania, 1871; J. Vahl's 'Lapperne, etc.', 1866; 
F. Vincent's 'Norsk, Lapp, and Finn', 1885; Cutcliffe Hpne's 'Through Arctic 
Lapland 1 , 1898. 

LYNGENFJORD. Map,p.228. — 33.R. 233 

land, opposite Finroken, the Ulfstind (3609 ft.) is posted like a 
sentinel at the mouth of the *Ulfsfjord, which runs S., inland, 
for 50Kil., parallel with the Lyngenfjord. We obtain, in passing,' 
a superb view of the snow-mountains of the Lyngen peninsula (see 
below), the Jagercandstinder(bbU ft.) with theGoatzagaise (4440 ft.) 
and to the right of them the Forncestind (5660 ft.). ' 

On the Ulfsfjord a steamer (Com. 421) from Tromsjr plies once weekly 
From the station of Jaegervand (good quarters) we may visit the lake of 
that name, beyond which rise the grand Jsgervandstinder. [From the 
S. end of the lake (12 Kil. long) a toilsome but interesting pass leads past 
the Trollvand to (4 hrs.) Storstennws, whence we may skirt the Kjosenfjord 
to (3 hrs.) Kjosen (see below).] — At Ojevik (quarters at P. Gjeever's, the 
Landhandler), whence the Fornaesdalsbrca (p.234 ) may be visited, the steamer 
enters the inlet of Kjosen, enclosed by huge ice-clad mountains. From 
Kjosen, the terminus (coffee, bread, and eggs at the postmaster's; guide, 
Knut Johannescm), at the head of this creek, a road crosses the 'Eid' or 
isthmus, about 4 Kil. broad and 19T ft. high, to Lyngen (see p 234) — 
In the S. part of the Ulfsfjord, named the Ser/jord, the steamer calls at 
Sjursnres, on the W. bank, near the church of Serfjorden. Opposite rise 
the huge Jwggervarre and Njalasvarre (p. 234). 

The mail-steamers stop at the little island of (8 S.M.) Karlse, 
beyond which the Fuglesund to the left leads between the Vanne 
and the Arne to the open Arctic Ocean. The tourist-boats steer a 
little way down the Sund to await the **Midnight Sun, a glorious 
spectacle for those who have the rare fortune to see it unclouded. 
Across the blue, yellow, and silver shimmering sea appears in the 
foreground the rocky Fugle (2572 ft.), the sharp outline of which 
recalls Capri; to the left of it, in the background, hangs almost 
motionless the red and gold disk of the sun. This beautiful scene 
is even more impressive than from the North Cape, but is often 
marred or blotted out by fog or the storms of the Arctic Ocean. 
At other times the milk-white mist lies on the surface of the water 
only, while the sky is bright and sunny. In this case the steamer 
casts anchor, and passengers have leisure to observe the peculiar 
white 'Skoddebuer' or fog-bows. 

On the islet of Skaare, adjoining the Vann0 on the N.E., there was 
formerly a whaling-station, but whaling on the Norwegian coast has been 
prohibited by law since 1804. Operations have since been transferred to 
Iceland, Bear Island, and Spitzbergen. 

To the S. opens the **Lyngenfjord, which is visited by the 
mail-boats of Line II, by the Tromso steamers (p. 235), and by the 
tourist- steamers on their way back from the North Cape. The 
Lyngen peninsula, bounded on the W. by the Ulfsfjord and on the 
E. by the Lyngenfjord, and ending in the bold headland of Lyng- 
stuen (1215 ft.), is wholly occupied by snow and ice-clad mountains 
rising close to the sea. Furthest N. is the Pipertind (4036 ft.), on 
the N. side of which lies a broad *Glacier, embedded between 
several peaks. Next to it is the Storskaal, separated by snow-filled 
gorges from the Vagastind ; and next the latter, beyond another 
gorge, is the Rendalstind. A glacier descends almost to the sea. 
Behind rise the Jagervandstinder (see above), also with large glaciers. 

234 R.33. — Map, p. 228. LYNGEN. From Tromse 

The vessel steers close under the rocks familiarly known as Smer- 
stabben (butter-slices), from their variegated horizontal strata. The 
opposite bank is also mountainous and partly covered with snow, 
but has no glaciers. Opposite the islet of Aareholm rises W. the 
Oolborre, and S."W. the Fastdalstind. Farther on, opposite the 
mouth of the Kaafjord, tower the immense Kjostinder (5414 ft.). 
"We round a headland, and, about 2 hrs. from the entrance to the 
fjord, reach — 

Lyngen or Lyngseidet (quarters, for a longer stay only, at Anton 
Gjsever's, the Landhandler), residence of a pastor, a doctor, and a 
Lensmand. After so long a voyage in an inhospitable region, the 
little church amid birch-clad hills, flanked with snow-mountains, 
is specially attractive. To the S. of the valley, through which the 
road leads W. to Kjosen (p. 233), rises the Goalsevarre (4232 ft.). 
At its foot, about 20 min. from Lyngen, is a large Lapp Settlement, 
to visit which some of the tourist-ships land their passengers. 

Lyngseidet, served five times a week by steamers from Troms0 (once 
by mail-steamer of Line II, twice by Lyngenfjord steamer, and twice by 
theUlfsfjord boat to Kjosen, 4 Kil. from Lyngen ; see below, Com. 226a, 418, 
421), is a good centre for "Excursions in the Lyngen District. Hr. Gjsever 
procures land and boat-Bkyds, but guides are difficult to get. Petersen's 
geological map of Tromsgr-Amt and the Beskrivelse af Tromser-Amt (I kr.), 
published by the 'Geografiske Opmaaling' in Christiania', will be most 
useful. Patience is required in dealing with the sluggish but proud peasantry 
of the district. The traveller who seeks quarters from them deposits his 
luggage at the door, and waits until his request is answered with a ' Velkom' 
and a handshake. About l'/2 kr. is given per day. Less ceremony is re- 
quired with the Lapps. 

Good walkers may ascend the Goalsevarre (see above) in 4 hrs. witnout 
a guide ; a porter (2 kr.) may be taken from the Lapp encampment where 
the ascent begins. Keep to the left of the brook. The »View from the top 
embraces (E.) the S. part of the Lyngenfjord and (N.) the Kjostinder — 
An excursion to the mountain -basin enclosed by the Goalsevarre, the 
Rornwstinder (ca. 4100 ft.), and the Jertind (ca. 3600 ft.) takes 6-7 hrs. — 
Another fine excursion for one day : cross the Bid to Kjosen (4 Kil. ; p. -Hi) ; 
row to the (IV2 hr.) Forncesdal, and walk up that valley (toilsome ; guide 
necessary, 4 kr.), crossing old moraines, to the "Fomcesdal-Brw, a superb 
glacier descending abruptly from the Qolzevaggegaissa, between the Fornse- 
stind and the Durmaalstind. 

The following tour takes l 1 /* day: drive S. to (12 Kil.; fare d kr.) 
Pollen, then row to Dalen (poor quarters at both) ; next day walk by a, 
good path on the left bank up the beautiful but uninhabited Lyngdal, 
passing the Jaeggevarre (6286 ft.) on the N., to the (2V2 hrs.) great glacier 
descending from the main plateau (lower end 1300 ft. above the sea), irom 
the Lyngsdal we may also ascend the Njalavarre (5027 ft.) to the S. (grand 
view of the Jaeggevarre glaciers), or walk N. to the glaciers of the Ruksu- 
vaggegaissa. . 

Another interesting excursion is E. to the Kaafjord, where the local 
boats call (Com. 41Sa). Good quarters at Kr. Wassmuth's at Langnas. Six 
immense waterfalls descend about 3000 ft. from the steep sides of the inner 
Kaafjord The dwellers on the Kaafjord are mostly 'Sea Lapps', who have 
abandoned nomadic life and now live by fishing and cattle-rearing. From 
the steamboat-station Birtavarra, at the end of the fjord, a road ascends 
the Kaafjorddal to (ca. 3-4 hrs.) the Birtavarra copper-mines. Near Skatvold 
are interesting coast-lines (p. xxxii). 

The Teoms0-Amt Steamer goes on, S. of Lyngen, to the market village 
of Skibotten (good quarters at Antonie Bosch's), at the mouth of a river 

to the North Cape. SKJ MK\0. Map, p. 228. — 33. R. 235 

(good fishing), with a fine view of the Njalavarre, and thence to Kvesmenms 
or Hatteng (good quarters at Hans Kill's), prettily situated at the head of 
the Storfjord, the S. hay of the Lyngenfjord. The surrounding mountains 
are : N.E., the blunt cone of the Batten, S.E., the jagged Mandfjeld (5086 ft ) 
and S., the Ottertind. — From Hatteng to Havnnees on the Balsfjord, 6-7 hrs 
(see p. 230); a horse, for fording the streams, should be hired to Mtelen. 
Beyond the Lyngenfjord we pass between the Arne and the 
Kaage (3966 ft. J, with its glacier, into the Kaagsund, beyond which, 
on the left, is the Lege, and on the right — 

13 S.M. Skjserv« (Guldbrandsens Hot), in a bay on the W. side 
of the island of that name, with a church, a post and telegraph 
office, and a doctor. Nansen's ship, the Fram, under Capt. Sverdrup, 
anchored here on 20th August, 1896, on her return from her three 
years' voyage. 

To the S.E. we see the pointed Kvenangstinder on the Kvenang- 
fjord, which is entered by the Lyngenfjord steamers, and also once 
weekly by the mail-boats of Line II (as far as Alteidet, see below). 
From the peninsula to the N. and E. of the Kvenangfjord, where 
the land is deeply indented by many fjords, rises the 0ksfjordjekel 
(3825 ft.), from which a glacier descends to the Jekelfjord. Our 
course is now nearly due N., across the open sea ('Lophavet'), to — 
17 S.M. Loppen, the first station in Finmarkens-Amt, with its 
little church, its turf-covered parsonage, and the Landhandler's 
substantial house. Little grows here except a few potatoes, which 
almost alone survive the storms raging for weeks. — The mail-boat 
of Line I steers S. into the Bergsfjord, rounds the wedge-shaped 
island of Silden (2028 ft.), and stops at — 

20 S.M. Bergsfjord, on the E. side of the fjord. Grand scenery. 
In the background S. is a glacier of the 0ksfjordjekel, discharged 
by a waterfall. Passing Lersnas, we steer S.E. to — 

23 S.M. 0ksfjord, on a peninsula between the 0ksfjord and 
the Stjernsund, in a noble amphitheatre of mountains, conspicuous 
in which to the W. is the great J»kelfjeld, with a glacier descend- 
ing from it. To the N. is the small church. 

The Stjernsund opens E. into the Altenfjord, which may be visited 
from Hammerfest (p. 2d6 ; Com. 425), made known to science by L. von Buch, 
Prof. Forbes, Keilhau, Ch. Martins, and others. The fjord has branches 
in every direction. The mountains are Alpine in form. The chief heights 
are on the W. side: the Kaaven (3130 ft.), between the Stjernsund and 
Langfjord; the Lassefjeld (3639 ft.), S. of the Langfjord; and the Store 
Haldde (3744 ft.), W. of the Kaafjord. The vegetation here is surprisingly 
rich. Foliage - trees and wild strawberries occur, and potatoes thrive in 
places. The temperature in July rises at times to 100° Fahr. — The more 
important stations are on the S. side of the fjord: Langfjordbunden (12 Kil. 
from Alteidet, see above); Talvik ('pine- bay'), with a church; Kaafjord. 
with an old copper-mine, re-opened in 1895, and — 

Bossekop ('whale-bay' ; bosso, Lappish for 'whale' ; ''Fru Wiig's Hot.), 
with the church of Alien, at the foot of the Kong shavnfj eld (705 ft.), 3 4 Kil. 
E. of the mouth of the salmon-river Alten-Elv. In the vicinity are seen 
old coast-lines, at a height of about 200 ft. 

Fkom Bossekop by Kaeasjok to Vadsjzt, 6-7 days. A guide (vappus) 
who knows Lappish is necessary. Equipment, see pp. xxiii, 242. At first 
there is a road, which crosses the Alten-Elv beyond Altengaard; then a 

236 R. 33. — Map, p. 228. HAMMERPEST. From Tromse 

bridle-path. We pass a number of 'sieidi', or sacred stones ('sieidi-gergi', 
oracle stones), formerly worshipped by the Lapps. The first night is spent in 
the Jotkastue or Romsdalsstue, by the small lake of Jotkajavre (1302 ft. ; about 
45 Kil. from Bossekop). — Farther on we observe N.E. the conical Vuorie 
Qaissa (3337 ft.) and the Vuolla-Njunnes (2760 ft.), once famous places of 
sacrifice. The country is mostly wooded. We next row down the large lake 
of Jesjjavre (1332 ft.), or ride along its bank, and then ride or row down the 
valley of the rapid, but navigable Jesjjokk to the Mollesjokstue, the second 
'Fjeldstue' or refuge, about 40 Kil. beyond the Jotkastue. — We again cross 
the fjeld to (35 Kil.) the third station, the Ravnastue. Thence we either 
go direct, by the Qwimo-Javre, to (25 Kil.) Karasjok, or first to (16 Kil.) 
the Karasjokka ('rapid river') and descend on its left bank to (16 Kil.) 
Karasjok. — Karasjok (440 ft. ; 'Nielsen's Hot), with about 300 settled inhab., 
has a church and a large school-house, and is thoroughly Lappish. — The 
rest of the journey is by boat. Below Karasjok (15 Kil.) the Karasjokka 
joins the Anarjokka. The combined rivers form the TanaElv, the right 
bank of which is Russian. At Levvajok, halfway to Polmak, is a 'Fjeld- 
stue', in which the night may be spent. Next day the Slorfos must be 
passed on foot, the boat being dragged down by land; but the other rapids 
are not dangerous unless the river is low. At the church of Polmak both 
banks of the river are Norwegian. At Suoppanjargga, 7 Kil. above Seida 
(p. 242), we leave the boat, and go 17 Kil. by road to Nyborg (p. 242). 

From 0ksfjord the mail-boat steers N., towards trie mountainous 
Sere, where it stops at Servcer, Breivik, Hasvik, and sometimes 
at Oaashopen. This island, like the Stjerne and Seiland, which 
mask trie mouth of the Altenfjord (p. 235) on the right, have the 
table-land character common in Finmarken, In Seiland rises the 
ice-clad Nordmansjekel (3527 ft.); on the N. bank of the island 
are Kaaihavn and the islet of Vinna, where the steamer calls once 
a week. Numerous bays cut deep into the island. Between Seiland 
and the curiously shaped island of Haajcn we near the harbour 
of Hammerfest. Before entering it, we look to the right into the 
strait of Stremmen, separating Seiland from the Kvale, on which 
Hammerfest lies. A headland of the Kvale narrows the strait to 
1 Kil. at one point, across which the reindeer herds are made to 
swim to their summer pastures in Seiland. 

30 S.M. Hammerfest. — Gkand Hot., very fair. — Telegkafh in 
the Grizrnnevoldgade, bv the harbour. — Brit.Vice-Consul, C. Robertson. — 
Local Steamers of the Nordenfjeld Co. ply from Hammerfest thrice 
weekly to the Altenfjord (p. 235; Com. 425: twice taking two days, once 
one day there and back); also twice a week to the Porsanger Fjord and 
the Laxefjord (p. 210; Com. 426; 3V 2 days, there and back). 

Hammerfest, founded in 1787, with 2300 inhab., is the north- 
most town in the world (70° 40' 11" N. lat., 23° 45' 25" E. long.). 
The town is wholly timber-built. The sun does not set here from 
13th May to 29th July, nor rise from 18th Nov. to 23rd Jan. (electric 
light). The port is frequented by ships from almost all parts of 
Europe, but chiefly from Russia. The chief exports are fish and 
train-oil, the imports hemp, flax, sail-cloth, iron goods, and corn. 
Fishing-fleets are dispatched hence to the polar seas. Cod-liver oil, 
prepared in numerous boileries, is the most valuable commodity. 
Hence the all-pervading 'ancient and fish-like smell'. 

The harbour is skirted by the Grennevold-Gade, where rise the 

to the North Cape. HAMMERFEST. Map, p.2'28. — 3:j. R. 237 

Rom. Cath. Church and the large warehouses. To the S.W. is the 
superior quarter of the town, rebuilt since the Are of 1890, with 
the Storgade as its main street. Here are the Prot. Church, the 
town-hall, two schools, and the Stift-Amtmand's house. 

The E. prolongation of the Grannevold-Gade leads N. round 
the harbour, then W. to (20 min.) the Fuglnas, to which we may 
also row. At the end of the cape are a lighthouse (disused of course 
in summer) and the house of the British consul. A conspicuous 
little granite column, called the Meridianstette, crowned with a 
globe in bronze, has been erected here in memory of the measure- 
ment of degrees in 1816-52, by Russian, Swedish and Norwegian 
geometers. Fine view of the town and the barren hills around. 

«■ • rhf L Latin and Norwegian inscriptions on the column are to this 
effect: N. end of the meridian 25° 21' long., extending from the Arctic 
Ocean to the Danube (from Hammerfest to Ismail;, through Norway, 
Sweden and Russia, which, by order of King Oscar I. and Emperors 
Alexander I. and Nicholas I., the geometers of the three nations measured 
with uninterrupted labour in the years 1816-1852. Lat. 70° 40' 11 3" — On 
the Fuglnees Sir Edward Sabine made his famous experiments with the 
pendulum in 1823. 

From the hill to the N. of the Meridianstette we have an unbroken 
view of the N. horizon, and therefore of the midnight sun also. 

The long hill to the S. of Hammerfest, on which, as we 
enter the harbour, we observe a stone signal with a wooden top, 
is called *Sadlen ('saddle' ; pron. sahlen). An easy path, beginning 
by the band-stand at the W. end of the Stor-Gade, ascends the 
slopes in windings to the (i/ 4 hr.) top (rfmts.), where we have a 
fine view of the town and harbour. We may descend to the valley 
on the E. side, where we reach a road by the little lake Storvand. 
On the other bank of the lake are remains of a birch-grove and 
several country-houses. — The signal-station at the top of the 
Sadlen, 3/ 4 m. W. of the little cafe, overlooks the glaciers and snow- 
mountains of Seiland and the Sere, but is not high enough for a 
view of the midnight sun. 

Ascent of the Tyven, to the S. of Hammerfest (li/a-2 hrs to the 
top; guide unnecessary). We follow the road on the E. side of the 
badlen, above the Storvand, and then turn to the right, following the 
telegraph-wires, keeping well to the right to avoid the swamps The 
lyven is the high hill at the foot of which the wires run A little 
farther on we mount to the left to a knoll covered with loose stones 
passing under the wires, and then past a small pond, to (1 hr ) the foot 
of the abrupt Tyven. Here we turn to the left, close to the base of huge 
iallen rocks, and ascend the steep course of a small brook, fringed with 
willows and dwarf birches. At the top of the gully we see W. the sea 
and N. the villas above mentioned, and beyond them another small lake 
Large herds of tame reindeer, whose peculiar grunting ('Grynte') is heard 
a long way off, graze here in summer. We now ascend steeply to the 
right, passing a snow-field which lies on the right, and then, keepin" still 
more to the right, reach (s/« hr.) the top of the -Tyven (1375 ft.), marked 
by a pyramid of stones. The hill consists of gneiss, with slale at the top. 
It descends very abruptly on the W. side, with the sea washing its base; 
close by is a bay with meadows, a birch-wood, and several houses. We 
survey K the barren and desolate Kvale, with its numerous ponds, and 
b. and W. long mountain-ranges, snow-fields, and glaciers. Most con- 

238 H. 33.— Map, p. 228. NORTH CAPE. 

spicuoua are the islands of Seiland and S0r0. To the N. stretches the 
vast horizon of the Arctic Ocean. Of Hammerfest itself the Fuglnaes only 
is visible. — The best way back is W., by the top of the Sadlen (p. 237), 
where the view is similar, though less extensive. By this route, the whole 
excursion takes 4, otherwise 3-3*12 hrs. 

Beyond Hammerfest the land ceases to be of account except as 
subservient to the sea, and fish becomes the centre of all interests. 
The landscape is Arctic, and the vegetation so scanty, that a patch 
of grass 'which might be covered with a copy of the Times' is hailed 
as a meadow. — On the right the coast is deeply indented with 
fjords. On the left there are a few islands, and between these are 
long stretches of open sea. 

35 S.M. Rolfsehavn, on the Rolfse. To the S., near the main- 
land, is the small Bene, where the mail-steamers call alternately 
with the Rolfs®. ' 

We next steer through the Havesund, between the mainland and 
the Have, an island with a church, a pastor, and a Landhandler, 
iu which rises a pointed hill called the Sukkertop ('sugar-loaf). 
The mail-steamers now enter the Maassund, touching at the Maase, 
also with church, parsonage, and Landhandler, or sometimes at 
Ojesvar (see below), and then usually pass through the MageT»- 
sund (p. 239). 

The tourist-steamers steer N.E. in the Maas»fjord, between the 
Hjelmse (left) and the Maas» (right). At the N. end of the Hjelmstf 
is a 'bird-hill', the haunt of countless sea-fowl, with the curiously 
shaped Hjelmsetoren. — On the Magere, E., the Ojesvcertop soon 
comes in sight, in front of which is Ojesvcer, on an islet, at which 
the mail and the local boats touch. To the N. rise the *Stappene 
(stappi, old Norse 'column'), three pointed rocky islands covered 
with dense flocks of gulls, auks, and other sea-fowl. When scared 
by a cannon-shot thousands of them rise in dense snow-like clouds, 
uttering shrill cries. Others take to the water, but many remain 
sitting on ledges of the rock. 

To the right opens the Tuefjord, cutting deep into the Magerer. 
We then round the long , low Knivskjcer- or Knivskjml - Odde 
(71° 11' N. lat. ; a little further N. than the Cape), on which a 
mail-steamer struck in a fog in 1881, and soon (47 S.M. from 
Tromse) sight the North Cape, which presents a majestic appearance 
though of moderate height. 

The **North Cape (1017 ft. ; 71° 10' 24" N. lat. , 25° 45' 50" E. 
long.), the precipitous N. headland of the Magere', called Knes- 
kances by the early geographer Schoning, a dark-grey slate-rock, 
furrowed with deep clefts, is usually regarded as the northmost 
point of Europe, though the Nordkyn (p. 240) is the northmost 
continental point. Passengers land in the Hornvik, on the N.E. 
side of the Cape. A rude path, bordered with iron stanchions and 
ropes, ascends the green mossy slope, swampy and stony at places. 
(Stout boots and wraps advisable.) In about 50 min. we reach the 

PORSANGER FJORD. Map, p. '228.- 34. R. 239 

plateau, where a wire, very acceptable in foggy weather (but 
reported in disrepair), leads in 20 min. more to the top. A granite 
column recalls the visit of King Oscar II. in 1873, and a 'Varde' 
or cairn that of Emp. William II. in 1891. A cold wind generally 
prevails. (In the pavilion champagne is sold at 8-14 kr. per bottle.) 
The sun is at its lowest at 11.17 p.m., by mid-European time. The 
view embraces the open sea to the W., N., and E. ; to the S.W. we 
see the Hjelma and the Rolfsa; E., in the distance, the Nordkyn; 
S. the plateau of the Magere, with its patches of snow, its ponds, 
and scanty vegetation. 

'The northern sun, creeping at midnight at the distance of five dia- 
meters along the horizon, and the immeasurable ocean in apparent con- 
tact with the skies, form the grand outlines in the sublime picture pre- 
sented to the astonished spectator. The incessant cares and pursuits of 
anxious mortals are recollected as a dream ; the various forms and ener- 
gies of animated nature are forgotten ; the earth is contemplated only 
in its elements, and as constituting a part of the solar system'. — Acerbi 
'Travels to the North Cape\ London, 1802. 

'And then uprose before me, 

Upon the water's edge, 

The huge and haggard shape 

Of that unknown North Cape, 

Whose form is like a wedge'. Longfellow. 

To the E. of the North Cape is an excellent fishing-ground (comp. p. 244) 
where passengers are usually indulged with an hour or two of hand-line 
fishing from the deck of the steamer, the sailors willingly assisting. 

34. From the North Cape to Vads». 

m Ab ° ut 6p S.M. (comp. p. 212). The mail - steamers (Com. 226 and 
227c) take 62-70 hrs. 

Beyond the North Cape the sole attraction of the voyage is the 
utter bleakness and solemnity of the scene. Both mainland and is- 
lands consist of vast monotonous plateaux, called Nceringen, rising 
1000-2000 ft., and for half-a-day at a time not a boat, not a human 
dwelling is to be seen. 

From the Maasa (p. 238) the mail-boats steer E. through the 
narrow Magervsund, between the Magere and the mainland. On the 
E. coast of the Magera are stations Honningsvaagen and (6 S.M. 
from Maaser) Kjelviken, with a church and the Landhandler's house. 

We next pass the mouth of the Porsanger Fjord, about 20Kil. 
broad, and extending 120 Kil. inland, to which local steamers ply 
from Hammerfest. In July and August the 'Sei' (saithe, Oadus 
virens), akin to the cod, is largely caught here. The Sei enters the 
fjord in pursuit of the 'Lodde' (Osmerus arcticus, a kind of smelt), 
which resorts to the shore to spawn. After the Lofoten fishery 
(p. 223) the fishermen come here for the 'Lodde' fishery. 

The N. headland of the peninsula of Spirte - Njarga, which 
bounds the Porsanger Fjord on the E., is the Svcerholdklubben, com- 
posed of clay-slate, about 1000 ft. high, the haunt of millions of 
sea-fowl. It belongs to the Landhandler of Svcerholt, which lies 

240 R. 3 4. — Map, p. 228. VARD0. From the North Cape 

in a small bay to the E., and of -which he is the only inhabitant 
He derives a good income from the sale of the sea- fowls' eggs. 

The Laxefjord, -which runs inland on the E. side of the Spirte- 
Njarga, is served by the local steamers only (p. 236). The mail- 
steamers next make for^the Kjelle fjord, a bay on the W. coast of 
the large peninsula of Corgas-Njarga (pron. tshorgash). On the 
S. side of the entrance to the bay rises the Store Finkirke, a huge 
rock, once revered by the Lapps ; and further up the fjord is the 
Lille Finkirke. The vertical strata of sandstone here are note- 
worthy. At the head of the fjord is the station of Kjellefjord, 
with a church and several houses and Lapp huts ('Gammer'). To 
the right we observe an old coast-line (p. xxxii). 

Leaving the Kjellefjord, we next steer round the Sedevag ('red 
wall') to the station of Skjetningberg, and along the abrupt coast 
to the headland Nordkyn (768 ft. ; 71°8'2" N. lat. ; 27° 39' 57" E. 
long.), the northmost point of the mainland of Europe. The masses 
of quartzose rock, broken into enormous slabs, have an imposing 
effect. Next, on the right, we see the headland Smerbringa (423 ft.). 

The next small stations are Mehavn and Oamvik. Then, 
passing Omgang and the station of Finkonglcjeilen, we enter the 
Tanafjord, an inlet nearly 70 Kil. long, which is served by the 
mail-steamers of Line I and by a local boat from Vardfl (Com. 428). 
The E. bank is composed of variegated quartzose rock. On the 
W. is the Hopsfjord, up which we have a glimpse, across the narrow 
Hopseid, of the distant Laxefjord. The hills to the E. of the fjord 
increase in height, culminating in the Stangenestind (2375 ft.). 
To the W., farther on, is Digermulen, a peninsula separating the 
Tanafjord from the Langfjord; to the S. rises the distant Algas- 
Varre (p. 242). above Guldholmen. The stations of Vagge and 
Smalfjorden are called at alternately. 

The other mail-boat steers direct from Finkongkjeilen, round 
the Tanahorn (883 ft.), which rises at the N. end of the peninsula 
of Rago-Njarga, to Berlevaag, Makur, Syltefjord (with its 'bird- 
hill'), Havningberg, and — 

50 S.M. Vardo (Fru 0ieris Hot. ; Midtgaard's Hot.; Brit. Vice- 
Consul, J. 0. Gundersen), a town of 2600 inhab., with neat turf- 
roofed houses and little vegetable gardens, the chief fishing-station 
in Finmarken. It lies in N. lat. 70° 22' 35" and E. long. 30° 7' 24", 
on an island separated from the mainland by the Bussesund, between 
two harbours, the larger and deeper on the N. side, protected 
by a breakwater. In 1769 the Jesuit father Max Stell observed 
the transit of Venus here, as recorded in the church register. On 
21st July, 1893, Dr. Frithjof Nansen set sail from Varde in the 
'Fram', and here, on 13th Aug., 1896, he and his companion, Fred. 
Hjalmar Johansen, first set foot on Norwegian soil on their return, 
landing from the British yacht 'Windward', which had brought 
them from Franz-Joseph-Land. 

toVadse. VADS0. Map, p. 2?<5. — 34 R. 241 

To the W. of the town is the fortress of Vardehus, founded about 
1310, to which Norway once owed her hold of Finmarken, but now 
of no importance, with a garrison of 16 men only. Inscriptions on a 
beam here recall the visits of Christian IV., King of Denmark and 
Norway, in 1599, and Oscar II., King of Sweden and Norway, in 
1873. To the E. of the town is a timber-built church. In the 
vicinity are countless 'Hjelder' for drying fish. 

We may ascend the (20 min.) Vardefjeld (194 ft.), a rocky hill 
behind the church, overlooking the town and island: S.E. the 
Domen (512 ft.); E. the open sea; S. the district of Syd- Varanger, 
with the adjoining Russian territory. — Violent storms rage here 
in winter, but the temperature is so mild (lowest about 5° Fahr.) 
that sheep remain in the open air all the year round. 

A Russian steamer plies once a week from Varda by Vads# to Archangel 
on the While Sea in five days ; comp. Baedeker's Russia (in German only). 

The steamer (to Vads» 3Y2-4V2 hrs.) rounds the islands Rene 
and Home. On Rene is the summer-residence of the commandant 
of Vardehus, two turf-covered huts resembling 'Gammer'. The 
down and eggs of the sea-fowl on the island yield part of his in- 
come. We next pass the small trading-station of Kiberg on the 
dreary coast, and skirt the S. side of the Vadse, on which the town 
of Vadse formerly lay. 

60 S.M. Vadse (Aanestad's Hot. ; Ada's Hot.; British Vice-Consul, 
B. M. Akermand~), a town with 2200 inhab., half Finns ('Kvsener'), 
lies in 70° 4' N. lat., on the S. bank^ of the peninsula of Varjag- 
Njarga. The Lapp name of the place, Cacce-Suollo (pron. chahtze), 
the Finnish Vesi-Saari, and Vadse all signify 'water-island'. The 
Finns , chiefly immigrants from Russian Finland , live at Ytre- 
Vadse , the E. suburb. Each of their houses has a bath-room 
('Sauna'), where a Russian vapour-bath may be ordered. On every 
side are odoriferous 'Hjelder' for drying fish. Potatoes, stunted 
mountain-ashes, and a few spring-flowers, such as forget-me-not, 
brave the climate. The Church stands on a hill to the N. of the 
town. The sacristy contains a votive picture of 1661. Under the 
tower, which may be ascended, is a curious offertory - box. The 
Amtmand has a pleasant 'Residens 1 . The shops sell Russian ar- 
ticles, such as 'Nseverskrukker', or baskets made of birch-bark. 

The last station of the mail-boats of Line I is Kirkences (p. 242). 

FeOM Vads» TO THE Tanafjord. — Road (104 Kil. ; skyds for 
2 pers. 25-30 kr.). This jonrney affords a welcome change after the long 
sea-voyage, but there is scant time for it, as we have to reach Vagge or 
Smalfjord on the forenoon of the second day in order to catch the mail- 
steamer. Enquiry should he made of the captain as to the time of her 
arrival at Vagge. Mosquito-veils advisable. 

The road skirts the Varanger Fjord, passing several Lapp 
dwellings, as at Mortensncss, and the church of Nasseby. The veg- 
etation improves as we ascend the fjord. 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 9th Edit. 16 

242 Route 35. SYD-VARANGER. 

47 Kil. Nyborg (quarters and vehicles for the further journey 
at the Landhandler's), on the Mceskfjord, the inmost bay of the 
Varanger Fjord, is a station of the local steamboats (Com. 430). 
About 15 Kil. N. rises the Madevarre (1470 ft.; forest limit, 
650 ft.). We next drive across the Seidafjeld (over which runs a 
'Rengjserde', Lapp 'Aide', or fence to prevent the reindeer from 
straying) to — 

23 Kil. Seida, on the E. bank of the Tana-Elv, the second- 
largest river in Norway, noted for its salmon and the particles 
of gold it contains. The post-master (a Finn) sells curiosities at 
high prices. 

We row across to the W. bank, on which the road descends. 
At Maskjock the Eapp-Elv, a tributary of the Tana-Elv, is crossed. 
We pass Bonakas and then the church of Tana, at the foot of the 
Algas-Varre ('holy mount'; 1906 ft.). 

31 Kil. Ouldholmen ('gold island' ; quarters), an islet close to 
the shore. 

The road ends, 2^2 Kil. further, at Tananms, from which we 
row to (li/4hr.) Vagge or to (2 hrs.) Smalfjorden (p. 240). No 
quarters at these three places. 

35. Syd-Varanger. 

Mail Steamer from Vadstf (Line I; Com. 226) to Kirkenes once weekly 
in 2 hrs. ; Local Steamer (Com. 429, 430) twice a week. The Syd-Varan- 
ger is rich in timber, fish, and sea-fowl. In this district we Bee the 
Lapps and the industrious Finns io advantage (see Friis's Finmarken). The 
explorer should have a veil ('Sl/Jr'), covering the whole head and fastened 
round the neck, and if possible a mosquito-tent ('Raggas') also, as gnats 
occur in such swarms as sometimes to darken the sun. 

One local steamer (Com. 429) goes by Kiberg (p. 241) to Kir- 
kenes. The other (Com. 430) steers first to Bug«nsea (good quar- 
ters at the Landhandler's), at the mouth of the Bugefjord, which 
runs far inland. On the W. side of the fjord rises the Bugenasfjeld 
(1513 ft.), on the E. the Brasfjeld (1476 ft.). On the right opens 
the almost uninhabited Kjefjord. We skirt the N. side of the bare 
Skogere and touch at Kjelmese, at the mouth of the Beg fjord, 
which is entered both by the local and the mail-steamers. 

The Btfgfjord, to the E. of the Skoger», with its S. arms the 
Klosterelv-Fjord and the Lang- Fjord, is the largest and most im- 
portant fjord in Syd-Varanger. On the point between the Kloster- 
elv and Lang fjords lies Kirkenes, with the church and parsonage 
of Syd-Varanger (rooms at Landhandler Figenschou's), a rapidly 
increasing place since the discovery of iron-ore at Boris-Gleb, to 
which a railway is being constructed. — To the S.E., 5 Kil. up 
the Klosterelv-Fjord, lies Elvenses (rooms at A. Klerck's), a station 
of the local steamers, at the mouth of the large Pasvik-Elv or 
Kloster-Elv (named after an old monastery at Peisen), which forms 

NUPPIVARRE. 36. Route. 243 

the boundary between Norway and Russia. The Russian chapel of 
Boris-Gleb lies on the left bank of the Pasvik, 4-5 Kil. S. of El- 

The river consists of a series of lakes, some of them 10-20 Kil. 
long, rising in steps, and connected by about thirty waterfalls. 
About 6-7 Kil. from Boris-Gleb are the Storfos ( Gieddegavdnje) 
and the Harefos (Njoammtl Ouoika, 'hare-fall'), on the Valegas- 
Javre. The (40 Kil.) Manniko-Koski ('pine-waterfall'), amid fine 
forest scenery, may also be visited. 

The local steamer (Com. 430) next steers E. from the Bagfjord 
into the Jarfjord, calls at Valen and Jarfjordbunden, and then 
follows the coast to the fishing and trading stations of Pasvik and 
Jacobsclvs-Kapel. Since the visit of Oscar II. in 1873, recalled by 
a marble slab, the place has been named 'Oscar den Andens Kapet '. 
It lies on the Jacobs-Elv (Lapp Vuorjem), the boundary between 
Norway and Russia. 

The following Lapp words (in which h = ch, e = ts, and 5 = sh) oc- 
cur frequently : Duoddar, mountain ; varre, hill ; varre-oaaive, hill-top ; 
tjokk, point; njarg, promontory, peninsula; suolo, island; gedge, stone; 
cacce, water ; vuodna, fjord ; javre, lake ; gaiva, spring ; jolcki, river; guoika, 
waterfall; njahni, estuary ; jozkna , glacier; olmiis, person, human being; 
goatle, house; maa , land; buocco, reindeer; suoppan, lasso; guosse, cow 
gudsse-voja, cow's-fat, butter; guolle, fish; guvtjin, trout; muorra, tree; 
dcedno, fir, pine; kumse, cradle; pulk, kjcerris, sledge; beska, fur-coat- 
gabmagak, shoes; skalkomager, fur-boots; bellinger, leathern gaiters; nibe 
knife; doppa, edge; bcenagulam, a mile (literally 'as far as a dog's bark 
is heard')- — The Lapp greeting on entering a house is Wafthe vism? 
(peace to your house)! The answer, Hbmel addf (God grant it)! 'Burisf 
or l buorre baiive' (good day) ! Answer, Hbmel addi !' 

36. From the Altenfjord to Haparanda in Sweden. 

About 700 Kil., a fatiguing journey of 1M3 days. From Alten (p. 230) 
to Kaulokemo 4 days ; thence to Muoniovara 3-4 days ; to Haparanda 4-5 days 
more. This route has been trodden by L. von Buch, Acerbi, Charles Martins 
Bravais, Oscar Schmidt, and other scientists and men of mark, but has no 
attraction for ordinary tourists. The best time is between mid-August and 
mid -September. Earlier the mosquitoes are insufferable; later the days 
draw in and snow begins. Passports must be vise" by a Russian ambassador 
or consul (consul at Hammerfest). 

From Alten to Katjtokeino, about 140 Kil. by the mountain 
route W. of the Alten-Elv, or 155 Kil. if we follow that river. We 
prefer the former and engage guide and horses for the whole way. 
Four 'Fjeldstuer' afford shelter, but provisions must be taken. The 
highest point of the vast fjeld which we cross, far W., is the Nup- 
pivarre (2727 ft. ; Lapp 'varre', Finnish 'vara', mountain). The 
stations are : 24 Kil. (map-measurement) Gargia-Stue (360 ft. ; road 
thus far), 23 Kil. Suolovuobme or Solovom (1302 ft.) : 26 Kil. Pigge- 
javre (1112 ft.); 52 Kil. Kautokeino. 

Those who take the longer route, up the Alten-Elv (Alatajokki), 
ride across the Beskadosfjeld to the Ladnijaure and Masi (814 ft), 


244 Route 36. KARESUANDO. 

to avoid the Saut&ofosse, the rapids in the lower part of the river. 
On the calmer upper course we row up to — 

Kautokeino (867 ft. ; quarters at the Landhandler's, or at the 
Lensmand's), a settlement of Lapps and a few Finns, mostly absent 
in summer, with a church and parsonage. The inside of the village- 
well is coated with ice. Birches thrive, hut not pines. 

From Kautokeino to Karesuando (about 100 Kil.), two days. 
We either ride or row up the Alten-Elv to (14 Kil.) Mortas. Thence, 
by Postgamme, to the frontier between the Norwegian Amt of Fin- 
marken and the Russian principality of Finland, 44 Kil. more. 
Beyond the frontier of Finland, a strip of which, 30-40 Kil. broad, 
runs for about 120 Kil. between Norwegian and Swedish territory, 
we pass (11 Kil.) Syvajarvi. A ride of 28 Kil. more brings us to the 
Muonio-Elf, 130 yds. broad, the boundary between Finland and 
Sweden. We then cross the river to — 

Karesuando (1037 ft.; Inn), the first village in Sweden, with a 
church. Barley is grown in the vicinity. 

From Karesuando toMuoniovara (about 100 Kil.), in one day 
by boat down the Muonio-Elf. The trip is interesting, and the 
passage of the rapids is free fiom danger. It is usual to hire a boat 
and rowers to Muonio-Niska ('beginning of the Muonio') on the Fin- 
land side, or to Muoniovara (good quarters) on the Swedish side; 
but a fresh boat may be engaged at each station : 20 Kil. Kutlainen ; 
20 Kil. Palojuensun; 30 Kil. Ketkisuvando (12 Kil. beyond which 
are seen the first pines) ; 20 Kil. Rdsteranta ; 10 Kil. Muoniovara 
(761 ft.), prettily situated, with corn-fields. 

From Muoniovara to Haparanda (365 Kil.), also by boat, first 
on the Muonio, then on the Tornea-Elf. The rushing Muoniolcoski, 
a cataract 2 Kil. long, is audible at Muoniovara, !/4 hr. distant. The 
descent is exciting (2 kr. to the 'fors-styrman'). The foaming river 
careers wildly through a narrow gully and over sunken rocks. 

The boat from Muoniovara to Ruskola (see p. 394), manned by 
three boatmen, holds two passengers only, and costs about 80 kr. 
We descend a series of other cataracts and rapids. The voyage (about 
280 Kil.) takes 21/2-3 days. Good quarters, at Kihlangi, Kengis Bruit, 
(iron-works), Pello, and Matarengi, with Ofver Tornea and Mt. Ava- 
taxa (p. 394), on the Finnish side. 

Between the station of Lap-pea (406 ft.) and that of Kengis Brule, 
1 hr. below it, the Muonio falls into the Tornea-Elf. Near Pello 
(266 ft.) is the Kittis, a hill associated with the memory of Mauper- 
tuis, who directed the geometrical measurements here in 1736. — 
From Matarengi, where it is usual to land, to Haparanda, see p. 394. 
From Lappea we may travel by land instead of by water. 


37. Iceland. 

Apart from the British vessels tradiDg with Iceland and the summer 
cruisers of the German Hamburg and America line and the Nord-Deutsche 
Lloyd (which usually allow too brief a stay in the island), the Danish 
steamers are the most satisfactory for those who desire to see the 
Geysirs and Hecla (10 days) or to take the excursion from Akureyri to 
the Myvatn (8 days). These steamers, starting from Copenhagen, and 
calling at Leith, belong to the Forenede Dampskibsselskab (Kvsesthusgade 9; 
26 voyages annually ; return-fare within six months 115 kr. ; food 4 kr. 
per day extra) and the Selskdb Thore (Havnegade 43; 33 voyages; 115 kr.; 
food 2 l fe kr. daily). Those who wish to visit the N. coast of the island 
may take their passage in one of 0. Walhne's Arvinger'i vessels (Niels- 
JulsGade 15; 22 vojages; 100-120 kr. ; food 3 kr. per day). Time-tables 
should be asked for by postcard beforehand. 

The only suitable season for this tour is July and August, and even 
then winter clothing and strong waterproofs with hoods are desirable. 
For travelling in the interior, where rivers have to be forded on horse- 
back, high boots and leathern leggings will be found useful. Other require- 
ments may be bought at Reykjavik (p. 247). Danish money, the cur- 
rency of the island, may either be brought from Copenhagen or got at 
Reykjavik in exchange for circular notes or gold. The traveller's expenses 
at Reykjavik need not exceed 8-10 kr. per day, but in the interior they 
will amount to 25-30 kr. 

English and German are spoken at the tourists' office, by some of the 
shopkeepers, guides, and others; Danish is spoken at the seaports and 
by the educated classes, but in the interior of the island Icelandic only. 
Note that a is pronunced like the English ow (in now); 6 and e after g or 
k like yea; i and y like ee; i after g or k like ji; 6 and u like long o 
and oo; u like the short French u; au something like oi; m and os like i 
(in ice); «»' and ey like long ayee (inpayee); p like sharp th, in Ihin; S like 
flat th, in thts (spelt on the map th and d respectively); m and nra some- 
thing like ddn; U like ddl; f before 1 or n like b; hv somewhat like kv. 
— Note also the geographical terms: fjSrSur, fjord; fjall, pi. fjoll, moun- 
tain; fell, rocky slope; a or fljtt, river; Iwlur, brook; vain, lake; jokull, 

Books. T/iiroddsens 'Island' (with four maps, Gotha, 1906; 22 marks), 
and 'Zur islandischen Geographie' (Landeshut, liJ03; l'/ 2 marks) in German 
by B. Palleske; GuSmundsson's 'Iceland at the beginning of the 20th cent.', 
German by R. Palleske (Kattowitz, 1904, 6 marks); Herrmann's 'Island' 
(Leipzig, If 07; ll'/a marks); W. Bisiker's 'Across Iceland' (London, 1902); 
Poestiorfs 'Island' (Vienna, 1885; 10 marks) ; Lock's Guide to Iceland (Charl- 
ton, 1882). — Mops are scarce. The best is still Bjiim Gunnlavgsson's 'Upp- 
drattnr Islands' (1:480,000; Reykjavik and Copenhagen, 1844). More 
recent are Thdroddsen's 'Uppdrattur' (1:600,000; Copenhagen, 1900) and 
his Geological Map of Iceland (1:600,000; Copenhagen, 1C01). 

The island of Iceland extends between 13° 30' and 24° 30' W. 
long, and 63°24' and 66° 33' N. lat. (that is, to the Arctic Circle), 
and is 40,457 sq. M. in area (about a third of the island of Great 
Britain). It is composed almost entirely of recent volcanic rocks 
(basalt; liparite, with veins of obsidian and deposits of pumice- 
stone; tufa, palagonite, etc.). The W., N., and E. coasts are deeply 
indented with fjords like the coast of Norway, while the line of 
the S. coast is less broken. In the interior are lofty table-lands, 
with vast expanses of lava, sand, and glaciers, rent by profound fis- 
sures, and culminating in ice-clad volcanic peaks 6000 ft. or more 
in height. On the W. side of the island are several older tertiary 

246 Route 37. ICELAND. 

strata of brown coal, indicating that the climate was once warmer 
than now. The volcanic nature of the island sometimes manifests 
itself with great violence. Thus, in 1875, the Dyngjufjoll near the 
Askja threw up many hundred million cubic feet of ashes, which 
the wind wafted as far as Norway. The most active volcano is 
Mt. Hecla (p. 252). The largest cTater, since 1875, is that of the 
Askja. In 1783 the Ldki developed a whole series of eruptive cones 
in a cleft about 65 ft. long. Warm and hot springs abound, the best 
known of which are the Geysirs (p. 251). The immense glaciers, 
notably the Vatnajokull (3090 sq. M.), mostly in the S. half of the 
island, are far more extensive than the Norwegian (comp. p. xxxii). 
In every direction, especially to the S. W., they send forth copious 
streams, some of which descend in superb falls over the various 
stages or terraces of the landscape. After a wild career and frequent 
changes of channel, these streams descend to the sea between broad 
deposits of detritus. Inundations are most destructive during vol- 
canic eruptions, when the steam and hot ashes melt the ice. 

On the S. and W- sides of the island the climate is influenced 
by the gulf-stream, and on the N. and E. by the Arctic currents, 
which bring icebergs. The conflict of warm and cold winds often 
causes violent storms and heavy rains. Even in summer snow is 
not uncommon. In the S. part of the island (Reykjavik) the mean 
temperature of the year is 40° Fahr., that of summer 55°; in the N. 
part (AkuTeyri) 37° and 52° respectively. About midday in summer 
the thermometer sometimes rises to 85° or more, and towards even- 
ing falls nearly to the freezing-point. The atmosphere is remarkably 
clear (comp. p. 211); towards the end of summer snow-mountains 
are sometimes visible at a distance of 150-200 Kil. The only habi- 
table parts are the coast and a few sheltered valleys where scanty 
grass and stunted birches are the only vegetation. 

Iceland was first peopled in 874-930 by Norse nobles who 
refused to recognise the kingship of Haiald Haarfager (p. xli). 
In 1262 it was annexed to Norway, and in 1380, together with 
Norway, it fell under Danish domination. While still a Danish 
possession, it has always enjoyed considerable independence. Ac- 
cording to the constitution of 1874, amended in 1903, the king 
shares the legislative power with the Althing, or miniature parlia- 
ment. The upper chamber has fourteen members, six. nominated 
by the king and eight by the lower chamber; the lower is com- 
posed of 26 members popularly elected. Since 1904 the island 
has had its own executive in a responsible ministry established at 
Reykjavik. The national Lutheran church is presided ovir by a 
bishop. All education is free. The population numbers nearly 83,000. 
The chief industry is fishing, the yield of which is economically im- 
portant for many parts of Europe; and next to fishing comes sheep- 
breeding. Trade has recently made great progress. The Icelandic 

ICELAND. 37. Route. 247 

language (comp. prefatory note to language appendix), akin to Anglo- 
Saxon, retains its mediaeval N. Germanic character. It was in Ice- 
land that early Norse literature attained its prime (p. xliv). Modern 
Icelandic literature has also its distinguished representatives. 

The Voyage to Iceland from Copenhagen takes 9-11 days, 
from Leith 2l/ 2 days less. From Leith we steam down the broad 
Firth of Forth, skirt the Scottish coast, sighting the towers and 
spires of Aberdeen as we pass, and then steer through the Pentland 
Firth and past the W. side of the Orkneys, or between them and 
the Shetland Islands. In two days from Leith we reach the pictur- 
esque Fdroer, or Faroe Islands, which belong to Denmark. They 
are of volcanic origin, with bold hills and deep creeks, and have 
16,350 inhab. engaged in fishing and sheep-farming. The steamer 
touches at Thorshavn, the port of the Stroma, the central and largest 
of the group. Passengers may land here for a few hours. 

In 2-4 days more we sight the snowy and ice-clad peaks of 
Iceland, notably the imposing Vatnaj Skull (p. 246). Steering along 
the S. coast, we observe the Eyjafj alia- J Skull (p. 254) in the fore- 
ground. Farther on are the Vestmanna-Eyjar ('west-men's islands'), 
swarming with sea- fowl, where the steamer generally calls (950 in- 
hab.). In windy weather great breakers are seen in every direction. 
Jutting out to the S. W. are the dark lava-rocks of the Reykjanes, 
a peninsula from which rise several crater-like hills, particularly 
the conical Keilir (1276 ft.), and a number of sharp-pointed peaks. 
We then steer N. to the broad Faxafjord (Faxafjb'rSur), on the N. 
side of which rises the Snasfellsjokull (p. 254), and turn to the E. 
into the picturesque harbour of Reykjavik, with the Akrafjall and 
Esja on the left, and the headland of Seltjarnanes with the light- 
house of Grotta on the right. We pass between the islets of Akurey 
and Effersey (right) and the larger Engey and Videy (left; p. 249) 
towards the town, above which, E., rises the conspicuous white 
SkolavarSa tower (p. 249). Far beyond rise high mountains. Pass- 
engers are landed in small boats. No custom-house formalities. 

Reykjavik and Environs. 

Hotels. Hot. Island (PI. a), corner of the Affalstrseti and Austurstneti ; 
Hot. Reykjavik (PI. b), Austurstraeti 12; pension at both 5 kr. ; no spirit- 
uous liquors at the former.— Cafe SkjaldbreiS, Kirkjustrati 6. — Baths, 
Kirkjustrfeti 10 B (40 0.; warm shower 25, cold 15-20 0.). 

The Toobists' Office of Th. A. Thomsen, HafnarstrEeti, give? informa- 
tion, engages guides, provides horses and vehicles for excursions, and 
sells all sorts of travelling requisites, oil-cloths and fou'westers for rainy 
weather, mosquito-nets, which are needed on the lakes, rugs, preserves, 
and various other provisions, packing-cases lined with tin, etc. 

Guides. For the interior, Bjami Jdnsson, a well-educated man. The 
oldest and heft-known is Thorgrlmur Gudmundsen, who has retired, hut 
has a staff of younger guides under him. The guides engage horses and 
see to the needful equipment, ■ 

248 Route 37. ICELAND. Reykjavik 

Post & Telegraph (PI. 10), corner of Posthus-StrEcti and Hafnar-Stracti, 
week-days 9-2 and 4-7. Telegraph on 1st floor 8 a. m. to 9 p. m., Son. 
8-10 and 4-5: to Denmark and Great Britain 70, to France and Germany 
80 0. per word. 

Consuls. British, Asgeir SigurSsson, Auaturstrteti 1; also French 
German, and Dutch consuls. 

Banks. Landsbanki (PI. 6), Austurstrseti , week-days 10.30 tc ,2 30; 
Jslandsbanki, corner of Auslurstraeti and Lsekjargata, week-days 10.30 to 
2.30 and 6.30 to 7. . 

Booksellers. Sty/tit Eymundsson, coiner of Austurstrseti and Lsekjar- 
eata (maps); Sigurfur Kriitj dnsson, Bankastraeti 5. — Photographs. Ami 
Thortteinton! Auaivrstneti 20 (landscapes); Pjelur Brynjdlfsson, Hverfisgata b; 
J/amtis dlafsson, Tungata 2 (stereoscopic views). — Jewels and Antiques. 
Olafur Sveinsson, Austurstrseti 5; Thorvaldsen s Bazaar, Austurstrseti 4. 

Reykjavik ('smoky bay'), the capital and chief market of Ice- 
land, with 10,300 inhab., lies picturesquely in a hollow between 
two hills on the S. bank of the Faxafjord. Most of the houses are 
built of timber, painted white and grey, with red roofs of sheet- 
iron. Most of the public buildings are built of stone. The town is 
the oldest settlement in the island, but only attained its present 
importance in the 19th cent. It is the seat of government, of the 
supreme court, of the bishop, and of several good schools. 

The chief streets are the Hafnarstrceti, on the quay, with its 
large warehouses ; running W. inland the Adalstrati, and E. the 
Posthusstrceti, with the post-office and the Landsbanki (see above) ; 
and parallel with the harbour is the handsome Austurstrati. On 
the grass-grown AstwvbUur Square rises a Statue of Thorvaldsen 
(PI. 12), presented by the city of Copenhagen in 1874 in memory 
of the Icelandic origin of the great sculptor (comp. p. 40d). Ihe 
square is bounded on the S. by the Cathedral (Domkirkja; PI. 6), 
a stone edifice of 1847 with a wooden tower (containing a marble 
font presented by Thorvaldsen; organist, Tungata 1), and by the 
Althing's House (AljnngishusiS ; PI. 1), where the Althing or natio- 
nal assembly meets on 15th Feb. every second year. It contains 
several sculptures by Einar Jonsson, an Icelander, pictures by 
Danish, Norwegian, and German artists, and busts of Jon biguros- 
son (1811-79), long president of the Althing, and the poet Bjaini 
Thorarensen (1786-1841). — On the E. side of the square is the 
Theological College (Prestaskoli ; PI. 11). , ,...,, 

In the E. quarter are the Government Building (LandsnoIOing- 
jahiis; PI. 7); the Medical School (Laeknaskoli; PI. 5; but as it 
lacks a gynecological clinique, supplementary studies in Copen- 
hagen are prescribed; so, too, lawyers, philologists, and scientists 
are trained at Copenhagen) ; the Gymnasium (PI. 8); and the large 
National School (Barnaskoli; PI. 2). 

In the Hverfisgata, at the E. end of the town, is the Museum 
(Safnahusi5), containing mostly Icelandic antiquities, and affording 
a survey of the art-industrial efforts of bygone ages : church-vess- 
els, gold and silver trinkets, specimens of printing, coins, woven 
find embroidered tapestry, woven ribbons (an ancient industry 

Geo draph. Apata3t"vorvWa^ner^J)et>csJie 





_ Utskalar 

A StoriEolmr 


Bessastady* + 






1 AltjuiigishuA 

2 Barnaskoli/ 

6 Zandsbanki, 

Slaekn/jskoli '+Al^l#- 

QZandsbankt .-*Tfc: 1 

7 ZandshdfUingjahus 5§i| 

8 Gymnastum ^, 


yz Tttufwatdsen, 

■loiaingjaiiiis -s— ^. n 

slum, ^, .q 

iPosthus . 3^ 'J"? 

i Ttwrwoldac 

«*** v|^ 5s 

-u5^g-n-- ^ -^-^ 

K ^ U * UI RevniTeli #"#, 

Thrfwmvn 9r Ti^gl a r, 


•^ No o FifUwl^ ^.^ 

j o^JStnriaalr 

i -Uvea, "» « VarmeElder og Solfatarer 

' ,• 

i: — 

i Kitgl. Miles 

°°o t 


' S^og^ 

and Environs. ICELAND. 37. Route. 249 

which also existed in Asia and Egypt), carved furniture, etc. The 
same building contains the National Library (70,000 vols, and 
6000 MSS.; week-days 12-2 and 6-8) and the State Archives. 

The Nat. Hist. Museum (Natturugripa-SafniS ; PI. 9), Vestur- 
gata 10, contains Icelandic minerals and birds, etc. 

The following good points of view may he noted. The Cemetery, 
to the S. of the town, on the W. hank of the little lake Tjornin; 
the Sailors' School (Sjomannaskoli) on the hill W. of the town, 
recognisable by its mast ; the 'School Tower' (Skolavar3a) on the 
E. hill. From the two last-named points we survey the town and 
the fjord between the massive Esja (2061 ft.) and the abrupt 
Akrafjall (1194 ft J. To the N., beyond the Faxafjord, towers the 
great snow and ice-clad Snsefellsjokull (p. 254); and S.W. lies the 
peninsula of Reykjanes with the pointed Keilir (p. 247). 

Excursions. To the Hot Springs (Laugar) on the small penin- 
sula of Laugarnes 1 hr. (horse 3, seat in a can. 2 kr., there and 
back). We follow the Laugavegur (see Plan), and after about 8/4 hr. 
take the second road to the left. The boiling-hot water, smelling 
strongly of sulphur, is collected in two oblong basins and used for 
washing linen. At the end of the peninsula is a large Lepers' 
Hospital, to which medical men only are admitted. — A more 
interesting excursion is to the wild Lava-field (Hraun) of Hafnar- 
fjordur (2 hrs'. walk or 1 hr.'s ride. We leave the town by the 
Sk61avorSustigur (see Plan), and follow the lonely and hilly road, 
crossing several bridges. Farther S. is the charming little seaport 
of Hafnarf/brdur (Inn). — A pleasant row may be taken to the 
islands of Engey and Videy (p. 247), to see the nesting-places of 
the eider-ducks and sea-swallows. 

Farther distant (on horseback, with guide) are the Trollafoss in 
the wild Esja Mts. (8-10 hrs., there and back; also Krtsuvik on the 
peninsula of Reykjanes, in a bleak volcanic region, with numer- 
ous mud and sulphur-springs (two days). 

From Reykjavik to Thingvellir, the Geysir, the Gullfoss, 
and Mt. Hecla. 

Ten days (or to Thingvellir and the Geysir region only, 5 days.), with 
guide (see p. 247), who engages ponies (shaggy and hardy animals) : two 
for himself, two for each traveller, one fur baggage, and one spare pony. 
The guide's fee is 6 kr., each pony's hire 3 kr. per day. Provisions should 
be taken for the lunch or mioday meal (the requisites for which are to 
he had at the tourists' office, p. 247), but inns as far as Geysir supply 
breakfast and supper. Beyond Geysir quarters are, as a rule, gladly offered 
at parsonages or farm-houses, where coffee, milk, bread, and butter, often 
salmon and trout, but rarely eggs and mutton, are to be had. For this 
fare the usual charge is 2-2V2 k r -> »i>cl for the pasturing of each pony 
15-20 0. 

A visit to the great lava-cavern of Surtshellir on the Eyriksjehull is 
very trying. From Thingvellir (p. 250) 13 hrs.' ride to the lonely gaard 
Kalmanslunga ; thence 2'/2 hrs. more to the entrance. The cavern, nearly 

250 Route 37. ICELAND. From Reykjavflc 

a mile long, 18-20 yds. wide, and 36-40 ft. high, contains in its inmost 
recesses magniBcent ice- formations (best seen by acetyline lantern). We 
may then return W., by gaavd Armrholt, to the port of Borgarnes on the 
Borgarfjord (l'/a days), and thence by boat to Reykjavik. 

First Day (7-8 hrs.; driving practicable). The Laugavegur 
leads, beyond the road diverging to the hot springs (see above), 
in about 1 hr. to the Ellidad, the two arms of which we cross by 
bridges. We ascend past several small lakes. To the left is the 
Raudavatn with a small plantation and a new inn. We now leave 
the road, which leads to the right, over the Hellishei3i to Reykir 
(p. 253), and turn to the left, across the stony waste of the Mos- 
fellsheidi, 1 hr. long; in 5-6 hrs. we sight the Thingvallavatn, the 
largest lake in Iceland. Then a sudden descent into the wild 
Almannagja, a gorge 16-22 yds. wide, with basaltic sides rising 
40-100 ft. high on the right and left. At its exit we cross the Oxara, 
the feeder of the Thingvallavatn, and reach the plain of Thingvellir 
and the new inn of Valhbll (bed 2, meals 3/ 4 -3 kr.). 

Second Day. The Thingvellir, the meeting-place of the ass- 
embly Q)ing; comp. Engl, husting, tithing, etc.) of the free men 
of Iceland in the 10th-13th cent., is also of geological interest. The 
plain, where, towards the lake, not far from the inn, are the church 
and parsonage of Thingvellir, extends about 10 Kil. N.E., and is 
10 Kil. in breadth. Its origin is due to a great subsidence, the 
central part between the Almannagja and the Hrafnagja having 
been detached and levelled by volcanic action. The lines of sever- 
ance are distinctly traceable at both the gorges. More than one sub- 
sidence has probably taken place, as a further depression of 4 inches 
was observed in 1789. We may return on foot to the. Almannagja 
to examine it more closely. Below the bridge the Oxara dashes 
through the E. side of the gorge. Above it the river forms a deep 
basin, the Drekkingarhylur, in which according to tradition faithless 
wives used to be drowned. Remains of stone huts at the foot oi 
the E. bank of the Almannagja ('all -men's gorge'), and on both 
sides of the stream towards the lake, are said to have housed the 
freemen attending the Thing. In the N.W. part of the gorge are 
places where we may climb down to get a near view of the superb 
fall of the river. — A few hundred paces E. of the inn are two 
other narrow gorges, the Nikulasargjd and the Flosagja, each with 
its stream. These gorges unite to the N. and enclose a long lava-rock, 
once supposed to be the Logberg ('law-hill'), whence the laws were 
proclaimed to the assembled people. — The Hrafnagja, a gorge 
1 hr. E. of the Allmannagja, is less deep, but in part no less wild. 
At the top its sides are connected by a natural bridge of rock. 

Third Day. The rough road goes on a little further. _ On the 
left, N.W., rise the BotnssMur (3609 ft.) ; then N. the Armanns- 
fell, the Skjaldbreidur (3445 ft.), and the Hlodufell (3937 ft.), near 
which are the Tindaskagi and the Hrafnabjhrg ; on the right, beyond 
the Thingvallavatn, S., is the Hengill (2530 ft.), with steaming 

to ML Hecla. ICELAND. 37. Route. 251 

sulphur-springs on its slope. In 1 hi. we come to the Hrafnagja, 
mentioned above. The rude bridle-path now ascends a wildly 
fissured old lava-stream, to a height of 520-560 ft., and after 1 hr. 
passes the Tintron, a curious crater, 5 min. to the left. In 1 hr. 
more the path begins to descend the Lyngdahheidi to the green plain 
of Laugarvatnsvellir, where the horses are usually rested. On the 
left is a cave, above which tower the jagged Kdlfstindar ; on the 
right is an old-fashioned pen for mustering the sheep. The path, 
now better, is nearly level for 1 hr., and affords a fine view: in' 
front are the two lakes Laugarvatn (with several hot springs on its 
banks) and Apavatn ; far off rises the steam of the hot springs 
Eeykjahver and Reykholtshver ; S. E., in clear weather, is seen the 
snow-clad Mt. Hecla (p. 252); then the Tindafjallajokull, the 
Thrfhyrningur, and the Eyjafjallajokull (p. 254). We next descend 
into the picturesque Laugardalur and follow it, past (3 hrs.) gaard 
Laugarvatn (right) and the church of Middalur (left). We again 
mount rapidly and follow the slopes of the Laugarfjoll, clothed 
with birch underwood, to the Br&ard, which plunges in a superb 
fall over fissured lava-rocks. We cross the river by a bridge. Pass- 
ing saard Uthltd (right) and the Bjamarfell (left), and rounding 
the S.W. slope of the Laugafjall, we at length reaoh (2 hrs.) the 
new inn, about 200 paces S. of the Geysir (bed 2, meals 2-2!/ 2 hr.). 
Fourth Day. We visit the Geysir and the other hot springs near 
it. The Geysir (old Norse, 'bubbling'), mentioned as early as the 
13th cent., has become a generic name for hot fountains. The 
phenomenon is explained by Bunsen, who explored the volcanic 
regions of Iceland in 1846, as due to the different temperatures of 
the waters accumulated in the feeders of the Geysir. The crater is 
quiescent as long as the cooler upper water prevents the lower from 
generating steam; but when the latter overcomes the pressure 
above, it spouts forth with violence until its source is exhausted. — 
The natural fountains in Yellowstone Park in California are similar. 
The Great Geysir rises on a conical hill, composed of deposits 
of sinter ('geysirite'), out of a round basin about 20 yds. in dia- 
meter. The mouth of the crater in the centre of the basin is 10 ft. 
in diameter. After several premonitory rumblings the great jet of 
water bursts forth, to a height of 130-160 ft. , enveloped in dense 
clouds of steam. These periodical eruptions are intermittent, but 
are most frequent after rain. The visitor must often be content to 
hear the subterranean thunder and the subdued gurgle of the 
seething waters. — Between the Great Geysir and the inn is the 
Blesi, a double basin filled with clear water. In the vicinity about 
a hundred other hot springs have been counted. A few paces W. 
of the Blesi is the Konungshver, a continuous hot fountain. Some 
120 paces S.W. of it is the Strokkur, an intermittent fountain which 
became active in 1907 after several decades of quiescence. About 
130 paces S. of the Strokkur is the so-called Little Geysir (Icelandic 

252 Route 37. ICELAND. Vrom Reykjavik 

dtherrishola), which sends foith a jet 12-19 ft. high several times 
a day. The guides encourage it by blocking its narrow mouth with 
turf. The other springs merely bubble, or emit thin jets of steam. 
Fifth Day (7-8 hrs.; local guide advisable]. The route crosses 
fi/ 2 hr.) the Tunguflj6t by a new bridge. "We now obtain, to the 
left, a fine view of the Bldfell and the LdngjbkuU (4633 ft.), with 
the sharp peaks of the Jarlshettur (3494 ft.) in the foreground. The 
snow- clad summit of Mt. Hecla is distinguishable to the right. In 
2V"-3hrs. we reach the Qullfoss, one of the largest and finest water- 
falls in Iceland. The copious Hvftd, descending from the Hvitar- 
vatn on the N., (lashes above the fall over wild fissured rocky terraces 
about 38 ft. high, and then plunges through a narrrow defile, flanked 
with basaltic rocks, into a chasm 65 ft. deep. — The stony path 
descends on the right bank of the Hvfta and (iy 2 hr.) crosses the 
deep rushing stream by a new bridge. On the further bank lies 
gaard TvngufeU. The rough path next crosses the Minni ('little ) 
Laxd which has to be forded, and leads up and down hill, partly 
through a rocky region, partly through meadow and marsh, to (3 hrs.) 
the parsonage of Hruni, halfway between Geysir and Hecla, where 

the night is spent. 

Sixth Day (6-7 hrs.; tolerable path). Soon after starting, we 
pass the warm spring of Hrunalauy and enter a marshy tract en- 
closed by countless basaltic pinnacles, whence we descend into the 
beautiful valley of the Great Laxd, which we ford. We next ascend 
through meadows, past gaard HliS, to the handsome new gaud Hall 
beyond which (1 hr.) we come to the ferry ol Thjorsarholt. Here 
we cross the broad Thjorsd by boat (1 kr. each pers.; each package 
50 ) while the spare ponies swim across. In warm summers the 
melting of the glaciers unduly swells the river in ^ich c»e we 
may have to go round by the Thjorsa budge (p. 253). Rounding the 
S. end of the Skardsfjall, crossing a broad tract of sand, passing by 
gaard Leirubakki, and over another stretch of sand, we ford the 
Galtakekur and (2 hrs.) reach gaard Qaltatekur, where we obtain 
quarters for the night and a guide (5 kr.) for the ascent of Mt Heel.. 
Seventh Day (10-12 hrs. ; fatiguing; start early). We fold the 
Galtalaekur and descend an old lava-stream to the clear ^™f » 
which we also ford. Then an ascent through the birch-bushes of 
HraunUigur, between lava cliffs, over sand and meadow past ^gaud 
Nafrholt (right), and then steeper, up the course of a torrent. YVe 
soon turn to the left, across tracts of lava and ashes, and make 
direct for the snow-fields of Mt. Hecla. The great lava-stream of 
1845 remains on the left, and the Red Crater on the right. In il / 2 - 
3 hrs we come to a hollow, where we leave the ponies, and thence 
ascend the last and most toilsome part of the route on foot, over 
snow, to the top in about 2 hrs. more. 

Mt. Hecla ('mantle', probably from the mists usually shrouding 
its summit), the best-known, though not the largest volcano in Ice- 

toMt.Becla. ICELAND. 37. Route. 253 

land, rising 5108 ft. above the sea, is an oblong height with several 
craters, of which the great S. cfater and the smaller N. crater, both 
generally filled with snow, are the chief. History records eighteen 
great eruptions from 1104 down to the present day, that is 2-3 in 
each century, at very various intervals. The last occurred in 1845-6. 
The view is magnificent in clear weather. To the W. we descry the 
ranges extending from TMngvellir to the Esja (p. 350) ; to the right 
of these are the conical SkjaldbreiSur (3609 it.) and the Hlb5ufell 
(3937 ft.). To the N. towers the Langjbkull (4633 ft.; 540 sq. M.), 
with the indented Jarlshettur (3494 ft.) and the Blafell in the fore- 
ground ; to the right is the enormous ice-clad Hofsjbkull (5900 ft. ; 
502 sq. M.) ; to the N.E. stretches the immense waste of the Sprengi- 
sandur, bounded by the Sfilur on the Eyjafjord. To the E., beyond 
the Fiskivbtn, glitter the icy masses of the Vatnajokull (p. 246), with 
the Skaptarjokull in front; to the S. are the Eyjafjallajokull (p. 254) 
and the Thrihymingur ('three horns'), while beyond the riveT-re- 
gion of the Markarfljo't, Thjorsa, andOlfusa, we survey the hound- 
less ocean, in which the Vestmannaeyjar look like huge floating 
blocks of stone. In every direction gleam silvery rivers ; hot springs 
smoke and steam ; clouds of yellow-brown dust float high above the 
sandy wastes; and at the spectator's feet, below the snow-region, 
lie the volcanic spurs of Hecla, with streams of lava and a chaos of 
stones and ashes. — The descent to gaard Galtalaskur, our starting- 
point, takes about 4 hrs. 

Eighth Day (9-10 hrs.). From Galtaliekur we ride W. to the 
ScarOsfjall, and then S. through the hilly region of Holtin, and 
reach the post-road at a point i/ 4 hr. E. of the bridge across the 
Thjorsa. Close by is a small gaard where we spend the night. 

Ninth Day (5-6 hrs. ; good road all the way). From the Thjorsa 
bridge the road traverses a flat region, passes gaard Hraungerdi, and 
near gaard 8elfoss crosses the broad Olfusa (or Hvita) by a bridge. 
Rounding the E. base of the volcanic Ingdlfsfjall (1785 ft.), we cross 
the flat district of Olfus to Beykir, where we pass the night. Near it 
are several hot springs, which we may visit in the evening. 

Tenth Day (7-8 hrs.). The road ascends in many windings, and 
then crosses the broad lava-clad Hellisheidi, 1 hr. broad, from the 
E. slope of which we obtain an extensive view, S. to the Vestmanna 
Islands, and E. as far as the Eyjafjallajokull. We descend past gaard 
Kolvidarholl(nght; rfmts.) and then cross another lava-stream, 1 hr. 
broad. A little beyond gaard Lcekjarbotnar (left) we reach the road 
(p. 250), and in 3 hrs. more regain Reykjavik. 

A visit to the 'South Land 1 , combined with the above route, takes five 
days more. It requires reliable ponies, waterproof leggings, a steady head, 
and much strength and power of endurance. Giddy heights have to be 
scaled, and broad, wild torrents have to be forded daily. First Day : from 
(zaltalsekur (p. 252) to gaard Reyni/ell, and then across the Thrihyi-ningsludsar, 
with nne views, to gaard BarkarstaSir (a region where the scene of the 
if I f, a -i S lald) ' 9 - 10hrs - — Second Day: through the many arms of the 
JUariarfljol, with a visit to the wild rocky region of T/i6rmt!rk t to gaard 

254 Routt 37. ICELAND. W. and N. Coasts. 

Eyvindarfiolt, about 10 hrs. — Third Day : to the great waterfalls Qljufrafou 
and Seljalandsfoss, and then along the picturesque slopes ot the Eyjafjalla- 
jSkull (5594 ft.) to the parsonage of Holt, 3-4 hrs. — Fourth Day : Excursion 
past the Skdjafoss, the Kverwirfoss, and the Dolufoss, to the Myrdalsjokull and 
the rushing Jokulsd; there and back 7-8 hrs. — Fifth Day: back to the 
Seljalandsfoss, andj thence, with a local guide (4-5 kr.), through the broad 
streams Markarfljdt, Fauski, Alar, Affal, and Thverd to gaard Stdrdlfshvoll. 
7-8 hrs. — Sixth Day: we ford the Eystri Rang a, and at ^EtgissiSa ford the 
Vestri Rdngd to the gaard on the Thjdrsd (p. 253), 8 hrs. 

W. and N. Coast. From Akureyri to the Myvatn. 

Apart from the tourist-steamers, the best for this excursion are those 
of the Forenede Dampskibs-Selskab (p. 215) which steer from the Faroer 
to the E. coast of Iceland (stations Eskifjord and Seyoisfjord), and then 
along the N. coast (stations Hihavik, Eyjafjord or Ofjord, Siglufjord, and 
SauMrkrdk), and lastly reach the W. coast (hafjord) and Reykjavik. The 
other coasters, six yearly in each direction, circumnavigating the whole 
island in 3-5 weeks, touch at about 70 trading-stations, but, even in sum- 
mer, their course is sometimes impeded by floating ice. 

The steamers plying N. from Reykjavik steer across the Faxa- 
fjord towards the W. point of the peninsula of Sncefellnes, on which 
rises the solitary ice- clad Snafellsjokull (4711 ft.), an extinct vol- 
cano of imposing form, recalling Mt. Vesuvius. At its S.E. base, 
near Stapi, are several curious little basaltic cones. We next cross 
the broad Breidifjord, bounded on the N. by a peninsula, which is 
connected with Iceland by a narrow isthmus on the N.W. side. Of 
all the coast-hills here the highest is the Stdlfjall (2208 ft.). The 
grandest part of the voyage begins beyond cape Bjargtangar. Fjord 
succeeds fjord. Dark walls of columnar basalt, furrowed with snow- 
filled crevices, rise sheer from the breakers at their foot. In the 
inner recesses of the fjords, however, the eye is often greeted with 
smiling green strips of coast, with their little settlements. The 
largest of these fjords is the 'hafjord or ' hafjardardjup ('ice-fjord- 
deep'), into which the tourist-stiamers usually steer. In a bay here 
lies 'hafjbrdur, with 1650 inhab., the chief port on the W. coast. 
On the many inner branches of the fjord are numerous hamlets. 
To the N.E. rises the Drdngajbkull (2920 ft.). On quitting the 
'isafjarSardjup we see on the right the Jtikulfirdir, the E. branches 
of which extend to the Drangajbkull. 

The northmost point of the peninsula is Cape Horn. The tourist- 
steamers from Bremen and also, in unfavourable weather, those from 
Hamburg go from this point direct to Spitzbergen. The latter, 
weather permitting, steer E., passing the broad Hunafltii fjord and 
the Skagafjbrdur, to the EyjafjorSur. At the N. of the peninsula 
between these two last fjords is a picturesque little bay called the 
Siglufjhrhur, with some forty houses and a parsonage, an impoitant 
herring-fishing port, where many Norwegian vessels call. 

The Eyjafjbrdur, Danish Ofjord ('island fjord'), 15 Kil. wide at 
its mouth, extends inland, to the S., for 60 Kil. On the E. side 
rises the snow-clad Kaldbakur (3809 ft.). The island of Hrtsey lies 
to the right. On both banks rise dark basaltic cliffs. Most of the 

THngeyjar Sysla. ICELAND. 37. Route. 255 

hamlets and gaards are on the W. bank ; at the mouth of the Ilorgd 
we observe the church of Modruvellir, which occupies the site of an 
Augustinian monastery, founded in 1295 and dissolved in 1546 Near 
the head of the fjord lies — 

Akureyri (Akureyri Hot., kept by Vigfiis Ligfiisson, good), the 
chief station of the Iceland herring- fishery, with 1800 inhab., a 
church, hospital, commercial school, little theatre (Leikhus), public 
library, etc. The town lies on a height covered with potato-fields; 
most of the houses have gardens with flowers and vegetables. In 
the upper street we observe three evergreen oaks. Fine view from 
above the church. On the N. side the harbour is protected by a 
tongue of land, on which lies the little suburb of Oddeyri, with its 
train-oil boilery. The fjord is discoloured by the brown mud of the 
EyjafjarOard, which falls into it 2 Kil. to the S. 

The Hamburg tourist-steamer leaves Akureyri after a short stay, 
passes the island of Grtmsey, where it crosses the Arctic Circle, and 
steers for Spitzbergen (p. 257). 

# One of the finest parts of Iceland is the district of Thingbyjak 
Sysla, lying to the E. of Akureyri, remarkable for its picturesque 
scenery and its grand volcanic character. To explore it takes eight 
days. Jon Tomasson is commended as a guide. As there is no bridge 
across the EyjafjarSara, it is best to order ponies on the E. bank of 
the fjord, to which we cross by boat. 

First Day. We ride up the Vddlaheidi (2326 ft.), obtaining a 
fine view of the fjord with the sea beyond, and then descend into 
the valley of the Fnjdskd (Fnjoskardalur). By the parsonage of 
Hals, a little off the road, is the birch-grove of HdhsUgur, fenced 
in to keep out the cattle. We ford the stream and descend to the 
lake and gaard of Ljdsavatn (good quarters). Near this the Skjal- 
fandaflot forms the (20 min.) GoSafoss, 19 ft. high, a waterfall of 
horseshoe shape. 

Second Day (5-6 hrs.). We cross the river by a bridge near the 
Godafoss, and ascend a little way on the right bank; then turn E. 
and cross the hill of Flj6tsheidi into the Reykjadalur , with gaards 
Einarsstadir and Breidumyri, which also afford night-quarters. Ford- 
ing the river to its right bank, we next cross a moor to the valley 
of the Laxd (Laxardalur) and Hallddrsstadir, and ride up-stream 
to gaard Helluvad, near the S.W. bank of the Myvatn ('midge-lake'; 
423 ft.), a lake of IO1/2 sq. M. and 16-22 ft. deep, in a bed of 
basaltic lava. The Myvatn forms the volcanic centre of the whole 
island. All around are great and small craters, recalling a landscape 
of the moon, which have been explored by many geologists. Across 
the-lake, with its numerous creeks and islands, haunted by count- 
less water-fowl, we have a grand view of the mountains to the E., 
where the Hverfjall (1582 ft.), the ring-shaped wall of a huge crater, 
dominates the landscape, with the Namafjall rising to the N. of it 

256 Route 37. ICELAND. Akbyrgi. 

(see below). We next ford the Kraka, which falls into the lake, and 
reach the parsonage of Skutustatfir, with a school and a small court- 
house, where we pass the night. 

Third Day (3-4 hrs.). The rough road skirts the E. bank of the 
Myvatn, passing curiously shaped lava -cliffs and masses of rock, 
notably by gaard Kdlfastrond, where the dark stone is pleasantly 
relieved by meadows and birch-underwood. On the N.E. bank are 
the church and gaard of Reykjahlid (958 ft. ; good quarters). We 
may row to the pretty island oiSluttnes, the home of countless water- 
fowl. It belongs to the owner of Qrimsstatiir, a gaard 3/ 4 hr. from 
Reykjahh'8, who collects the eggs (and prohibits shooting). Good 
fishing in the lake (trout and salmon-trout, often dried for keeping). 

Fourth Day (7-8 hrs.). From Reykjahli'5 we ascend E. (fine view 
of the lake behind) through the Ndmaskard (Naina, 'sulphur-spring'); 
on the right rises the N&mafjall (1634 ft.), the slope of which is full 
of sulphur-springs. The rocks present a striking variety of bright 
colours, and the air is pervaded with sulphurous fumes. Crossing 
the Myvatns-Orcefl ('wilderness'), and passing some old craters 
(Hlidarpall, 2592 ft. ; Karfla, 2717 ft.), we next descend into the 
valley of the Jbkulsd (Jokuldalur). In 4-5 hrs. we come to the 
Dettifoss (998 ft. above the sea), whose cloud of spray is visible 
from afar. The Jakulsa plunges sheer over a basaltic cliff 352 ft. 
high. Below the fall the river dashes wildly through a gorge 330 ft. 
in depth. The rough path, partly over loose stones, leads in 3 hrs. 
more to gaard Svfnadalur (rustic quarters ; milk and coffee only). 

Fifth Day (9-10 hrs.). We follow the left bank of the river, 
passing the curious basaltic Hljddaklettar ('echo cliffs'), and grad- 
ually descend to the delta-like plain at the mouth of the Jokulsa. 
By a bridge, over which the road to SkinnastaSir leads to the right, 
we turn to the left to gaard As and the valley of Asbyrgi , a hook- 
shaped gorge 4-5 Kil. long, produced by an earthquake. In this 
sheltered nook, with banks 200-330 ft. high, thrives a vigorous 
growth of trees ; and there is a distinct triple echo which may be 
tested. The digression takes about 20 min. — The route now leads 
across the green river-plain, enlivened with farms and cattle, to 
gaard Vikingavatn (good quarters). The little lake is separated from 
the Axarfjord by a narrow strip of land only. Water-fowl abound. 

Sixth Day (6 hrs.). The route leads W., past the base of the 
Tiinyuheidi, and across the dreary ReykjaheiSi, becoming at length 
a good road, to Husavik (Inn), a pleasant little trading-village of 
450 inhab. on the bay otSkdlfandi, and the seaport for the sulphur 
won in the vicinity. 

Seventh Day (7-8 hrs.). From Husavik we next cross the broad 
alluvial plain of the Laxd to (1 hr.) the large and handsome gaard 
La.vamyri, whose owner derives a good income from the salmon- 
fishery and the gathering of eider-down. Ascending on the bank 
of the Laxa, we pass a series of hot springs, notably the Uxahver 

^SPITSBERGEN. 3,9. Route. 257 

('ox-spring'), which every 5-10 min. sends up a jet of 33ft. in 
height. The owner of the neighbouring gaard Reykir uses the warm 
water for irrigating his potato-fields. Where the road descends we 
enjoy an extensive view of the river with its many islands. About 
372-4 hrs. from Laxamyri, we cross the river by a bridge. (The road 
on the right bank leads to GrimsstaSir and ReykjahliS, p. 256.) 
The river is divided into two arms, the eastmost of which forms a 
picturesque fall (Bruarfoss) above the bridge. On the W. side of 
the island a second bridge crosses to the left bank, where we reach 
the church and parsonage of Grenjadarstadur. Thence to Einars- 
sta8ir (p. 265) 1 hr. more. 

Eighth Day. Back to Akureyri (p. 255) by the way we came. 

38. Spitzbergen. 

From Hainnierfest to Spitzbergen about 750 Kil., Steamboat in IV2- 
2 days, but no regular service. The chief Toobists' Steamebs are those 
of the Hamburg -America line, of the X. German Lloyd (stay 2-4 days), 
of the Bergen and Nordenfjeld Co., and of Brothers Bade at Wismar (stay 
4-5 days). Fog sometimes prevents landing. Winter-clothing advisable, 
though it never freezes in July, and seldom in August. Excursionists 
should be strongly shod. 

Books. Conway, First crossing of Spitzberg (Lond. 1897) and With 
ski and sledge over Arctic Glaciers (Lond. 1898); Wegener, Zum ewigen 
Eise (Berlin, 1897); Quttmann, Fiihrer fur Spitzbergen (Berlin, 1699). 

About halfway between the Scandinavian mainland and Spitz- 
bergen, in 74° N. lat, lies Bear Island, culminating in Mount Misery 
(1759 ft.), discovered by Willem Barents, a Dutch navigator, in 1596. 
The island is the station of a whaling company. It possesses rich 
seams of coal, and is enlivened with countless Arctic sea-fowl. The 
'bird-rock' on the S. side of the island is perhaps the largest colony 
of its kind in the Arctic regions. 

On the second day from Hammerfest the steamer is off the S. cape 
(76°26' N. lat.) of the W. or main island of Spitzbergen, which was 
also discovered by Barents. We skirt the W. coast, where the Hotn- 
sundstind (4692 ft.) rises picturesquely, pass the mouth of Bell 
Sound, and enter the Isfjord or Ice Fjord, the largest inlet on this 
coast, running deep into the land. Guarding its entrance on the 
N. rises the Dedmand ('Dead Man'; 2500 ft.), E. of which opens 
Safe Haven, with its superb glaciers. Other peaks and glaciers, all 
ending in abrupt slopes, are seen as we proceed. The N. shore of 
the fjord, like the greater part of the W. coast, consists of primitive 
granite and gneiss, its Alpine formations presenting a contrast to the 
gently sloping S. shore, which belongs to a later (miocene) period. 

The steamer passes Green Harbour and Coal Bay, and drops 
anchor in Advent Bay (78° 13' N. lat.). On the shore are several work- 
men's houses, belonging to an English and an Americam company 
who began in 1905 to work the coal-mines in the vicinity. On a 
height are the remains of a clay-hut erected in Oct., 1895, by four 

258 Route 38. SP1TZBERGEN. 

Norwegian reindeer-hunters, who were prevented by early ice-drift 
from leaving the island, while two graves remind us of the hard- 
ships of the Arctic winter. The sun shines here for four months in 
summer. The Gulf Stream, whi